Parallel parking

Parallel parking is a method of parking a vehicle parallel to the road, in line with other parked vehicles. Parallel parking usually requires initially driving slightly past the parking space, parallel to the parked vehicle in front of that space, keeping a safe distance, then followed by reversing into that space. Subsequent position adjustment may require the use of forward and reverse gears.

Parallel parking -- 5-28-2009
Parallel-parked cars in Washington, D.C.
Parallel parking 2 -- 12-26-2009
A motorist gets assistance parallel-parking
Parallel parking animation
Reverse Parking
Reverse parallel parking demonstration


Parallel parking is considered to be one of the hardest skills for new drivers to learn and is a required part of most road tests. Parallel parking enables the driver to park a vehicle in a smaller space than would be true of forward parking. Driving forward into a parking space on the side of a road is typically not possible unless two successive parking spaces are empty. Reversing into the spot via the parallel parking technique allows one to take advantage of a single empty space not much longer than the car (in order to complete the parking within three wheel-turns the parking space would generally need to be about one and a half car-length long).

New drivers learn to use reference points to align themselves in relation to the car in front of the space, to determine the proper angle for backing, and to determine when to turn the steering wheel while backing. They may find it easier to briefly stop at each reference point and turn for the next step.


Two major types of parallel parking technique differ in whether they will use two or three positions of the steering wheel while backing. A skilled driver is theoretically able to parallel park by having their car move along two arcs, the first having its center on the parking side of the car and the second having its center on the other side. There will be a point in the transition between these curves where all the car's wheels will be parallel with each other. Less-confident drivers may choose to drive further while transitioning, making it a pronounced middle step of three. Such a step allows greater tolerances to avoid hitting anything, but forces the car to start further from the road's edge and requires more space to the rear.

In the early 21st century, car manufacturers are addressing this need by introducing automatic parking.

Road infrastructure

Roads that facilitate parallel parking have an extra lane or a large shoulder for parked cars. It is also employed whenever parking facilities are not available—usually in large metropolitan areas where there is a high density of vehicles and few (or restricted) accommodations such as multi-storey car parks.

Many traffic regulators restrict parallel parking during rush hour, freeing up an extra traffic lane. Historically, metered parallel parking had individual meters for each parking spot with spots clearly marked on the road. Some regulators have eliminated individual spots allowing shorter vehicles to use less space. Individual meters are then also replaced with a centralized parking ticket machine.

Beyond taking up a lane of traffic, on-street parking further reduces road capacity as remaining traffic slows to interact with cars moving in and out of parallel parking spaces, car doors opening and pedestrians.[1]

See also

IMG 0140 - Wien
Angle parking
2883 - Hall in Tirol - Schulgasse
Perpendicular parking


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23rd Street (Richmond, California)

23rd Street is a major north-south trunk street in Richmond and San Pablo, California flanked by many Latino-oriented businesses.

Automatic parking

Automatic parking is an autonomous car-maneuvering system that moves a vehicle from a traffic lane into a parking spot to perform parallel, perpendicular, or angle parking. The automatic parking system aims to enhance the comfort and safety of driving in constrained environments where much attention and experience is required to steer the car. The parking maneuver is achieved by means of coordinated control of the steering angle and speed which takes into account the actual situation in the environment to ensure collision-free motion within the available space.The car is an example of a nonholonomic system where the number of control commands available is less than the number of coordinates that represent its position and orientation.

One of the first assistance systems for car parking was manual. It used four jacks with wheels to raise the car and then move it sideways into the available parking space. This mechanical system was proposed in 1934, but was never offered on any production model.

Back-in angle parking

Back-in angle parking, also called back-in diagonal parking, reverse angle parking, reverse diagonal parking, or (in the United Kingdom) reverse echelon parking, is a traffic engineering technique intended to improve the safety of on-street parking.For back-in parking, vehicles preparing to enter a parking space drive slightly past the space, signal, and then back into the space. When leaving the space, drivers have an unobstructed view of traffic and can enter the traffic stream directly. In comparison, drivers using traditional pull-in angle parking often have difficulty seeing other traffic as they back out of the space, resulting in traffic delays and considerable risk of collisions with pedestrians, bicyclists, and vehicles.

