Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift, a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn, is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Kuhn presented his notion of a paradigm shift in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).

Kuhn contrasts paradigm shifts, which characterize a scientific revolution, to the activity of normal science, which he describes as scientific work done within a prevailing framework, or, paradigm. Paradigm shifts arise when the dominant paradigm under which normal science operates is rendered incompatible with new phenomena, facilitating the adoption of a new theory or paradigm.[1]

As one commentator summarizes:

Kuhn acknowledges having used the term "paradigm" in two different meanings. In the first one, "paradigm" designates what the members of a certain scientific community have in common, that is to say, the whole of techniques, patents and values shared by the members of the community. In the second sense, the paradigm is a single element of a whole, say for instance Newton’s Principia, which, acting as a common model or an example... stands for the explicit rules and thus defines a coherent tradition of investigation. Thus the question is for Kuhn to investigate by means of the paradigm what makes possible the constitution of what he calls "normal science". That is to say, the science which can decide if a certain problem will be considered scientific or not. Normal science does not mean at all a science guided by a coherent system of rules, on the contrary, the rules can be derived from the paradigms, but the paradigms can guide the investigation also in the absence of rules. This is precisely the second meaning of the term "paradigm", which Kuhn considered the most new and profound, though it is in truth the oldest.[2]

Even though Kuhn restricted the use of the term to the natural sciences, the concept of a paradigm shift has also been used in numerous non-scientific contexts to describe a profound change in a fundamental model or perception of events.

History

The nature of scientific revolutions has been studied by modern philosophy since Immanuel Kant used the phrase in the preface to the second edition of his Critique of Pure Reason (1787). Kant used the phrase "revolution of the way of thinking" (Revolution der Denkart) to refer to Greek mathematics and Newtonian physics. In the 20th century, new developments in the basic concepts of mathematics, physics, and biology revitalized interest in the question among scholars.

Original usage

Duck-Rabbit illusion
Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion, made famous by Wittgenstein, to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way.[3]

In his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn explains the development of paradigm shifts in science into four stages:

  • Normal science – In this stage, which Kuhn sees as most prominent in science, a dominant paradigm is active. This paradigm is characterized by a set of theories and ideas that define what is possible and rational to do, giving scientists a clear set of tools to approach certain problems. Some examples of dominant paradigms that Kuhn gives are: Newtonian physics, caloric theory, and the theory of electromagnetism.[4] Insofar as paradigms are useful, they expand both the scope and the tools with which scientists do research. Kuhn stresses that, rather than being monolithic, the paradigms that define normal science can be particular to different people. A chemist and a physicist might operate with different paradigms of what a helium atom is.[5] Under normal science, scientists encounter anomalies that cannot be explained by the universally accepted paradigm within which scientific progress has thereto been made.
  • Extraordinary research – When enough significant anomalies have accrued against a current paradigm, the scientific discipline is thrown into a state of crisis. To address the crisis, scientists push the boundaries of normal science in what Kuhn calls “extraordinary research”, which is characterized by its exploratory nature.[6] Without the structures of the dominant paradigm to depend on, scientists engaging in extraordinary research must produce new theories, thought experiments, and experiments to explain the anomalies. Kuhn sees the practice of this stage – “the proliferation of competing articulations, the willingness to try anything, the expression of explicit discontent, the recourse to philosophy and to debate over fundamentals” – as even more important to science than paradigm shifts.[7]
  • Adoption of a new paradigm – Eventually a new paradigm is formed, which gains its own new followers. For Kuhn, this stage entails both resistance to the new paradigm, and reasons for why individual scientists adopt it. According to Max Planck, "a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."[8] Because scientists are committed to the dominant paradigm, and paradigm shifts involve gestalt-like changes, Kuhn stresses that paradigms are difficult to change. However, paradigms can gain influence by explaining or predicting phenomena much better than before (ie, Bohr's model of the atom), or by being more subjectively pleasing. During this phase, proponents for competing paradigms address what Kuhn considers the core of a paradigm debate: whether a given paradigm will be a good guide for future problems – things that neither the proposed paradigm nor the dominant paradigm are capable of solving currently.[9]
  • Aftermath of the scientific revolution – In the long run, the new paradigm becomes institutionalized as the dominant one. Textbooks are written, obscuring the revolutionary process.

