Paper shredder

A paper shredder is a mechanical device used to cut paper into either strips or fine particles. Government organizations, businesses, and private individuals use shredders to destroy private, confidential, or otherwise sensitive documents.

Paper Shredder
Paper shredder with built-in wastebasket


The first paper shredder is credited to prolific inventor Abbot Augustus Low, whose patent was filed on February 2, 1909.[1] His invention was however never manufactured.

Adolf Ehinger's paper shredder, based on a hand-crank pasta maker, was manufactured in 1935 in Germany. Supposedly he needed to shred his anti-Nazi propaganda to avoid the inquiries of the authorities.[2] Ehinger later marketed his shredders to government agencies and financial institutions converting from hand-crank to electric motor. Ehinger's company, EBA Maschinenfabrik, manufactured the first cross-cut paper shredders in 1959 and continues to do so to this day as EBA Krug & Priester GmbH & Co. in Balingen.

History of use

Until the mid-1980s, it was rare for paper shredders to be used by non-government entities.

A high-profile example of their use was when the U.S. embassy in Iran used shredders to reduce paper pages to strips before the embassy was taken over in 1979, but some documents were reconstructed from the strips, as detailed below.

After Colonel Oliver North told Congress that he used a Schleicher cross-cut model to shred Iran-Contra documents, sales for that company increased nearly 20 percent in 1987.[3]

Paper shredders became more popular among U.S. citizens with privacy concerns after the 1988 Supreme Court decision in California v. Greenwood; in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside of a home. Anti-burning laws also resulted in increased demand for paper shredding.

More recently, concerns about identity theft have driven increased personal use,[4] with the US Federal Trade Commission recommending that individuals shred financial documents before disposal.[5]

Information privacy laws like FACTA, HIPAA and the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act are driving shredder usage, as businesses and individuals take steps to securely dispose of confidential information.


Multi-cut scissors used to shred paper

Shredders range in size and price from small and inexpensive units designed for a certain amount of pages, to large units used by commercial shredding services that cost hundreds of thousands of dollars and can shred millions of documents per hour. While the very smallest shredders may be hand-cranked, most shredders are electrically powered.

Shredders over time have added features to improve the shredder user's experience. Many now reject paper that is fed over capacity to avoid jams; others have safety features to reduce risks.[6][7] Some shredders designed for use in shared workspaces or department copy rooms have noise reduction.

Mobile shredding truck

Larger organisation or shredding services sometimes use "mobile shredding trucks", typically constructed as a box truck with an industrial-size paper shredder mounted inside and space for storage of the shredded materials. Such a unit may also offer the shredding of CDs, DVDs, hard drives, credit cards, and uniforms, among other things.


A shredding kiosk is an automated retail machine (or kiosk) that allows public access to a commercial or industrial-capacity paper shredder. This is an alternative solution to the use of a personal or business paper shredder, where the public can use a faster and more powerful shredder, paying for each shredding event rather than purchasing shredding equipment.


Some companies outsource their shredding to shredding services. These companies either shred on-site, with mobile shredder trucks or have off-site shredding facilities. Documents that need to be destroyed are often placed in locked bins that are emptied periodically.

Shredding Console
Shredding console

Shredding method, and output

As well as size and capacity, shredders are classified according to the method they use; and the size and shape of the shreds they produce.

  • Strip-cut shredders use rotating knives to cut narrow strips as long as the original sheet of paper.
  • Cross-cut or confetti-cut shredders use two contra-rotating drums to cut rectangular, parallelogram, or lozenge (diamond-shaped) shreds.
  • Particle-cut shredders create tiny square or circular pieces.
  • Cardboard shredders are designed specifically to shred corrugated material into either strips or a mesh pallet.
  • Disintegrators and granulators repeatedly cut the paper at random until the particles are small enough to pass through a mesh.
  • Hammermills pound the paper through a screen.
  • Pierce-and-tear shredders have rotating blades that pierce the paper and then tear it apart.
  • Grinders have a rotating shaft with cutting blades that grind the paper until it is small enough to fall through a screen.
The shredded remains of a National Lottery play slip.

