Paranoia

Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.[1] Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory, or beliefs of conspiracy concerning a perceived threat towards oneself (e.g. the American colloquial phrase, "Everyone is out to get me"). Paranoia is distinct from phobias, which also involve irrational fear, but usually no blame. Making false accusations and the general distrust of others also frequently accompany paranoia.[2] For example, an incident most people would view as an accident or coincidence, a paranoid person might believe was intentional. Paranoia is a central symptom of psychosis.[3]

Paranoia
SynonymsParanoid
Pronunciation
  • /ˌpærəˈnɔɪə/
SpecialtyPsychiatry

Signs and symptoms

A popular symptom of paranoia is the attribution bias. These individuals typically have a biased perception of reality, often exhibiting more hostile beliefs.[4] A paranoid person may view someone else's accidental behavior as though it is with intent or threatening.

An investigation of a non-clinical paranoid population found that feeling powerless and depressed, isolating oneself, and relinquishing activities are characteristics that could be associated with those exhibiting more frequent paranoia.[5] Some scientists have created different subtypes for the various symptoms of paranoia including erotic, persecutory, litigious, and exalted.[6]

Due to the suspicious and troublesome personality traits of paranoia, it is unlikely that someone with paranoia will thrive in interpersonal relationships. Most commonly paranoid individuals tend to be of a single status.[7] According to some research there is a hierarchy for paranoia. The least common types of paranoia at the very top of the hierarchy would be those involving more serious threats. Social anxiety is at the bottom of this hierarchy as the most frequently exhibited level of paranoia.[8]

Causes

Social and environmental

Social circumstances appear to be highly influential on paranoid beliefs. Based on data collected by means of a mental health survey distributed to residents of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (in Mexico) and El Paso, Texas (in the United States), paranoid beliefs seem to be associated with feelings of powerlessness and victimization, enhanced by social situations. Potential causes of these effects included a sense of believing in external control, and mistrust which can be strengthened by lower socioeconomic status. Those living in a lower socioeconomic status may feel less in control of their own lives. In addition, this study explains that females have the tendency to believe in external control at a higher rate than males, potentially making females more susceptible to mistrust and the effects of socioeconomic status on paranoia.[9]

Emanuel Messinger reports that surveys have revealed that those exhibiting paranoia can evolve from parental relationships and untrustworthy environments. These environments could include being very disciplinary, stringent, and unstable. It was even noted that, "indulging and pampering (thereby impressing the child that he is something special and warrants special privileges)," can be contributing backgrounds.[10] Experiences likely to enhance or manifest the symptoms of paranoia include increased rates of disappointment, stress, and a hopeless state of mind.[11]

Discrimination has also been reported as a potential predictor of paranoid delusions. Such reports that paranoia seemed to appear more in older patients who had experienced higher levels of discrimination throughout their lives. In addition to this it has been noted that immigrants are quite susceptible to forms of psychosis. This could be due to the aforementioned effects of discriminatory events and humiliation.[12]

Psychological

While many more mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia.[13]

Colby (1981) defined paranoid cognition in terms of persecutory delusions and false beliefs whose propositional content clusters around ideas of being harassed, threatened, harmed, subjugated, persecuted, accused, mistreated, wronged, tormented, disparaged, vilified, and so on, by malevolent others, either specific individuals or groups (p. 518). Three components of paranoid cognition have been identified by Robins & Post: a) suspicions without enough basis that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them; b) preoccupation with unjustified doubts about the loyalty, or trustworthiness, of friends or associates; c) reluctance to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them (1997, p. 3).