Features

Paradigm shifts and progress

A common misinterpretation of paradigms is the belief that the discovery of paradigm shifts and the dynamic nature of science (with its many opportunities for subjective judgments by scientists) are a case for relativism:[10] the view that all kinds of belief systems are equal. Kuhn vehemently denies this interpretation[11] and states that when a scientific paradigm is replaced by a new one, albeit through a complex social process, the new one is always better, not just different.

Incommensurability

These claims of relativism are, however, tied to another claim that Kuhn does at least somewhat endorse: that the language and theories of different paradigms cannot be translated into one another or rationally evaluated against one another—that they are incommensurable. This gave rise to much talk of different peoples and cultures having radically different worldviews or conceptual schemes—so different that whether or not one was better, they could not be understood by one another. However, the philosopher Donald Davidson published the highly regarded essay "On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme" (Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 47, (1973–1974), pp. 5–20) in 1974 arguing that the notion that any languages or theories could be incommensurable with one another was itself incoherent. If this is correct, Kuhn's claims must be taken in a weaker sense than they often are. Furthermore, the hold of the Kuhnian analysis on social science has long been tenuous, with the wide application of multi-paradigmatic approaches in order to understand complex human behaviour (see for example John Hassard, Sociology and Organization Theory: Positivism, Paradigm and Postmodernity. Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0521350344).

Gradualism vs. sudden change

Paradigm shifts tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable and mature, as in physics at the end of the 19th century. At that time, physics seemed to be a discipline filling in the last few details of a largely worked-out system.

In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn wrote, "Successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature science." (p. 12) Kuhn's idea was itself revolutionary in its time, as it caused a major change in the way that academics talk about science. Thus, it could be argued that it caused or was itself part of a "paradigm shift" in the history and sociology of science. However, Kuhn would not recognise such a paradigm shift. In the social sciences, people can still use earlier ideas to discuss the history of science.

Philosophers and historians of science, including Kuhn himself, ultimately accepted a modified version of Kuhn's model, which synthesizes his original view with the gradualist model that preceded it.

Examples

Natural sciences

Some of the "classical cases" of Kuhnian paradigm shifts in science are:

Social sciences

In Kuhn's view, the existence of a single reigning paradigm is characteristic of the natural sciences, while philosophy and much of social science were characterized by a "tradition of claims, counterclaims, and debates over fundamentals."[22] Others have applied Kuhn's concept of paradigm shift to the social sciences.

Applied sciences

More recently, paradigm shifts are also recognisable in applied sciences:

  • In medicine, the transition from "clinical judgment" to evidence-based medicine
  • In software engineering, the transition from the Rational Paradigm to the Empirical Paradigm[28]

Other uses

The term "paradigm shift" has found uses in other contexts, representing the notion of a major change in a certain thought pattern—a radical change in personal beliefs, complex systems or organizations, replacing the former way of thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing:

  • M. L. Handa, a professor of sociology in education at O.I.S.E. University of Toronto, Canada, developed the concept of a paradigm within the context of social sciences. He defines what he means by "paradigm" and introduces the idea of a "social paradigm". In addition, he identifies the basic component of any social paradigm. Like Kuhn, he addresses the issue of changing paradigms, the process popularly known as "paradigm shift". In this respect, he focuses on the social circumstances which precipitate such a shift. Relatedly, he addresses how that shift affects social institutions, including the institution of education.
  • The concept has been developed for technology and economics in the identification of new techno-economic paradigms as changes in technological systems that have a major influence on the behaviour of the entire economy (Carlota Perez; earlier work only on technological paradigms by Giovanni Dosi). This concept is linked to Joseph Schumpeter's idea of creative destruction. Examples include the move to mass production and the introduction of microelectronics.[29]
  • Two photographs of the Earth from space, "Earthrise" (1968) and "The Blue Marble" (1972), are thought to have helped to usher in the environmentalist movement which gained great prominence in the years immediately following distribution of those images.[30][31]
  • Hans Küng applies Thomas Kuhn's theory of paradigm change to the entire history of Christian thought and theology. He identifies six historical "macromodels": 1) the apocalyptic paradigm of primitive Christianity, 2) the Hellenistic paradigm of the patristic period, 3) the medieval Roman Catholic paradigm, 4) the Protestant (Reformation) paradigm, 5) the modern Enlightenment paradigm, and 6) the emerging ecumenical paradigm. He also discusses five analogies between natural science and theology in relation to paradigm shifts. Küng addresses paradigm change in his books, Paradigm Change in Theology[32] and Theology for the Third Millennium: An Ecumenical View.[33]
  • In the later part of the 1990s, 'paradigm shift' emerged as a buzzword, popularized as marketing speak and appearing more frequently in print and publication.[34] In his book Mind The Gaffe, author Larry Trask advises readers to refrain from using it, and to use caution when reading anything that contains the phrase. It is referred to in several articles and books[35][36] as abused and overused to the point of becoming meaningless.