Security levels

There are a number of standards covering the security levels of paper shredders, including:

DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung

The previous DIN 32757 standard has now been replaced with DIN 66399. This is complex,[8] but can be summarized as below:

  • Level P-1 = ≤ 2000 mm² particles or ≤ 12 mm wide strips of any length (For shredding general internal documents)
  • Level P-2 = ≤ 800 mm² particles or ≤ 6 mm wide strips of any length
  • Level P-3 = ≤ 320 mm² particles or ≤ 2 mm wide strips of any length (For highly sensitive documents and personal data subject to high protection requirements)
  • Level P-4 = ≤ 160 mm² particles with width ≤ 6 mm
  • Level P-5 = ≤ 30 mm² particles with width ≤ 2 mm
  • Level P-6 = ≤ 10 mm² particles with width ≤ 1 mm (Espionage-safe, for extremely high demands of security such as military or government departments)
  • Level P-7 = ≤ 5 mm² particles with width ≤ 1 mm


  • The United States National Security Agency/CSS produces the "NSA/CSS Specification 02-01 for High Security Crosscut Paper Shredders".
  • They provide a list of evaluated shredders.[9]

Destruction of evidence

There have been many instances where it is alleged that documents have been improperly or illegally destroyed by shredding, including:

  • Oliver North shredded documents relating to the Iran–Contra affair between November 21 and November 25, 1986.[10] During the trial, North testified that on November 21, 22, or 24, he witnessed John Poindexter destroy what may have been the only signed copy of a presidential covert action finding that sought to authorize CIA participation in the November 1985 Hawk missile shipment to Iran.[10]
  • According to the report of the Paul Volcker Committee, between April and December 2004, Kofi Annan's Chef de Cabinet, Iqbal Riza, authorized thousands of United Nations documents shredded, including the entire chronological files of the Oil-for-Food Programme during the years 1997 through 1999.[11]
  • The Union Bank of Switzerland used paper shredders to destroy evidence that their company owned property stolen from Jews during the Holocaust by the Nazi government. The shredding was disclosed to the public through the work of Christoph Meili, a security guard working at the bank who happened to wander by a room where the shredding was taking place. Also in the shredding room were books from the German Reichsbank.[12] They listed stock accounts for companies involved in the holocaust, including BASF, Degussa, and Degesch.[13] They also listed real-estate records for Berlin properties that had been forcibly taken by the Nazis, placed in Swiss accounts, and then claimed to be owned by UBS.[14] Destruction of such documents was a violation of Swiss laws.[15]

Unshredding and forensics

Shredded 1979-09-01 1305Z CIA cable from American Embassy Tehran
An example of a shredded and reassembled document during Iran hostage crisis

In theory shredded documents should not be able to be reassembled and read. In practice the feasibility of this depends on, (a) how well the shredding has been done, and (b) the resources put into reconstruction. The cost benefit analysis will depend on whether it is a simple personal matter, corporate espionage, a criminal matter - or if national security is at stake.

Factors making reconstruction more likely include not only the cutting method, but also the orientation of the material when fed, and whether the shredded material is further randomized afterwards. Even without a full reconstruction, in some cases useful information can be obtained by forensic analysis of the paper, ink, and cutting method.