Paranoid cognition has been conceptualized by clinical psychology almost exclusively in terms of psychodynamic constructs and dispositional variables. From this point of view, paranoid cognition is a manifestation of an intra-psychic conflict or disturbance. For instance, Colby (1981) suggested that the biases of blaming others for one’s problems serve to alleviate the distress produced by the feeling of being humiliated, and helps to repudiate the belief that the self is to blame for such incompetence. This intra-psychic perspective emphasize that the cause of paranoid cognitions are inside the head of the people (social perceiver), and dismiss the fact that paranoid cognition may be related with the social context in which such cognitions are embedded. This point is extremely relevant because when origins of distrust and suspicion (two components of paranoid cognition) are studied many researchers have accentuated the importance of social interaction, particularly when social interaction has gone awry. Even more, a model of trust development pointed out that trust increases or decreases as a function of the cumulative history of interaction between two or more persons.[14]

Another relevant difference can be discerned among "pathological and non-pathological forms of trust and distrust". According to Deutsch, the main difference is that non-pathological forms are flexible and responsive to changing circumstances. Pathological forms reflect exaggerated perceptual biases and judgmental predispositions that can arise and perpetuate them, are reflexively caused errors similar to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

It has been suggested that a "hierarchy" of paranoia exists, extending from mild social evaluative concerns, through ideas of social reference, to persecutory beliefs concerning mild, moderate, and severe threats.[15]

Physical

A paranoid reaction may be caused from a decline in brain circulation as a result of high blood pressure or hardening of the arterial walls.[10]

Drug-induced paranoia, associated with amphetamines, methamphetamine and similar stimulants has much in common with schizophrenic paranoia; the relationship has been under investigation since 2012. Drug-induced paranoia has a better prognosis than schizophrenic paranoia once the drug has been removed.[16] For further information, see stimulant psychosis and substance-induced psychosis.

During the 1960s with the increase of the use of marijuana, LSD, and other drugs in places like California, paranoia began to set in with many individuals. Some thought that because there was illegality in the use of the drugs – the fear of police catching the individuals was bothering them. Professionals felt, however, that those drugs brought on paranoia.

Based on data obtained by the Dutch NEMISIS project in 2005, there was an association between impaired hearing and the onset of symptoms of psychosis, which was based on a five-year follow up. Some older studies have actually declared that a state of paranoia can be produced in patients that were under a hypnotic state of deafness. This idea however generated much skepticism during its time.[17]

Diagnosis

In the DSM-IV-TR, paranoia is diagnosed in the form of:[18]

According to clinical psychologist P. J. McKenna, "As a noun, paranoia denotes a disorder which has been argued in and out of existence, and whose clinical features, course, boundaries, and virtually every other aspect of which is controversial. Employed as an adjective, paranoid has become attached to a diverse set of presentations, from paranoid schizophrenia, through paranoid depression, to paranoid personality—not to mention a motley collection of paranoid 'psychoses', 'reactions', and 'states'—and this is to restrict discussion to functional disorders. Even when abbreviated down to the prefix para-, the term crops up causing trouble as the contentious but stubbornly persistent concept of paraphrenia".[21]

At least 50% of the diagnosed cases of schizophrenia experience delusions of reference and delusions of persecution.[22][23] Paranoia perceptions and behavior may be part of many mental illnesses, such as depression and dementia, but they are more prevalent in three mental disorders: paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder (persecutory type), and paranoid personality disorder.

History

The word paranoia comes from the Greek παράνοια (paranoia), "madness",[24] and that from παρά (para), "beside, by"[25] and νόος (noos), "mind".[26] The term was used to describe a mental illness in which a delusional belief is the sole or most prominent feature. In this definition, the belief does not have to be persecutory to be classified as paranoid, so any number of delusional beliefs can be classified as paranoia.[27] For example, a person who has the sole delusional belief that they are an important religious figure would be classified by Kraepelin as having 'pure paranoia'.

According to Michael Phelan, Padraig Wright, and Julian Stern (2000),[28] paranoia and paraphrenia are debated entities that were detached from dementia praecox by Kraepelin, who explained paranoia as a continuous systematized delusion arising much later in life with no presence of either hallucinations or a deteriorating course, paraphrenia as an identical syndrome to paranoia but with hallucinations. Even at the present time, a delusion need not be suspicious or fearful to be classified as paranoid. A person might be diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia without delusions of persecution, simply because their delusions refer mainly to themselves.