Criticism

In a 2015 retrospective on Kuhn,[37] the philosopher Martin Cohen describes the notion of the paradigm shift as a kind of intellectual virus – spreading from hard science to social science and on to the arts and even everyday political rhetoric today. Cohen claims that Kuhn had only a very hazy idea of what it might mean and, in line with the American philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend, accuses Kuhn of retreating from the more radical implications of his theory, which are that scientific facts are never really more than opinions, whose popularity is transitory and far from conclusive.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 54.
  2. ^ Agamben, Giorgio. "What is a Paradigm?" (PDF). Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  3. ^ Kuhn, 1970, p. 114
  4. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 28.
  5. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 50.
  6. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 87.
  7. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 91.
  8. ^ Quoted in Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970 ed.): p. 150.
  9. ^ Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. p. 157.
  10. ^ Sankey, Howard (1997) "Kuhn's ontological relativism," in Issues and Images in the Philosophy of Science: Scientific and Philosophical Essays in Honour of Azarya Polikarov, edited by Dimitri Ginev and Robert S. Cohen. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1997. Boston studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 192, pp. 305–20. ISBN 0792344448
  11. ^ Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (3rd ed.): p. 199.
  12. ^ Kuhn, 1970, pp. 154 and passim
  13. ^ Joutsivuo, T (1997). "[Vesalius and De humani corporis fabrica: Galen's errors and the change of anatomy in the sixteenth century]". Hippokrates (Helsinki): 98–112. PMID 11625189.
  14. ^ Kuhn, 1970, pp. 148 and passim
  15. ^ Paradigm Shifts: Technology & Culture
  16. ^ Kuhn, 1970, p. 157
  17. ^ Kuhn, 1970, p. 155
  18. ^ Trudeau, Richard J (1987). The non-Euclidean revolution. Boston: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-0-8176-3311-0.
  19. ^ Kuhn, 1970, pp. 151 and passim
  20. ^ Kuhn, 1970, pp. 83–84, 151 and passim
  21. ^ Kuhn, 1970, p. 107
  22. ^ Kuhn, Thomas N. (1972) [1970]. "Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Research". In Lakatos, Imre; Musgrave, Alan (eds.). Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-521-09623-2
  23. ^ David Laidler. Fabricating the Keynesian Revolution.
  24. ^ Galbraith, John Kenneth (1975). Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-395-19843-8.
  25. ^ Keynes, John Maynard. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. p. 366. Mr. Hobson has flung himself with unflagging, but almost unavailing, ardour and courage against the ranks of orthodoxy. Though it is so completely forgotten to-day, the publication of this book marks, in a sense, an epoch in economic thought.
  26. ^ Bordo, Michael D., Schwartz, Anna J. (2008). Monetary Economic Research at the St. Louis Fed During Ted Balbach's Tenure as Research Director. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review.
  27. ^ James Clackson. Indo European Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University. p. 53.
  28. ^ Ralph, Paul (January 2018). "The two paradigms of software development research". Science of Computer Programming. 156: 68–89. doi:10.1016/j.scico.2018.01.002.
  29. ^ Perez, Carlota (2009). "Technological revolutions and techno-economic paradigms", Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 34, No.1, pp. 185–202
  30. ^ Schroeder, Christopher H. (2009). "Global Warming and the Problem of Policy Innovation: Lessons from the Early Environmental Movement". http://www.lclark.edu/org/envtl/objects/39-2_Schroeder.pdf
  31. ^ See also Stewart Brand#NASA image of Earth
  32. ^ Kung, Hans & Tracy, David (ed). Paradigm Change in Theology. New York: Crossroad, 1989.
  33. ^ Küng, Hans. Theology for the Third Millennium: An Ecumenical View. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.
  34. ^ Robert Fulford, Globe and Mail (June 5, 1999). http://www.robertfulford.com/Paradigm.html Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  35. ^ Cnet.com's Top 10 Buzzwords
  36. ^ "The Complete Idiot's Guide to a Smart Vocabulary" pp. 142–43, author: Paul McFedries publisher: Alpha; 1st edition (May 7, 2001) Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ISBN 978-0-02-863997-0
  37. ^ Cohen, Martin (2015). Paradigm Shift: How Expert Opinions Keep Changing on Life, the Universe and Everything. Imprint Academic. p. 181.