Existing pull-in angle parking spaces can be converted to back-in angle parking by re-striping to flip the angle of the stall markings. Streets with parallel parking have also been converted to back-in angle parking. In either case, the pavement markings are often augmented with signage indicating that vehicles must be backed in.

Brownout (aeronautics)

In aviation, a brownout (or brown-out) is an in-flight visibility restriction due to dust or sand in the air.

In a brownout, the pilot cannot see nearby objects which provide the outside visual references necessary to control the aircraft near the ground. This can cause spatial disorientation and loss of situational awareness leading to an accident. Pilots have compared landing during brownouts to parallel parking an automobile with one's eyes closed.

Driving licence in Russia

The Russian Empire was one of the first countries to create a driving licence. Russia's first licences were issued in 1900 by Saint Petersburg authorities, and Russia joined an international convention in 1909. However, due to relatively small number of cars, the attempts to create a standardised Russian licence were rather sporadic and limited to major urban areas. No comprehensive system of driver licensing was present until 1936, when the Soviet government organised and standardised traffic and driving regulations, with the state-wide system regulated by specialised police authorities.

Since March 2011 there are 9 categories that require a driving licence:

A: any type of motorbike

B: motorised vehicle under 3.5 tons (optionally with light trailer)

C: motorised vehicle over 3.5 tons (optionally with light trailer, up to 750 kg)

D: bus (has more than 8 passenger seats) (optionally with light trailer, up to 750 kg)

BE: motorised vehicle under 3.5 tons with heavy trailer

CE: motorised vehicle over 3.5 tons with heavy trailer

DE: bus with heavy trailer

M: moped, assigned automatically if you have any other category open

Tram: tram

Trolleybus: trolleybusCurrently Russia employs a system of driver's licences very similar to the EU standard with two additional categories:

A1 similar to European A limited, as A does not limit the specs of motorbikes

Bikes with engine displacements lower than 50 cc and speeds lower than 50 km/h are considered mopeds and require M licence to drive

B1 for tricycles and quadracycles.The current licence style, introduced in 2011, is a laminated plastic card similar to the European driving licence card in dimensions and outward appearance, with the bearer's photo and name (in Latin and Cyrillic scripts), place/date of issue, allowed categories, and signature. The reverse of the card features a detailed list of allowed categories. This new style is fully compliant with the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, and therefore is acceptable in all its signatory states and countries. Older credit-card-style and booklet-style licenses are also occasionally seen although they are no longer issued and are increasingly rare as a result. The Russian driving licence is also sometimes supplemented by a special card called "временное разрешение" (temporary permission), which serves for registering offense points and as a temporary licence if the primary licence has been seized by the authorities for serious traffic offences. This supplement has been abolished and reinstated a countless number of times as the views of the traffic police change.

The legal driving age within the Russian Federation is 18 years (16 for motorcycles and 20 for buses) and to obtain a licence one must be physically fit to drive (including certificates of mental fitness and no record of substance abuse). One must also pass a test administered at a local traffic police authority and pay a fee. Tests are divided into theory and practice. The theory test is usually a computerized multiple-choice test on various traffic rules. Twenty multiple-choice questions are asked, only one incorrect answer allowed in two different test topics (for a total of two incorrect answers) for a passing grade, after the main part of the test is finished, five additional questions are added for every incorrect answer, bringing a total maximum of questions to 30. Practice part of the test is divided into two parts: basic skills test conducted in an isolated area (steering, slope starting, backing-up, parallel parking and an obstacle course) and a road test conducted on public roads. Four minor errors are allowed for the road driving examination. The number of retries is virtually unlimited, but there is a mandatory grace period of one week for the first three tries and a month for any subsequent ones.