Relations to violence

It has generally been agreed upon that individuals with paranoid delusions will have the tendency to take action based on their beliefs.[29] More research is needed on the particular types of actions that are pursued based on paranoid delusions. Some researchers have made attempts to distinguish the different variations of actions brought on as a result of delusions. Wessely et al. (1993) did just this by studying individuals with delusions of which more than half had reportedly taken action or behaved as a result of these delusions. However, the overall actions were not of a violent nature in most of the informants. The authors note that other studies such as one by Taylor (1985), have shown that violent behaviors were more common in certain types of paranoid individuals, mainly those considered to be offensive such as prisoners.[30]

Other researchers have found associations between childhood abusive behaviors and the appearance of violent behaviors in psychotic individuals. This could be a result of their inability to cope with aggression as well as other people, especially when constantly attending to potential threats in their environment.[31] The attention to threat itself has been proposed as one of the major contributors of violent actions in paranoid people, although there has been much deliberation about this as well.[32] Other studies have shown that there may only be certain types of delusions that promote any violent behaviors, persecutory delusions seem to be one of these.[33]

Having resentful emotions towards others and the inability to understand what other people are feeling seem to have an association with violence in paranoid individuals. This was based on a study of paranoid schizophrenics' (one of the common mental disorders that exhibit paranoid symptoms) theories of mind capabilities in relation to empathy. The results of this study revealed specifically that although the violent patients were more successful at the higher level theory of mind tasks, they were not as able to interpret others' emotions or claims.[34]

Paranoid social cognition

Social psychological research has proposed a mild form of paranoid cognition, paranoid social cognition, that has its origins in social determinants more than intra-psychic conflict.[35][36][37][38][39] This perspective states that in milder forms, paranoid cognitions may be very common among normal individuals. For instance, it is not strange that people may exhibit in their daily life, self-centered thought such as they are being talked about, suspiciousness about other’ intentions, and assumptions of ill or hostility (i.e. people may feel as if everything is going against them). According to Kramer, (1998) these milder forms of paranoid cognition may be considered as an adaptive response to cope with or make sense of disturbing and threatening social environment.

Paranoid cognition captures the idea that dysphoric self-consciousness may be related with the position that people occupies within a social system. This self-consciousness conduces to a hypervigilant and ruminative mode to process social information that finally will stimulate a variety of paranoid-like forms of social misperception and misjudgment.[40] This model identifies four components that are essential to understanding paranoid social cognition: situational antecedents, dysphoric self-consciousness, hypervigilance and rumination, and judgmental biases.

Situational antecedents

Perceived social distinctiveness, perceived evaluative scrutiny and uncertainty about the social standing.

  • Perceived social distinctiveness: According to the social identity theory,[41] people categorize themselves in terms of characteristics that made them unique or different from others under certain circumstances.[42][41] Gender, ethnicity, age, or experience may become extremely relevant to explain people’s behavior when these attributes make them unique in a social group. This distinctive attribute may have influence not only in how people are perceived, but may also affect the way they perceive themselves.
  • Perceived evaluative scrutiny: According to this model, dysphoric self-consciousness may increase when people feel under moderate or intensive evaluative social scrutiny. For instance, when an asymmetric relationship is analyzed, as the relationship among a doctoral student and their advisors, students tend to remember more behaviors and events that they interpret as affecting their level of trust in the relationship compared to their advisors, suggesting that students are more willing to put attention to their advisor that the advisor are motivated to pay attention to them. Also students spent more time ruminating about the behaviors, events, and their relationship in general.
  • Uncertainty about social standing: The knowledge about the social standing is another factor that may induce paranoid social cognition. Many researchers have argued that experiencing uncertainty about a social position in a social system constitutes an adverse psychological state, one which people are highly motivated to reduce.

Dysphoric self-consciousness

Refers to an aversive form of heightened 'public self-consciousness' characterized by the feelings that one is under intensive evaluation or scrutiny.[37][43] Becoming self-tormenting will increase the odds of interpreting others' behaviors in a self-referential way.

Hypervigilance and rumination

Self-consciousness was characterized as an aversive psychological state. According to this model, people experiencing self-consciousness will be highly motivated to reduce it, trying to make sense of what they are experiencing. These attempts promote hypervigilance and rumination in a circular relationship: more hypervigilance generates more rumination, whereupon more rumination generates more hypervigilance. Hypervigilance can be thought of as a way to appraise threatening social information, but in contrast to adaptive vigilance, hypervigilance will produce elevated levels of arousal, fear, anxiety, and threat perception.[44] Rumination is another possible response to threatening social information. Rumination can be related to the paranoid social cognition because it can increase negative thinking about negative events, and evoke a pessimistic explanatory style.