Sources

  • Kuhn, Thomas (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd, enlarged ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-45804-5.

External links

Chicago Evening Post

The Chicago Evening Post was a daily newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois, from March 1, 1886, until October 29, 1932, when it was absorbed by the Chicago Daily News. The newspaper was founded as a penny paper during the technological paradigm shift created by linotype; it failed when the Great Depression struck.

The Evening Post identified itself as a reform newspaper, and attempted to cover muckraking stories of Chicago's political corruption. Among its managing editors was the future director of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Michael W. Straus. Finley Peter Dunne introduced his character Mr. Dooley in the paper in 1893. The paper's book critic beginning in 1913 was Margaret C. Anderson, who later became a noted magazine editor and publisher.

The Chicago Public Library preserves a complete microfilm file of the Evening Post's 46-year press run.

Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be modern, and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the previous theories, or new theories based on the older paradigm, will often be referred to as belonging to the realm of "classical physics".

As such, the definition of a classical theory depends on context. Classical physical concepts are often used when modern theories are unnecessarily complex for a particular situation. Most usually classical physics refers to pre-1900 physics, while modern physics refers to post-1900 physics which incorporates elements of quantum mechanics and relativity.

Hater (Korn song)

"Hater" is a song written and recorded by American nu metal band Korn. It was released as a single for the band's eleventh studio album The Paradigm Shift: World Tour Edition Bonus disc.

Korn

Korn (stylized as KoЯn) is an American nu metal band from Bakersfield, California, formed in 1993. The band is notable for pioneering the nu metal genre and bringing it into the mainstream.Originally formed in 1993 by three members of the band L.A.P.D., Korn's current lineup features founding members James "Munky" Shaffer (rhythm guitar), Reginald "Fieldy" Arvizu (bass), Brian "Head" Welch (lead guitar, backing vocals), and Jonathan Davis (lead vocals, bagpipes), with the addition of Ray Luzier (drums) in 2007, replacing the band's first drummer, David Silveria.

Korn made a demo tape, Neidermayer's Mind, in 1993, which was distributed free to record companies and on request to members of the public. Their debut album, Korn, was released in 1994, followed by Life Is Peachy in 1996. The band first experienced mainstream success with Follow the Leader (1998) and Issues (1999), both of which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The band's mainstream success continued with Untouchables (2002), Take a Look in the Mirror (2003) and See You on the Other Side (2005).

A compilation album, Greatest Hits Vol. 1, was released in 2004, spanning a decade of singles and concluding the band's recording contract with Immortal Records and Epic Records. They signed to Virgin Records, releasing See You on the Other Side in 2005, and an untitled album in 2007. Korn's other recent albums, Korn III: Remember Who You Are (2010) and The Path of Totality (2011), were released via Roadrunner Records, The Paradigm Shift (2013) being released via Prospect Park and Caroline Records. Their latest album, The Serenity of Suffering, was released on October 21, 2016.

