Paphnutius of Thebes, also known as Paphnutius the Confessor, was a disciple of Anthony the Great and a bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century. He is accounted by some as a prominent member of the First Council of Nicaea which took place in 325. Neither the name of his see nor the precise date of his death are known.
Saint Paphnutius of Thebes
Paphnutius of Egypt. Etching from the 16/17th century. Private Collection.
|Died||4th century AD|
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church; Catholic Church|
Paphnutius, an Egyptian, was a disciple of Saint Anthony the Great and later a bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century. He had been persecuted for his Christian beliefs, and had been hamstrung on the left side and suffered the loss of his right eye for the Faith under the Emperor Maximinus, and was subsequently condemned to the mines. According to some reports, at the First Council of Nicaea he was greatly honoured by Constantine the Great.
Paphnutius was present at the First Ecumenical Council, which took up the subject of clerical celibacy. It seems that most of the bishops present were disposed to follow the precedent of the Council of Elvira prohibiting conjugal relations to those bishops, priests, deacons, and sub-deacons who were married before ordination. Paphnutius, so certain ancient authors tell us, earnestly entreated his fellow-bishops not to impose this obligation on the orders of the clergy concerned. He proposed, in accordance "with the ancient tradition of the Church", that only those who were celibates at the time of ordination should continue to observe continence, but, on the other hand, that "none should be separated from her, to whom, while yet unordained, he had been united". The great veneration in which he was held, and the well-known fact that he had himself observed the strictest chastity all his life, gave weight to his proposal, which was later unanimously adopted. The council left it to the discretion of the married clergy to continue or discontinue their marital relations. In addition, Paphnutius was a zealous defender of orthodoxy in the face of the Arian heresy.
Most Christians celebrate his feast on September 11. Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate it on April 19.
The very existence of Paphnutius is contested by the historian Friedrich Winkelmann, because he is never mentioned by Athanasius, who also battled against Arianism. Also, the Church History of Socrates Scholasticus, our earliest source on Paphnutius, is one of the very few references for him in general.
His participation in the First Ecumenical Council was disputed several times, among others by such a respected canon law historian as Alfons Maria Cardinal Stickler. Stickler's objection is that Paphutius' presence at the council was never mentioned by the council's historian Eusebius of Caesarea, and he also disproves Socrates' statement that he personally spoke to a participant of the council as Socrates was supposedly born too late to know personally anyone who had taken part in it. Stickler's main argument against Paphnutius' story is that the Synod of Trullo (691) failed to mention the Paphnutius story when they allowed matrimony for priests, which was done, as Stickler claims, under the emperor's pressure. The Council of Trullo, rather erroneously, referred only to the decrees of the Council of Carthage. However, Eusebius does not mention many things that certainly did happen, we are not sure when Socrates of Constantinople was born, and the Council of Trullo might have invoked several other canons from the past, though it did not.
On the other hand, there have also been several prominent scholars who defended the veracity of the Paphnutius story. The main arguments were laid down by Karl Josef von Hefele in his Conciliengeschichte (1855), and were taken up by his successor at the Tübingen Catholic faculty of theology Franz Xaver von Funk, as well as by some other eminent historians as Elphège Vacandard in the article on celibacy in the prestigious Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (1905) and Henri Leclercq in an article in the Histoire des conciles (1908). Vacandard's position found wide acceptance among the scholars. The original argument by Hefele is available below.
Alban Butler says, "On account of the silence of other writers, and on the testimonies of Saint Jerome, Saint Epiphanius, and others, Bellarmin and Orsi suspect that Socrates and Sozomen were misinformed in this story. There is, however, nothing repugnant in the narration; for it might seem unadvisable to make too severe a law at that time against some married men, who, in certain obscure churches, might have been ordained without such a condition."
The discourse ascribed to Paphnutius, and the consequent decision of the Synod, agree very well with the text of the Apostolic Constitutions, and with the whole practice of the Greek Church in respect to celibacy. The Greek Church as well as the Latin accepted the principle, that whoever had taken holy orders before marriage, ought not to be married afterwards. In the Latin Church, bishops, priests, deacons, and even subdeacons, were considered to be subject to this law, because the latter were at a very early period reckoned among the higher servants of the Church, which was not the case in the Greek Church. The Greek Church went so far as to allow deacons to marry after their ordination, if previously to it they had expressly obtained from their bishop permission to do so. The Council of Ancyra affirms this (c. 10). We see that the Greek Church wishes to leave the bishop free to decide the matter; but in reference to priests, it also prohibited them from marrying after their ordination.