Reconstruction examples

  • After the Iranian Revolution and the takeover of the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979, Iranians enlisted local carpet weavers who reconstructed the pieces by hand. The recovered documents would be later released by the Iranian government in a series of books called "Documents from the US espionage Den".[16] The US government subsequently improved its shredding techniques by adding pulverizing, pulping, and chemical decomposition protocols.
  • Modern computer technology considerably speeds up the process of reassembling shredded documents. The strips are scanned on both sides, and then a computer determines how the strips should be put together. Robert Johnson of the National Association for Information Destruction[17] has stated that there is a huge demand for document reconstruction. Several companies offer commercial document reconstruction services. For maximum security, documents should be shredded so that the words of the document go through the shredder horizontally (i.e. perpendicular to the blades). Many of the documents in the Enron Accounting scandals were fed through the shredder the wrong way, making them easier to reassemble.
  • In 2003, there was an effort underway to recover the shredded archives of the Stasi, the East German secret police.[18] There are "millions of shreds of paper that panicked Stasi officials threw into garbage bags during the regime's final days in the fall of 1989". As it took three dozen people six years to reconstruct 300 of the 16,000 bags, the Fraunhofer-IPK institute has developed the "Stasi-Schnipselmaschine" (Stasi snippet machine) for computerized reconstruction and is testing it in a pilot project.
  • The DARPA Shredder Challenge 2011 called upon computer scientists, puzzle enthusiasts, and anyone else with an interest in solving complex problems, to compete for up to $50,000 by piecing together a series of shredded documents. The Shredder Challenge consisted of five separate puzzles in which the number of documents, the document subject matter and the method of shredding were varied to present challenges of increasing difficulty. To complete each problem, participants were required to provide the answer to a puzzle embedded in the content of the reconstructed document. The overall prizewinner and prize awarded was dependent on the number and difficulty of the problems solved. DARPA declared a winner on December 2, 2011 (the winning entry was submitted 33 days after the challenge began) - the winner was "All Your Shreds Are Belong To U.S." using a combination system that used automated sorting to pick the best fragment combinations to be reviewed by humans.[19]

Forensic identification

The individual shredder that was used to destroy a given document may be sometimes be of forensic interest. Shredders display certain device-specific characteristics, "fingerprints", like the exact spacing of the blades, the degree and pattern of their wear. By closely examining the shredded material, the minute variations of size of the paper strips and the microscopic marks on their edges may be able to be linked to a specific machine.[20] (c.f. the forensic identification of typewriters.)

Recycling of waste

The resulting shredded paper can be recycled in a number of ways, including:

  • Animal bedding — To produce a warm and comfortable bed for animals. .[21]
  • Void fill and packaging — Void fill for the transportation of goods.
  • Briquettes — an alternative to non-renewable fuels.
  • Insulation — Shredded newsprint mixed with flame-retardant chemicals and glue to create a spray-able insulation material for wall interiors and the underside of roofing.

See also


  1. ^ Abbot Augustus Low Waste-paper receptacle February 2, 1909 Patent filing
  2. ^ Woestendiek, John (February 10, 2002). "The Compleat History of SHREDDING". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  3. ^ "Business notes office equipment". Time. 1988-02-29. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  4. ^ "About Identity Theft". US FTC website. Archived from the original on 2009-05-20.
  5. ^ "Fighting Back Against Identity Theft". US FTC website. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28.
  6. ^ "Paper Shredder Safety Alert" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 11 June 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 November 2008.
  7. ^ "Paper Shredder Danger". Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  8. ^ "New times, new storage media, new standards". Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. External link in |publisher= (help)
  9. ^ "NSA/CSS EVALUATED PRODUCTS LIST for HIGH SECURITY CROSSCUT PAPER SHREDDERS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-23.
  10. ^ a b Walsh, Lawrence (August 4, 1993). "Vol. I: Investigations and prosecutions". Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters. Independent Council for Iran/Contra Matters. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Interim Report March 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  12. ^ Eizenstat, Stuart (2003). Imperfect Justice. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-58648-110-X. Page 94
  13. ^ Eizenstat p 94, 95
  14. ^ Eizenstat p 95
  15. ^ Swiss parliament: Parliamentary Initiative 96.434: Bundesbeschluss betreffend die historische und rechtliche Untersuchung des Schicksals der infolge der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft in die Schweiz gelangten Vermögenswerte Archived 2008-02-26 at the Wayback Machine; in German. Entry in force December 14, 1996. This edict was the legal foundation of the Bergier commission, constituted on December 19, 1996. Articles 4, 5, and 7 made the willful destruction or withholding of documents relating to orphaned assets illegal. On the dates given, see Chronology: Switzerland in World War II — Detailed Overview of the years 1994-1996 Archived 2006-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. URLs last accessed 2006-10-30.
  16. ^ Dānishjūyān-i Musalmān-i Payraw-i Khaṭṭ-i Imām, Dānishjūyan-i Musalmān-i Payraw-i Khaṭṭ-i Imām (1980). Documents from the U.S. Espionage Den. Published by Muslim Students Following the Line of the Iman. Archived from the original on 2013-10-18.
  17. ^ "National Association for Information Destruction". Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  18. ^ Heingartner, Douglas (2003-07-17). "Back Together Again". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  19. ^ "Darpa Shredder Challenge". U S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  20. ^ Jack Brassil (2002-08-02). "Tracing the Source of a Shredded Document" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-10-29. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  21. ^ bOnline LTD. "Wilki Engineering manufactures bespoke shredding machines & balers".
Abbot Augustus Low

