Parasitic jaeger

The parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), also known as the Arctic skua, Arctic jaeger or parasitic skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter".[2] The English "skua" comes from the Faroese name skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] for the great skua, with the island of Skúvoy known for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvə].[3] The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement. The specific parasiticus is from Latin and means "parasitic".[4]

Parasitic jaeger
Arctic Skua 1
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Stercorariidae
Genus: Stercorarius
S. parasiticus
Binomial name
Stercorarius parasiticus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Stercorarius parasiticus map

Larus parasiticus Linnaeus, 1758


Stercorarius parasiticus-pjt
Dark morph (Iceland)

Identification is complicated by similarities to long-tailed jaeger and pomarine jaeger, and the existence of three colour morphs. Small for a skua, the parasitic jaeger measures 41–48 cm (16–19 in) in length, 107–125 cm (42–49 in) in wingspan and weighs 300–650 g (0.66–1.43 lb).[5][6] The tail streamer of the breeding adult accounts for about 7 cm (2.8 in) of their length. Light-morph adults have a brown back, mainly white underparts and dark primary wing feathers with a white "flash". The head and neck are yellowish-white with a black cap and there is a pointed central tail projection. Dark-morph adults are dark brown, and intermediate-phase birds are dark with somewhat paler underparts, head and neck. All morphs have the white wing flash.

An immature parasitic jaeger

Identification of juveniles is even more problematic, and it is difficult to separate parasitic jaegers from long-tailed jaegers. Parasitic jaegers are bulkier, shorter-winged, and less tern-like than long-tailed jaegers. They are usually warmer toned, with browner shades, rather than grey. However, they show the same wide range of plumage variation. The flight is more falcon-like.

The typical call of these birds is a nasal mewing sound, repeated a few times in display. Their alarm call is a shorter sound.



Stercorarius parasiticus MWNH 0303
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

This species breeds in the north of Eurasia and North America, with significant populations as far south as northern Scotland. It nests on dry tundra, higher fells and islands, laying up to four olive-brown eggs. It is usually silent except for mewing and wailing notes while on the breeding grounds. Like other skuas, it will fly at the head of a human or fox approaching its nest. Although it cannot inflict serious damage, it is a frightening and painful experience. It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the tropics and southern oceans.

In the British Isles, they breed in Shetland and Orkney, the Outer Hebrides, Sutherland, Caithness, and some islands in Argyll.


This bird will feed on rodents, insects, eggs, chicks and small birds in the breeding season, but the majority of its diet (especially in winter and on migration) is made up of food that it acquires by robbing other birds (primarily gulls and terns) of their catches in an act called kleptoparasitism.

Conservation status

In 2018, Stercorarius parasiticus was regionally uplisted to Endangered in Iceland, from Least Concern in 2000, after their numbers declined drastically in the early 2000s.[7]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Stercorarius parasiticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Jaeger". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ "Skua". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 292, 365. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ "Parasitic jaeger". 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
  6. ^ Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  7. ^ Kristinn Haukur Skarphéðinsson, "Kjói (Stercorarius parasiticus)," Icelandic Institute of Natural History, last updated October 2018.

External links

Black-legged kittiwake

The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae.

This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Larus tridactylus. The English name is derived from its call, a shrill 'kittee-wa-aaake, kitte-wa-aaake'. The genus name Rissa is from the Icelandic name Rita for this bird, and the specific tridactyla is from Ancient Greek tridaktulos, "three-toed", from tri-, "three-" and daktulos, "toe".In North America, this species is known as the black-legged kittiwake to differentiate it from the red-legged kittiwake, but in Europe, where it is the only member of the genus, it is often known just as kittiwake.

Bluenose Lake

Bluenose Lake is a lake in Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is located north of the Arctic Circle within the large, shallow basin of the Melville Hills. It is approximately 33 mi (53 km) long, 12 mi (19 km) wide, and is situated at 1,800 ft (550 m) above sea level. The Croker River flows north from Bluenose Lake to the Arctic Ocean, entering at Dolphin and Union Strait.It was officially named in 1953 by John Kelsall and James Mitchell subsequent to their biological investigation of the previously unnamed lake.

Fauna of Illinois

The fauna of Illinois include a wide variety of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and insects (not listed).

The state bird is the Northern cardinal.

The state insect is the monarch butterfly.

The state animal is the white-tailed deer.

The state fish is the bluegill.

The state fossil is the tully monster.

The state amphibian is the eastern tiger salamander.

The state reptile is the painted turtle.

Fauna of Toronto

The fauna of Toronto include a variety of different species that have adapted to the urban environment, its parks, its ravine system, and the creeks and rivers that run throughout Toronto. Many other animals from outside the city limits have been known to straddle inside on from time to time.

Gibson Lake (Indiana)

Gibson Lake is the cooling pond for Duke Energy Indiana's Gibson Generating Station. Measuring at around 3,500 acres (14 km2), it is the largest lake in Indiana built completely above ground, its shores consisting of rock levees on all but two of the lake's six sides both of which were also built up to build the power plant. Opened to fishing in 1978, Gibson Lake had been a prime source of bass and several types of catfish, bluegill, and carp. The lake was closed to fishing in 2007, due to elevated levels of selenium found in the water of the lake. The only entrance to Gibson Lake is the lake's boat ramp, located due southeast of the plant on Gibson County Road 975 South.