Driving test

A driving test (also known as a driving exam, driver's test, or road test) is a procedure designed to test a person's ability to drive a motor vehicle. It exists in various forms worldwide, and is often a requirement to obtain a driver's license. A driving test generally consists of one or two parts: the practical test, called a road test, used to assess a person's driving ability under normal operating conditions, and/or a written or oral test (theory test) to confirm a person's knowledge of driving and relevant rules and laws.

The world's first mandatory national driving test was introduced in France in 1899.

To make the test fair, written driving tests are normally standardized tests, meaning that everyone takes the same test under the same conditions. In many places the test can be done by computer, and typically consists of questions related to road signs and traffic laws of the respective country, but may also include questions related to road safety best practices or technical questions regarding vehicle operation and maintenance. In many countries, passing a written driving test is required to be allowed to sit the practical test.

Depending on the country and on the driver's license category, the practical test includes driving on the public, open road as well as different maneuverability test, which are usually carried out in a controlled environment such as:

driving back and forth through a set of traffic cones

reversing around a corner or into a parking space, with or without a trailer or semi-trailer, or with an extra one for multi-rig road trains

Turning and leaving controlled junctions with trailer and/or with an extra one for multi-rig road trains

emergency stops or evasive maneuvers

coupling and de-coupling of a trailer to a truck, which includes establishing the electrical and compressed-air connections and checking them

maintaining a motorcycle stable at low speed

Parallel Parking (with a maximum of 2 separate forward movements)

Reverse Angled parking (cars, trucks and road trains)

Three-point turns (in 3 movements)

Uphill starts, downhill curbside parking with gear shifts

Gear shifts moving off green lights (manual cars and trucks only)

Lane changes

Entering and leaving intersections (from give ways, stop signs, roundabouts)In some countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan) maneuverability tests are timed, meaning there is an expected time that a driver has to complete these tasks, so they don't hold up traffic.

In most European Union member countries, the road test may be taken on either a manual or an automatic vehicle, however, when using an automatic vehicle, the driver's license will be restricted to such vehicles. This is also true for New Zealand and Australian road tests.

Dependent on the country, other tests may be required, such as an eyesight test or a reaction test. These may be part of the theory test or the practical test or may be separate tests, in which case they are usually a prerequisite for admission to the practical test. The United Kingdom and some other countries use a Hazard Perception Test as part of the theory test, in which candidates are shown multiple short video clips of driving scenarios and must respond to any emerging hazards.

In the United States, most Department of Motor Vehicles offices do not provide vehicles for the road test and so the person taking the test must provide their own vehicle. This is useful because the vehicle they use for the test is typically the same vehicle they have used to practice driving. Before they can use the vehicle for the test, they must show proof of liability insurance to the DMV for the particular vehicle to avoid liability from a collision that could occur during the test.

In Australia and New Zealand, you also have to provide their own vehicles, and must show proof of yearly Warranty of Fitness and registration (at Vehicle Testing New Zealand at the latter) to prove the car's road-worthiness. Only in Northern Territory and New Zealand Automobile Association-affiliated instructors are where driving instructors can become testing officers for official driving tests, but one must not assess their own students, and they will have to drive in the cars of the testing officers, except for truck-licenses (in NT) due to the lack of qualified instructors in the state. The road test may be taken on either a manual or an automatic vehicle, however, when using an automatic vehicle, the driver's license will be restricted to such vehicles.

In New Zealand, in particular, you have to pass two driving tests: One for restricted license, where you can drive from 7am-10pm independently, but supervised outside of those times, or must head home; in the same class and transmission (automatic/manual) as you are practising, as well as power restrictions if going for a motorbike license. This test tests for maneuverability (reverse parking, 3-point turns (without using driveways in Australia, with in NZ), U-turns and forward square parking (backward and forward square parkings in Australia) and motorway test. The shorter, 45-minute full-license test, taken at at least 6 months after, only tests for hazard detection, give way rules (changed to small corners' pass rule in 2016), road positioning, changing speed limit zones and gap selections in inner city streets.