As of 2012, Korn had sold more than 35 million copies worldwide. Twelve of the band's official releases have peaked in the top ten of the Billboard 200, eight of which have peaked in the top five. Seven official releases are certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), two are certified double platinum, one is certified triple platinum, one is certified five times platinum and two are certified Gold. Korn has released seven video albums and thirty-nine music videos. The band has released forty-one singles, twenty-eight of which have charted. Korn has earned two Grammy Awards out of eight nominations and two MTV Video Music Awards out of eleven nominations.

List of songs recorded by Korn

Korn is an American alternative metal band from Bakersfield, California. Formed in 1993, the band originally featured vocalist Jonathan Davis, guitarists James "Munky" Shaffer and Brian "Head" Welch, bassist Reginald "Fieldy" Arvizu, and drummer David Silveria. The current lineup of the group includes drummer Ray Luzier, who replaced Silveria in 2009. The band released its self-titled debut album Korn in 1994, which was produced by Ross Robinson and featured equal songwriting credits for the whole band. Life Is Peachy, released in 1996, included two cover versions – of Ice Cube's "Wicked" and War's "Lowrider", while the band's third album Follow the Leader featured collaborations with Limp Bizkit's Fred Durst ("All in the Family") and rappers Ice Cube ("Children of the Korn") and Slimkid3 ("Cameltosis").Following the release of Korn's next three albums – 1999's Issues, 2002's Untouchables and 2003's Take a Look in the Mirror – all of which featured equal songwriting credits for all five band members, Welch left the group in 2005 due to his "newfound Christian faith". The previous year, the band had released Greatest Hits, Vol. 1, which featured recordings of Cameo's "Word Up!" and Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall". Korn returned as a quartet in 2005 with See You on the Other Side, which co-credited producers The Matrix and Atticus Ross on many tracks. After Silveria left in 2007, Brooks Wackerman and Terry Bozzio performed drums on the band's 2007 untitled eighth studio album, which also featured keyboardist Zac Baird who was credited for songwriting on many of the album's songs.After filling in for the departed Silveria on the untitled album's touring cycle, Ray Luzier joined as Korn's full-time drummer in 2009, first contributing to the band's 2010 album Korn III: Remember Who You Are, which returned to crediting the band for songwriting. The band's next album, 2011's The Path of Totality, saw a drastic shift in musical style into electronic music, particularly dubstep, including collaborations with Skrillex, Noisia, Excision and more. Original guitarist Brian "Head" Welch rejoined the band in 2013, returning for The Paradigm Shift which co-credited producer Don Gilmore for songwriting. The Serenity of Suffering followed in 2016.

Martin Cohen (philosopher)

Martin Cohen (born 1964) is a British philosopher, an editor and reviewer who writes on philosophy, philosophy of science and political philosophy. He is currently Visiting Research Fellow in Philosophy at the University of Hertfordshire (UK).

Never Never (Korn song)

"Never Never" was the lead single from American nu metal band Korn's eleventh studio album, The Paradigm Shift. The band's first single with cofounding guitarist Brian "Head" Welch since 2004, it became their first number one on the Mainstream Rock Songs chart.

Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm () is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

Paradigm Shift (album)

Paradigm Shift is an album by various artists and recorded under the Nettwerk and Subconscious Communications record labels. It is Subconscious Communications' tenth release. The album also contains unreleased tracks that artist Dwayne Goettel never lived to see produced.

Paradigm Shift (disambiguation)

Paradigm shift is a term to describe a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science.

Paradigm Shift may also refer to:

Paradigm Shift (album), a 1997 album by various artists

The Paradigm Shift, the 11th studio album of the nu metal band Korn

"Paradigm Shift", the first track on the 1998 album Liquid Tension Experiment by the band Liquid Tension Experiment

Paradigm Shift, the book by Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, and his theology

2070 Paradigm Shift, a satirical speech given by internet comedian Sam Hyde at TEDx Drexel 2013

Relational psychoanalysis

Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. 'Relational psychoanalysis is a relatively new and evolving school of psychoanalytic thought considered by its founders to represent a "paradigm shift" in psychoanalysis'.Relational psychoanalysis began in the 1980s as an attempt to integrate interpersonal psychoanalysis's emphasis on the detailed exploration of interpersonal interactions with British object relations theory's ideas about the psychological importance of internalized relationships with other people. Relationalists argue that personality emerges from the matrix of early formative relationships with parents and other figures. Philosophically, relational psychoanalysis is closely allied with social constructionism.