Gibson Lake, due to it never getting colder than 40 °F (4 °C), caused by the hot outflows from the plant's condensers, is known to produce a little dusting of snow every now and then.

Great skua

The great skua (Stercorarius skua) is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. The English name and species name "skua" is believed to originate from the Faroese skúvur or skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] and is the only known bird name to originate from the Faroes that has come into regular use elsewhere. In Britain, it is sometimes known by the name bonxie, a Shetland name of Norse origin. The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement.

Harlan County Reservoir

The Harlan County Reservoir includes a dam and a reservoir of 13,250 acres (54 km2) located in Harlan County in south-central Nebraska. Its southernmost part extends into northern Phillips County, Kansas. The reservoir is formed by a dam constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on the Republican River, which starts in Colorado and ends in Kansas.

The two closest towns are Republican City and Alma. Republican City offers fishing supplies, boat rentals, restaurants and cabins. When the lake is at normal pool, Alma is on the shore line of the lake and offers lodging, restaurants, stores, and churches.

King eider

The king eider (pronounced ) (Somateria spectabilis) is a large sea duck that breeds along Northern Hemisphere Arctic coasts of northeast Europe, North America and Asia. The birds spend most of the year in coastal marine ecosystems at high latitudes, and migrate to Arctic tundra to breed in June and July. They lay four to seven eggs in a scrape on the ground lined with grass and down.

List of birds of Antarctica

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Antarctica. The avifauna of Antarctica include a total of 61 species, of which 1 is endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece included a total of 454 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία) as of August 2019. Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 119 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Minnesota

This list of birds of Minnesota includes species documented in the U.S. state of Minnesota and accepted by the Minnesota Ornithologists' Union Records Committee (MOURC). As of late 2018, there are 443 species included in the official list. Of them, 86 are classed as accidental, 39 are classed as casual, eight have been introduced to North America, two are extinct, and one has been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North and Middle American Birds, 7th edition through the 60th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Minnesota as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to designate some species:

(A) Accidental - "Species for which there are accepted records in no more than two of the past ten years" per the MOURC

(C) Casual - "Species for which there are accepted records in three to eight of the past ten years" per the MOURC

(I) Introduced - Species established in North America as a result of human action

(E) Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated - Species which "formerly occurred regularly in the state but disappeared and are not expected to recur" per the MOURC

List of birds of the Isle of Man

Over 300 species of bird have been recorded in the wild on the Isle of Man, a self-governing island in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. Over 100 species breed there, including significant populations of red-billed chough, peregrine falcon and hen harrier.A variety of seabirds breed on the coastal cliffs such as Atlantic puffin, black guillemot, black-legged kittiwake, European shag and northern fulmar. The island gives its name to the Manx shearwater which formerly nested in large numbers on the Calf of Man. The colony disappeared following the arrival of rats but the shearwaters began to return in the 1960s. The Ayres in the north of the island have colonies of little tern, Arctic tern and common tern.Moorland areas on the island are home to red grouse, Eurasian curlew and northern raven. Woodland birds include long-eared owl, common treecreeper, Eurasian blackcap and common chiffchaff. There is little native woodland on the island and several species found in Great Britain, such as tawny owl, Eurasian green woodpecker and Eurasian jay, do not breed on the isle of Man.

Many birds visit the island during the winter and migration seasons including waders such as purple sandpiper, turnstone and golden plover. Wintering wildfowl include small numbers of whooper swan. A bird observatory was established on the Calf of Man in 1959 to study the migrating and breeding birds. By the end of 2001, 99,042 birds of 134 species had been ringed there. Numerous rarities have been recorded there including American mourning dove and white-throated robin.

The list below includes 323 species of bird. The English names are those recommended by the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) with alternative names given in brackets. The scientific names and classification follow the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). Species marked as rare are those for which the Manx Ornithological Society (MOS) requires a written description in order to accept a record.The Manx Ornithological Society uses the following codes:

A: a species which has occurred naturally on the island since 1 January 1950

B: a species which has occurred naturally but only before 31 December 1949

C: a species with an established breeding population as a result of introduction by man

C*: a species which has visited the island from an introduced population in Great BritainFailed introductions such as black grouse or species which are not yet established such as red-winged laughingthrush are not included on the list.

List of fauna of Sequalitchew Creek

The following is a list of fauna of Sequalitchew Creek in the U.S. state of Washington categorized by type. Sequalitchew Creek is located in DuPont, Washington. It emanates from Sequalitchew Lake, Fort Lewis, Washington and was the location of the original Fort Nisqually trading post established in 1833 by the Hudson's Bay Company. Sequalitchew Creek runs from Sequalitchew Lake, through Edmonds Marsh, down the canyon and out to the Puget Sound.

Long-tailed jaeger

The long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus), known as the long-tailed skua outside the Americas, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

Pomarine jaeger

The pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), pomarine skua, or pomatorhine skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the tropical oceans.