Falling cat problem

The falling cat problem is a problem that consists of explaining the underlying physics behind the observation of the cat righting reflex: that is, how a free-falling body (cat) can change its orientation such that it is able to right itself as it falls to land on its feet, irrespective of its initial orientation, and without violating the law of conservation of angular momentum.

Although amusing and trivial to pose, the solution of the problem is not as straightforward as its statement would suggest. The apparent contradiction with the law of conservation of angular momentum is resolved because the cat is not a rigid body, but instead is permitted to change its shape during the fall owing to the cat's flexible backbone and non-functional collar-bone. The behavior of the cat is thus typical of the mechanics of deformable bodies.

Forsyth Street

Forsyth Street runs from Houston Street south to Henry Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street was named in 1817 for Lt. Colonel Benjamin Forsyth.Forsyth Street's southernmost portion, south of Canal Street, runs parallel to the Manhattan Bridge in Chinatown. On the east side of the block from East Broadway to Canal Street, a number of so-called “Chinatown buses” (operated by different companies) start their routes to cities across the East Coast of the United States, including Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.. On the west side of this block, a greenmarket operates in the shadow of the bridge.

Forsyth Street is interrupted north of Canal Street for one block due to a 20th-century schoolhouse, now housing Pace University High School and I.S. 131, built on the former route. From there it runs parallel to Chrystie Street that lies to its west, with Sara D. Roosevelt Park separating the two. Starting in October 2008, the parallel parking lane on the west side of the street lies not along the curbstone, but is separated from it by a bike lane carrying traffic north from the Manhattan Bridge. The street traverses the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan.

From south to north, Forsyth Street starts at Henry Street, intersects East Broadway, Division Street, and Canal Street, becomes a pedestrian street for one block, then continues from Hester Street, intersects Grand Street, Broome Street, Delancey Street, Rivington Street and Stanton Street, and ends at Houston Street.

Intelligent Parking Assist System

Intelligent Parking Assist System (IPAS), also known as the Advanced Parking Guidance System (APGS) for Toyota models in the United States, is the first production automatic parking system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation in 1999 initially for the Japanese market hybrid Prius models and Lexus models. The technology assists drivers in parking their vehicle. On vehicles equipped with the IPAS, via an in-dash screen and button controls, the car can steer itself into a parking space with little input from the user. The first version of the system was deployed on the Prius Hybrid sold in Japan in 2003. In 2006, an upgraded version debuted for the first time outside Japan on the Lexus LS luxury sedan, which featured the automatic parking technology among other brand new inventions from Toyota. In 2009, the system appeared on the third generation Prius sold in the U.S. In Asia and Europe, the parking technology is marketed as the Intelligent Park Assist System for both Lexus and Toyota models, while in the U.S. the Advanced Parking Guidance System name is only used for the Lexus system.


Ligier is a French automobile and minibus maker created by former racing driver and rugby player Guy Ligier, specialized in the manufacturing of microcars.

Ligier is best known for its involvement in the Formula 1 World Championship between 1976 and 1996.

In collaboration with Automobiles Martini, the Ligier-Martini entity offered sports prototypes used in endurance or hillclimbing (CN). After the announcement of the creation of the new category LMP3 by the ACO, Ligier and Martini associated with Onroak Automotive (the manufacturer department of OAK Racing) to offer a full range of prototypes (CN, LMP3, LMP1 and LMP2) .

Lincoln MKS

The Lincoln MKS is a full-sized luxury sedan that was manufactured and marketed by the Lincoln subdivision of Ford from 2009 to 2016. First shown at the LA Auto Show in November 2007, the MKS began production for the 2009 model year at Ford's Chicago Assembly plant in May 2008 with sales beginning a month later. The MKS was the second Lincoln to adopt the "MK" nomenclature and the first model to wear it through its entire production run. With the discontinuation of the Lincoln Town Car in 2011, the MKS at 205.6-inches in length became the longest production sedan sold by an American automaker through 2016.