Therefore, whilst the Latin Church exacted of those presenting themselves for ordination, even as subdeacons, that they should not continue to live with their wives if they were married, the Greek Church gave no such prohibition; but if the wife of an ordained clergyman died, the Greek Church allowed no second marriage. The Apostolic Constitutions decided this point in the same way. To leave their wives from a pretext of piety was also forbidden to Greek priests; and the Synod of Gangra (c. 4) took up the defence of married priests against the Eustathians. Eustathius, however, was not alone among the Greeks in opposing the marriage of all clerics, and in desiring to introduce into the Greek Church the Latin discipline on this point. St. Epiphanius also inclined towards this side. The Greek Church did not, however, adopt this rigour in reference to priests, deacons, and subdeacons, but by degrees it came to be required of bishops and of the higher order of clergy in general, that they should live in celibacy. Yet this was not until after the compilation of the Apostolic Canons (c. 5) and of the Constitutions; for in those documents mention is made of bishops living in wedlock, and Church history shows that there were married bishops, for instance Synesius, in the fifth century. But it is fair to remark, even as to Synesius, that he made it an express condition of his acceptation, on his election to the episcopate, that he might continue to live the married life. Thomassin believes that Synesius did not seriously require this condition, and only spoke thus for the sake of escaping the episcopal office; which would seem to imply that in his time Greek bishops had already begun to live in celibacy. At the Trullan Synod (c. 13.) the Greek Church finally settled the question of the marriage of priests.
Baronius, Valesius, and other historians, have considered the account of the part taken by Paphnutius to be apocryphal. ...But Baronius is mistaken in seeing a law upon celibacy in that third canon; he thought it to be so, because, when mentioning the women who might live in the clergyman's house--his mother, sister, etc.--the canon does not say a word about the wife. ... Natalis Alexander gives this anecdote about Paphnutius in full: he desired to refute Bellarmin, who considered it to be untrue and an invention of Socrates to please the Novatians. ...Moreover, if it may be said that Socrates had a partial sympathy with the Novatians, he certainly cannot be considered as belonging to them, still less can he be accused of falsifying history in their favour. He may sometimes have propounded erroneous opinions, but there is a great difference between that and the invention of a whole story.
Rufinus ...expressly says that Bishop Paphnutius was present at the Council of Nicaea. ...Lupus and Phillips explained the words of Paphnutius in another sense. According to them, the Egyptian bishop was not speaking in a general way; he simply desired that the contemplated law should not include the subdeacons. But this explanation does not agree with the extracts quoted from Socrates, Sozomen, and Gelasius, who believe Paphnutius intended deacons and priests as well."
Father Abdel Messih El-Makari (or El-Manahri) (11 November 1892–14 April 1963) was a Coptic Orthodox monk and priest, and a 20th-century Coptic saint. Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria testified as to his holiness and asceticism.Abraham of Scetes
Abraham of Scetes was a monk who became a saint of the Coptic Church.
He was born the son of a wealthy landowner in Egypt, and became a monk under Saint Jonas. He is alleged to have had a vision of Christ riding the chariot of the Cherubim. He died after eighteen years of suffering from an illness at Djirdjeh. His cell, called Dshabih, later became a famous shrine. His feast day in the Coptic Church is January 4.Bashnouna
Bashnouna (died 19 May 1164) was an Egyptian saint and martyr.
According to his hagiography, Bashnouna was a monk in the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes. He was arrested by the Fatimid authorities during the caliphate of Al-'Āḍid, and threatened to face death if he were not to convert to Islam. Having refused, Bashnouna was burned alive on 24 Pashons, 880 A.M. (19 May 1164 AD) His relics were buried at the Church of Saint Sergius in Cairo.Dasya
Saint Dasya the Soldier, was a Christian martyr of the third century. He was born in Tanda, Egypt, and served as a soldier in the Roman army. Refusing to deny Christ, Dasya was tortured by Arianus, governor of Ansena, and his head eventually cut off.
His feast in the Coptic Orthodox Church is on 2 Thout.Dorothea of Alexandria
Saint Dorothea of Alexandria (died c. 320) is venerated as a Christian virgin martyr. Her legend states that the Roman Emperor Maximinus II courted her, yet she rejected his suit in fidelity to Christianity and virginity, and consequently he had her decapitated in c. 320.Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius of Alexandria
Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius of Alexandria (died 250) were Christian martyrs put to death under Decius in 250.
Faustus was a priest, Abibus was a deacon, and Dionysius was a lector. They were executed with several others, who include:
Andronicus, a soldier
Cyriacus, an acolyte
Theocistus, a sea captain
Caldote.The Roman Martyrology lists only
Faustus and Macarius with 10 companions. Their feast day is celebrated on September 6.John of Senhout
Saint John of Senhout is an Egyptian saint from the 4th century AD.
He was born in the Egyptian city of Senhout. His father's name was Macarius and his mother's name was Anna. According to Coptic Orthodox manuscripts, a divine inspiration encouraged him to travel to the city of Athribis to confess his Christian faith and become a martyr. The city's governor tortured him, then sent him to Ansena, where he was further tortured and eventually decapitated on 8 Pashons.