School of thought

A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.

Schools are often characterized by their currency, and thus classified into "new" and "old" schools. There is a convention, in political and philosophical fields of thought, to have "modern" and "classical" schools of thought. An example is the modern and classical liberals. This dichotomy is often a component of paradigm shift. However, it is rarely the case that there are only two schools in any given field.

Schools are often named after their founders such as the "Rinzai school" of Zen, named after Linji Yixuan; and the Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy, named after Abu l'Hasan al-Ashari. They are often also named after their places of origin, such as the Ionian school of philosophy, which originated in Ionia; the Chicago school of architecture, which originated in Chicago, Illinois; the Prague school of linguistics, named after a linguistic circle founded in Prague; and the Tartu–Moscow Semiotic School, whose representatives lived in Tartu and Moscow.

Sea change (idiom)

Sea-change or seachange, an English idiomatic expression which denotes a substantial change in perspective, especially one which affects a group or society at large, on a particular issue. It is similar in usage and meaning to a paradigm shift, and may be viewed as a change to a society or community's zeitgeist, with regard to a specific issue. The phrase evolved from an older and more literal usage when the term referred to an actual "change wrought by the sea", a definition that remains in limited usage.

Spike in My Veins

"Spike in My Veins" is a song written and recorded by American nu metal band Korn, released as the second single from their eleventh studio album The Paradigm Shift on February 6, 2014.

The Paradigm Shift

The Paradigm Shift is the eleventh studio album by American nu metal band Korn. The album was produced by Don Gilmore and was released in the United States on October 8, 2013. It is the first Korn album to feature original guitarist Brian "Head" Welch since 2003's Take a Look in the Mirror.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn. Its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge. Kuhn challenged the then prevailing view of progress in "normal science". Normal scientific progress was viewed as "development-by-accumulation" of accepted facts and theories. Kuhn argued for an episodic model in which periods of such conceptual continuity in normal science were interrupted by periods of revolutionary science. The discovery of "anomalies" during revolutions in science leads to new paradigms. New paradigms then ask new questions of old data, move beyond the mere "puzzle-solving" of the previous paradigm, change the rules of the game and the "map" directing new research.For example, Kuhn's analysis of the Copernican Revolution emphasized that, in its beginning, it did not offer more accurate predictions of celestial events, such as planetary positions, than the Ptolemaic system, but instead appealed to some practitioners based on a promise of better, simpler solutions that might be developed at some point in the future. Kuhn called the core concepts of an ascendant revolution its "paradigms" and thereby launched this word into widespread analogical use in the second half of the 20th century. Kuhn's insistence that a paradigm shift was a mélange of sociology, enthusiasm and scientific promise, but not a logically determinate procedure, caused an uproar in reaction to his work. Kuhn addressed concerns in the 1969 postscript to the second edition. For some commentators The Structure of Scientific Revolutions introduced a realistic humanism into the core of science, while for others the nobility of science was tarnished by Kuhn's introduction of an irrational element into the heart of its greatest achievements.

Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American philosopher of science whose 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

Kuhn made several claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge: that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts" rather than solely progressing in a linear and continuous way, and that these paradigm shifts open up new approaches to understanding what scientists would never have considered valid before; and that the notion of scientific truth, at any given moment, cannot be established solely by objective criteria but is defined by a consensus of a scientific community. Competing paradigms are frequently incommensurable; that is, they are competing and irreconcilable accounts of reality. Thus, our comprehension of science can never rely wholly upon "objectivity" alone. Science must account for subjective perspectives as well, since all objective conclusions are ultimately founded upon the subjective conditioning/worldview of its researchers and participants.

We're Here Because We're Here (album)

We're Here Because We're Here is the eighth album by the British rock band Anathema. It was released on 31 May 2010. The working title of the album was Horizons. The album was mixed by Steven Wilson of Porcupine Tree.

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