Judgmental biases

Three main judgmental consequences have been identified:[36]

  • The sinister attribution error: This bias captures the tendency that social perceivers have to overattribute lack of trustworthiness to others.
  • The overly personalistic construal of social interaction: Refers to the inclination that paranoid perceiver has to interpret others’ action in a disproportional self-referential way, increasing the belief that they are the target of others’ thoughts and actions. A special kind of bias in the biased punctuation of social interaction, which entail an overperception of causal linking among independent events.
  • The exaggerated perception of conspiracy: Refers to the disposition that the paranoid perceiver has to overattribute social coherence and coordination to others’ actions.

See also

References

  1. ^ World English Dictionary (Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition, 2009, William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd.) 3. informal sense: intense fear or suspicion, esp when unfounded
  2. ^ "Don't Freak Out: Paranoia Quite Common". Live Science. Associated Press. November 12, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  3. ^ Green, C., Freeman, D., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G., & Garety, P. (2008). Measuring ideas of persecution and social reference: the Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales (GPTS). Psychological Medicine, 38, 101 - 111.
  4. ^ Bentall and Taylor (2006), p. 289
  5. ^ Freeman et al. (2005)
  6. ^ Deutsch and Fishman p. 1414-1415
  7. ^ Deutch and Fishman (1963), p.1416
  8. ^ Freeman et al. (2005), p.433
  9. ^ Mirowski and Ross (1983)
  10. ^ a b Deutsch and Fishman (1963), p. 1408
  11. ^ Deutsch and Fishman (1963), p. 1412
  12. ^ Bentall and Taylor (2006), p. 280
  13. ^ Lake, C. R. (2008-11-01). "Hypothesis: Grandiosity and Guilt Cause Paranoia; Paranoid Schizophrenia is a Psychotic Mood Disorder; a Review". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 34 (6): 1151–1162. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm132. ISSN 0586-7614. PMC 2632512. PMID 18056109.
  14. ^ Deutsch, 1958
  15. ^ Freeman, D., Garety, P., Bebbington, P., Smith, B., Rollinson, R., Fowler, D., Kuipers, E., Ray, K., & Dunn, G. (2005). Psychological investigation of the structure of paranoia in a non-clinical population. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 427 – 435.
  16. ^ Bramness, J. G; Gundersen, Øystein Hoel; Guterstam, J; Rognli, E. B; Konstenius, M; Løberg, E. M; Medhus, S; Tanum, L; Franck, J (2012). "Amphetamine-induced psychosis - a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the vulnerable?". BMC Psychiatry. 12: 221. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-221. PMC 3554477. PMID 23216941.
  17. ^ Bentall and Taylor (2006), p.281
  18. ^ American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  19. ^ American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders p.690
  20. ^ American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders p.325
  21. ^ McKenna (1997), p.238
  22. ^ Sartorius, N., Jablensky, A., Korten, A., Ernberg, G., Anker, M., Cooper, JE., & Day, R. (1986). Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures. Psychological Medicine, 16, 909 – 928.
  23. ^ Cutting, J. (1997). Principles of Psychopathology : Two Worlds–Two Minds–Two Hemispheres. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  24. ^ παράνοια, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on perseus Digital Library
  25. ^ παρά, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on perseus Digital Library
  26. ^ νόος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on perseus Digital Library
  27. ^ Dowbiggin, Ian (2000). "Delusional diagnosis? The history of paranoia as a disease concept in the modern era". History of Psychiatry. 11 (41): 037–69. doi:10.1177/0957154X0001104103. PMID 11624609.
  28. ^ Phelan, Wright, and Stern (2000)
  29. ^ Bental and Taylor (2006), p. 286
  30. ^ Wessely et al. (1993)
  31. ^ Bentall and Taylor(2006), p. 287
  32. ^ Bentall and Taylor (2006), p. 287-288
  33. ^ Bjorkly (2002)
  34. ^ Abu-Akel and Abushua’leh (2004)
  35. ^ Fenigstein, A., & Vanable, P. A. (1992). Paranoia and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 129 - 138.
  36. ^ a b Kramer, R. M. (1994). The sinister attribution error: Origins and consequences of collective paranoia. Motivation and Emotion, 18, 199 - 230.
  37. ^ a b Kramer, R. M. (1995a). In dubious battle: Heightened accountability, dysphoric cognition, and self-defeating bargaining behavior. In R. M. Kramer & D. M. Messick (Eds.), Negotiation in its social context (pp. 95 – 120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  38. ^ Kramer, R. M. (1995b). Power, paranoia, and distrust in organizations: The distorted view from the top. Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 5, 119 - 154.
  39. ^ Zimbardo, P. G., Andersen, S. M., & Kabat, L. G. (1981). Induced hearing deficit generates experimental paranoia. Science, 212, 1529 - 1531.
  40. ^ Kramer, R. M. (1998). Revisiting the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam decisions twenty-five years later: How well has the group think hypothesis stood the test of time? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 236 - 271.
  41. ^ a b Turner, J. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  42. ^ Cota, A. A., & Dion, K. L. (1986). Salience of gender and sex composition of ad-hoc groups: An experimental test of distinctiveness theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 770 - 776.
  43. ^ Sutton, R. I., & Galunic, D. C. (1996). Consequences of public scrutiny for leaders and their organizations. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 201–250). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
  44. ^ Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Sources