The body of John of Senhout was shrouded by Julius of Akfahs, who also sent the body to Senhout, where it was placed in the city's church. Today, the saint's relics are in Shubra El Khiema, Egypt.List of Confessors
The Confessor (short for Confessor of the Faith) is a title bestowed by the Christian Church. Those so honored include:
Basil the Confessor (died 750), Eastern Orthodox saint and monk
Saint Chariton, 3rd-4th-century saint
Edward the Confessor (1003/1005–1066), one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, Roman Catholic saint
Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1497–1546), early champion of the Protestant Reformation
George the Confessor (died 814), Bishop of Antioch in Pisidia
George the Standard-Bearer (died 821), Archbishop of Mytilene
Isaac of Dalmatia (died 383 or 396), Orthodox saint, monk and founder of a monastery
Jacob of Nisibis (died 4th century), Bishop of Nisibis
Luka (Voyno-Yasenetsky) (died 1961), Eastern Orthodox saint and bishop
Pope Martin I (590/600–655), Catholic and Orthodox saint
Maximus the Confessor (c. 580–662), Byzantine civil servant, Christian monk, theologian and scholar
Michael of Synnada (died 826), Catholic and Orthodox saint, bishop of Synnada
Nicetas of Medikion, (died 824), iconophile monk and Orthodox saint
Saint Nicetas the Patrician (761/62–836), iconophile monk and Orthodox saint
Paphnutius of Thebes (died 4th century), bishop and saint
Paul I of Constantinople (died c. 350), bishop of Constantinople, Roman Catholic and Orthodox saint
Samuel the Confessor (597–693), Coptic Orthodox saint, founder of a monastery
Theophanes the Confessor (c. 758/760–817/818), Byzantine aristocrat, monk and chronicler, Roman Catholic and Orthodox saintMar Awgin
Mar Awgin (died 363 AD), also known as Awgin of Clysma or Saint Eugenios, [Armenian Մարուգէ] founded the first cenobitic monastery of Asia and is regarded as the founder of monasticism in Mesopotamia.Our Lady of Assiut
Our Lady of Assiut is the name given to a series of reported apparitions of the Virgin Mary in 2000 and 2001 in Assiut, Egypt.Paphnutius (play)
Paphnutius or The Conversion of the Harlot Thaïs is a play originally written in Latin by Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim (935-1002). It concerns the relationship between Saint Thaïs, once a courtesan of Alexandria in Roman Egypt, and Paphnutius the Ascetic, the hermit who offered her conversion to Christianity. The characters of the play lived during the 4th century. Much later in Europe, beginning in the early middle ages, the story of St. Thaïs also enjoyed a wide popularity.Evidently Hrotsvitha employed as a source for her play the Vita Thaisis, a several-centuries-old translation into Latin of the life of Saint Thaïs (the original in Greek). The playwright, a Benedictine Canoness of Saxony (northwest Germany), drawing on the tradition, apparently created a narrative line and a distinctive character for St. Thaïs appropriate to the medieval Christian worldview.Parsoma
Saint Parsoma the Naked (1257–1317) is a Coptic saint, recognized by the Coptic Orthodox Church.Pope Alexander I of Alexandria
St Alexander I of Alexandria, 19th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. During his patriarchate, he dealt with a number of issues facing the Church in that day. These included the dating of Easter, the actions of Meletius of Lycopolis, and the issue of greatest substance, Arianism. He was the leader of the opposition to Arianism at the First Council of Nicaea. He also is remembered for being the mentor of the man who would be his successor, Athanasius of Alexandria, who would become one of the leading Church fathers.Psote
Psote (died 300), also known as Bisada, Besada, Abashadi, Abassadius, or Beshada, was a bishop of Ebsay in Upper Egypt. He was martyred by beheading at Antinoe.
His feast day is observed on December 23 in the Coptic Church or on December 21 in some other churches.Saint Memnon
Saint Memnon the Wonderworker was alive during the second century A.D. He was a hegumen of an Egyptian monastery. His feast day is April 28 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics).
In the Egyptian desert he practised religious asceticism.He is said to have performed a number of miracles, including causing a spring to gush forth, destroying a plague of locusts, curing illnesses and saving boats from destruction.Saint Theoclia
Saint Theoclia is an Egyptian martyr and saint from the 4th century AD.
Saint Theoclia was the wife of Saint Justus. They were separated at Alexandria, at which point Saint Justus was sent to Ansena where he was eventually martyred, while Saint Theoclia was sent to Sa El Hagar. The governor of the city attempted to persuade her to renounce Christianity, but she refused. She was subsequently beaten until her flesh was torn, and then placed in prison. Her hagiography states that an angel appeared to her in prison, comforted her, and healed her wounds. Many prisoners who witnessed this miracle became Christian and were later martyred. Saint Theoclia was eventually beheaded on 11 Pashons.Saint Varus
Saint Varus (died ca. 307, Alexandria, Egypt) — early Christian saint, soldier and martyr.
According to his generally reliable and authentic Acts, he was a soldier stationed in Upper Egypt who had the task of guarding a group of monks awaiting execution. When one of the monks died while incarcerated, Varus embraced the Christian faith and asked to be able to fill the place of the deceased. He was taken and hanged from a tree.
Feastday: October 19Sarathiel
Sarathiel or Serathiel (Coptic: ⲥⲁⲣⲁⲑⲓⲏⲗ) is an angel in Oriental Orthodox church angelology, especially in Coptic Orthodox church, and is often included in lists as being one of the seven archangels.Wanas
Saint Wanas (Coptic: Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ, Arabic: القديس ونس) was a Coptic child martyr born to poor parents from Thebes (now Luxor), Egypt. He is venerated as the patron saint of lost things.