Seven Presidents Park

Seven Presidents Park is an oceanfront park in the city of Long Branch, New Jersey, USA, maintained by the Monmouth County Park System. It is named after U.S. Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, and Woodrow Wilson, all of whom spent time in the area's resorts. President Grant declared Long Branch the nation's "Summer Capital" in 1869.The park, which includes a mile of public beach and 38 acres (150,000 m2) of land, allows swimming and surfing and also contains a snack bar, sheltered eating areas, a volleyball court, showers and changing facilities, a universal-access playground, a park and rink for skaters and skateboarders, and protected sand dunes. The inclusive playground, Tony's Place, won the 2011-12 NJ Park and Recreation Association's Excellence in Design Award. In addition, it hosts the Monmouth County Park System's annual Sprint Triathlon—combining swimming, cycling and running—in September. Seven Presidents Park charges an admissions fee from Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day weekend, although seasonal and multi-day passes are available.Seven Presidents Park is a protected ecological habitat. The dunes offer a natural habitat for birds and plants, while protecting the beach against large storms. The Park System constantly plants erosion-fighting beach grass to reinforce the dunes and takes other protective measures to sustain the environment. Two threatened or endangered birds, the Least Tern and Piping Plover, now breed there.Many other species of birds can be seen in the park. Seaducks, loons, gannets, gulls and alcids frequent the beaches. Especially common are the razorbill, the surf scoter, the black scoter, the long-tailed duck, the red-throated loon, the common loon, and the lesser black-backed gull. Brant geese, including the occasional black brant, can sometimes be seen at the athletic fields in foul weather. A flock of Bonaparte's gulls inhabits the park in winter. Farther inland, orange-crowned warblers, white-winged crossbills and red crossbills have been reported. Other birds found in the park have been white-winged gulls, little gulls, black-headed gulls, the sooty shearwater, the black-legged kittiwake, the parasitic jaeger, the vesper sparrow and the snow bunting.In the late 19th century, Seven Presidents Park was the location of Long Branch businessman Nate Salsbury's Buffalo Bill Wild West Show, which included performers Buffalo Bill Cody, Annie Oakley and Chief Sitting Bull.Locals have been surfing at Seven President's Park for decades as it was one of the first locations on the Jersey Shore that allowed surfing. The Kiernan Surfing Association, a group of local surfers, brokered a deal with the property owner so the surfers would not be pulled out of the water by the Long Branch police.

Seymour Island (Nunavut)

Seymour Island is an uninhabited island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of northern Canada's territory of Nunavut. A member of the Berkeley Islands group, it is located approximately 30 mi (48 km) north of northern Bathurst Island. Between Seymour Island and Bathurst Island lies Helena Island. Penny Strait lies about 90 km (56 mi) to the east where open water polynyas occur.

It was first noted by Europeans during the search for Franklin's lost expedition around 1858 when passed in open water by an explorer's ship, who did not land. It then was described as "....a long, low reef, about 100 feet in elevation." It was named after one of the ship's crew members. The first recorded visit likely was during the Canadian Army's survey and mapping of the Arctic islands in the late 1940s. A metal "T-shaped" triangulation point survey marker then was installed on the island's highest point, now called Triangle Point. Sometime in the early 1970s, five unmarked, sealed 45 gallon drums of aviation fuel were cached near the point, possibly by an oil exploration company. They were never reclaimed. In the summer of 1973, Stewart D. Macdonald of the Canadian National Museum of Natural Sciences discovered the island was the first known permanent nesting colony of endangered ivory gulls in the New World.

Less than 3 by 1 km (1.86 by 0.62 mi), it rises approximately 28 m (92 ft) above sea level, and is approximately 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi) in size. The island is characterized by raised beaches of shattered sandstone boulders and glacial erratics, coastal sand bars, gravel ridges, freshwater ponds and permafrost springs. A small piece of fossil coral occurs on the main ridge near the Triangle Point. Though polynyas form in the area, the island is commonly ice locked year round. Snow melt occurs during June, with some snowcover on the northeast part of the island lasting into July. Freshwater ponds can begin to freeze over in late August. Summer weather often is foggy with temperatures just above freezing. Winter minimum temperature was recorded in the mid 1970s as −58 °C (−72 °F), and summer maximum as 10 °C (50 °F).


The skuas are a group of predatory seabirds with about seven species forming the genus Stercorarius, the only genus in the family Stercorariidae. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in American English.

The English word "skua" comes from the Faroese name for the great skua, skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊɹ], with the island of Skúvoy renowned for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvɪ]. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter". The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement.Skuas nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions, and are long-distance migrants. They have even been sighted at the South Pole.

Western Getterön Nature Reserve

Western Getterön Nature Reserve (Swedish: Västra Getteröns naturreservat) is a nature reserve at the westernmost part of Getterön in Varberg Municipality, Sweden. It consists of a peninsula which is popularly known as Stora Gubbanäsan ("The Great Old Man's Nose"), and the surrounding part of the Kattegat. The nature reserve has an area of 183 hectares, of which 53 are land. It was established in 1974.


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