Further reading

  • American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders (4th ed). Washington DC: Author.
  • Arnold, K. & Vakhrusheva, J. (2015). "Resist the negation reflex: Minimizing reactance in psychotherapy of delusions" (PDF). Psychosis. 8 (2): 1–10. doi:10.1080/17522439.2015.1095229.
  • Canneti, Elias (1962). Crowds and Power. Translated from the German by Carol Stewart. Gollancz, London. 1962.
  • Colby, K. (1981). Modeling a paranoid mind. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 515 - 560.
  • Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265 - 279.
  • Deutsch, Albert(ed); Fishman, Helen(ed) (1963). "Paranoia". The encyclopedia of mental health, Vol IV. The Encyclopedia of Mental Health. IV. New York, NY, US: Franklin Watts. pp. 1407–1420. doi:10.1037/11547-024. Retrieved April 4, 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Farrell, John (2006). Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau. Cornell University Press.
  • Freeman, D. & Garety, P. A. (2004). Paranoia: The Psychology of Persecutory Delusions. Hove: Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-522-X
  • Igmade (Stephan Trüby et al., eds.), 5 Codes: Architecture, Paranoia and Risk in Times of Terror, Birkhäuser 2006. ISBN 3-7643-7598-1
  • Kantor, Martin (2004). Understanding Paranoia: A Guide for Professionals, Families, and Sufferers. Westport: Praeger Press. ISBN 0-275-98152-5
  • Munro, A. (1999). Delusional disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58180-X
  • Mura, Andrea (2016). "National Finitude and the Paranoid Style of the One". Contemporary Political Theory. 15: 58–79. doi:10.1057/cpt.2015.23.
  • Robins, R., & Post, J. (1997). Political paranoia: The politics of hatred. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Sant, P. (2005). Delusional disorder. Punjab: Panjab University Chandigarh. ISBN 0-521-58180-X
  • Sims, A. (2002). Symptoms in the mind: An introduction to descriptive psychopathology (3rd edition). Edinburgh: Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1
  • Siegel, Ronald K. (1994). Whispers: The Voices of Paranoia. New York: Crown. ISBN 978-0-684-80285-5.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of paranoia at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Paranoia at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to Paranoia at Wikiquote
Conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy—generally one involving an illegal or harmful act supposedly carried out by government or other powerful actors—without credible evidence.

According to the political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories rely on the view that the universe is governed by design, and embody three principles: nothing happens by accident, nothing is as it seems, and everything is connected. Another common feature is that conspiracy theories evolve to incorporate whatever evidence exists against them, so that they become, as Barkun writes, a closed system that is unfalsifiable, and therefore "a matter of faith rather than proof".On a psychological level, studies show Machiavellianism and paranoia are highly correlated with conspiratorial thinking.