Sharing the Ford D3 platform with the fifth and sixth-generation Ford Taurus, the Lincoln MKS offered front-wheel drive with optional all-wheel drive (a first in a full-size Lincoln). Shared with the Taurus SHO, the 3.5L EcoBoost twin-turbocharged V6 became the first turbocharged gasoline engine in a Lincoln.The Lincoln MKS was discontinued after the 2016 model year and replaced by the new Lincoln Continental.

Nissan Pivo

The Nissan Pivo is a concept car created by Nissan. The Pivo was first introduced at the 2005 Tokyo Motor Show. The car is essentially a 360 degree rotating three-seater cabin on a chassis of 4 wheels, and hence eliminates the need for reversing and makes parking easier.

The Pivo is powered by a lithium-ion battery. The car's futuristic design incorporates large doors for easy access to the cabin and large windscreens and windows for high visibility. As well as the fully rotational cabin, the Pivo features Nissan's Around View Monitor system. This reduces blind spots (areas of the road which cannot be seen from the driver's position) by displaying the outside surroundings on screens mounted on the inside of the car's A-pillars, located on either side of the windshield.

One-way traffic

One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in one direction. One-way streets typically result in higher traffic flow as drivers may avoid encountering oncoming traffic or turns through oncoming traffic. Residents may dislike one-way streets due to the circuitous route required to get to a specific destination, and the potential for higher speeds adversely affecting pedestrian safety. Some studies even challenge the original motivation for one-way streets, in that the circuitous routes negate the claimed higher speeds.

Parallel parking problem

The parallel parking problem is a motion planning problem in control theory and mechanics to determine the path a car must take in order to parallel park into a parking space. The front wheels of a car are permitted to turn, but the rear wheels must stay aligned. When a car is initially adjacent to a parking space, to move into the space it would need to move in a direction perpendicular to the allowed path of motion of the rear wheels. The admissible motions of the car in its configuration space are an example of a nonholonomic system.

Parking space

A parking space is a location that is designated for parking, either paved or unpaved. It can be in a parking garage, in a parking lot or on a city street. The space may be delineated by road surface markings. The automobile fits inside the space, either by parallel parking, perpendicular parking or angled parking.

Depending on the location of the parking space, the time allowed to park may be fixed by regulation, and a fee may be required to use the parking space. It may be designated for free parking. When the demand for spaces outstrips supply vehicles may overspill park onto the sidewalk, grass verges and other places which were not designed for the purpose.

Reginald Molehusband

Reginald Molehusband was a fictional character who starred in a public information film commissioned by the Central Office of Information and shown on British TV during the 1960s. The role of Molehusband was played by Ian Gardiner. No copy of the film is known to still exist.

Molehusband was depicted as the country's worst driver when it came to parallel-parking his Austin 1100 car. The film concluded with Reginald finally able to park the car successfully and so demonstrate the technique for the benefit of viewers.

The script reads:

This is the story of Reginald Molehusband, married, two children, whose reverse parking was a public danger. People came from miles just to see it. Bets were laid on his performance. What he managed to miss at the back, he was sure to make up for at the front. Bus drivers and taxis changed their routes to avoid him. Until the day that Reginald Molehusband did it right. Not too close, far enough forward... come on Reggie... and reverse in slowly... come on.... and watching traffic... and park perfectly! Well done Reginald Molehusband, the safest parker in town.The name of Reginald Molehusband entered common parlance in the United Kingdom to refer to any inexpert or timid driver, and, "Well done, Reginald" became a humorous catchphrase uttered in mock congratulation to someone successfully completing a modest task.

Because the original film was lost, a new version was made by the BBC in 2006, again starring Gardiner, who played Reginald in the original film. A new voiceover was recorded, despite a recording of the original narration existing.

St. Paul Street-Calvert Street

St. Paul Street and Calvert Street are a one-way pair of streets in Downtown Baltimore and areas north. The streets, which are part of Maryland Route 2, are two of Baltimore's best-known streets in the downtown area.

The Parking Space

"The Parking Space" is the 39th episode of the sitcom Seinfeld. The episode was the 22nd episode of the third season. It aired on April 22, 1992. The story of the parking confrontation was inspired by a similar incident that happened to writer Greg Daniels' father.


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