Law

Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.

A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law. Historically, religious laws played a significant role even in settling of secular matters, and is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most widely used religious law, and is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia.The adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law (not to be confused with civil law jurisdictions above) deals with the resolution of lawsuits (disputes) between individuals or organizations.Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.

Narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy. Those affected often spend much time thinking about achieving power or success, or on their appearance. They often take advantage of the people around them. The behavior typically begins by early adulthood, and occurs across a variety of social situations.The cause of narcissistic personality disorder is unknown. It is a personality disorder classified within cluster B by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Diagnosis is made by a healthcare professional interviewing the person in question. The condition needs to be differentiated from mania and substance use disorder.Treatments have not been well studied. Therapy is often difficult, as people with the disorder frequently do not consider themselves to have a problem. About one percent of people are believed to be affected at some point in their life. It appears to occur more often in males than females and affects young people more than older people. The personality was first described in 1925 by Robert Waelder, and the term NPD came into use in 1968.

Paranoia (role-playing game)

Paranoia is a dystopian science-fiction tabletop role-playing game originally designed and written by Greg Costikyan, Dan Gelber, and Eric Goldberg, and first published in 1984 by West End Games. Since 2004 the game has been published under license by Mongoose Publishing. The game won the Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Rules of 1984 and was inducted into the Origins Awards Hall of Fame in 2007. Paranoia is notable among tabletop games for being more competitive than co-operative, with players encouraged to betray one another for their own interests, as well as for keeping a light-hearted, tongue in cheek tone despite its dystopian setting.

The game is set in a dystopian future city which is controlled by an artificial intelligence construct called The Computer (also known as 'Friend Computer'), and where information (including the game rules) are restricted by color-coded security clearance. Players are initially enforcers of The Computer's authority (known as 'Troubleshooters', mainly for the fact that they shoot trouble), and will be given missions to seek out and eliminate threats to The Computer's control. The players are also part of prohibited underground movements (which means that the players' characters are usually included among the aforementioned 'security threats'), and will have secret objectives including theft from and murder of other players.

Several editions of the game have been published since the original version, and the franchise has spawned several spin-offs, novels and comic books based on the game.

A crowdfunding at Kickstarter for a new edition was successfully funded. Delivery to backers began in March 2017.

Paranoia Agent

Paranoia Agent (妄想代理人, Mōsō Dairinin) is a Japanese anime television series created by director Satoshi Kon and produced by Madhouse about a social phenomenon in Musashino, Tokyo caused by a juvenile serial assailant named Lil' Slugger (the English equivalent to Shōnen Bat, which translates to "Bat Boy"). The plot relays between a large cast of people affected in some way by the phenomenon; usually Lil' Slugger's victims or the detectives assigned to apprehend him. As each character becomes the focus of the story, details are revealed about their secret lives and the truth about Lil' Slugger.

Paranoiac-critical method

The paranoiac-critical method is a surrealist technique developed by Salvador Dalí in the early 1930s. He employed it in the production of paintings and other artworks, especially those that involved optical illusions and other multiple images. The technique consists of the artist invoking a paranoid state (fear that the self is being manipulated, targeted or controlled by others). The result is a deconstruction of the psychological concept of identity, such that subjectivity becomes the primary aspect of the artwork.

Perils of Paranoia

"Perils of Paranoia" is the eighth episode of the eighth season of the American television medical drama series House and the 163rd overall episode of the series. It aired on Fox on November 28, 2011.

A district attorney appears to suffer from a heart attack while cross-examining a witness. The initial diagnosis is hyper-anxiety, but the team finds an arsenal at the patient's home and start to believe that his extreme paranoia is a physical symptom. Wilson becomes convinced that House is hiding something at 221B Baker Street, which leads to an epic battle of wits between the two men. Park tries to be more social with her workmates, while Taub and Chase wonder why Foreman hasn't had a romantic relationship in a while.

Psychological projection

Psychological projection is a defence mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other people of being rude. It incorporates blame shifting.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.