Abbot Augustus Low (Gus Low) (1844–1912) was an entrepreneur and inventor from Brooklyn, who lived in St. Lawrence County, New York and was the owner of the Horseshoe Forestry Company. He was the son of Abiel Abbot Low and owned 32,000 acres (130 km2) in an area of upstate New York known as Horseshoe, located on the Western shore of Horseshoe Lake, in Piercefield, New York and extending onto bordering land in Colton, New York.Low was an inventor and held various patents, such as a means of preserving maple sugar a motor, an exhaust system, an igniter and a bottle. Low filed a patent application in 1909 for a "waste-paper receptacle" that is believed to have been the first paper shredder. It received the U.S. patent number 929,960 on August 31, 1909, but was never manufactured. When Low died, the only inventor with more patents registered than him was Thomas Edison.Low's property around Lows Lake, also known as the Bog River Flow, included a narrow gauge railroad, a blacksmith shop, an energy generating plant, a stable, an engine house, storehouses, maple sugaring buildings, employee housing and boathouses. Low developed the property with two dams to produce electricity and aid annual log drivings. It is now part of the Bog River Management Unit in Adirondack Park. Low's business enterprises included spring water production, maple syrup, wild berry preserve and wood products.Abbot Low and his brother Seth Low, president of Columbia University, and later mayor of New York City, built a hospital in Wu-Chang, China in memory of their father, Abiel Abbot Low, a "successful" merchant in Canton.

Alice (Dilbert)

Alice is an engineer from the Dilbert comic strip. She is one of Dilbert's co-workers in the department. She has long curly hair, which transformed into a large and distinctive triangular hairstyle when the character became a regular.

Bad Credit

Bad Credit was a comedy hip hop duo based out of San Diego, California which lasted from 2002 to 2008, fronted by musicians and comedians Matthew Gorney (Optimus Rime) and Dallas McLaughlin (Dr. Cliff Mixtable).

Self-described as "financial hip hop", Bad Credit was a parody of the opulent "bling-bling" lifestyle portrayed by popular rap groups, subverting those themes into songs based on Wall Street Journal articles and financial responsibility, exemplified by such titles as "Balance Your Checkbook". The group was also known for similarly-themed stage antics, such as keeping a paper shredder onstage in which supposed unpaid bills would be shredded and thrown about as confetti.


Confetti are small pieces or streamers of paper, mylar, or metallic material which are usually thrown at celebrations, especially parades and weddings. The origins are from the Latin confectum, with confetti the plural of Italian confetto, small sweet. Modern paper confetti trace back to symbolic rituals of tossing grains and sweets during special occasions, traditional for numerous cultures throughout history as an ancient custom dating back to pagan times, but adapted from sweets and grains to paper through the centuries.

Confetti are made in a variety of colors, and commercially available confetti come in many different shapes. A distinction is made between confetti and glitter; glitter is smaller than confetti (pieces usually no larger than 1mm) and is universally shiny. Most table confetti are also shiny. While they are called metallic confetti they are actually metallized PVC. The most popular shape is the star. Seasonally, Snowflake Confetti are the most requested shape. Most party supply stores carry paper and metallic confetti. Confetti are commonly used at social gatherings such as parties, weddings, and Bar Mitzvahs, but are often considered taboo at funerals, due to the somber atmosphere. The simplest confetti are simply shredded paper (see ticker-tape parade), and can be made with scissors or a paper shredder. Other confetti often consist of chads punched out of scrap paper. A hole punch can be used to make small round chads. For more elaborate chads, a ticket punch can be used. Most pieces of paper flats will flutter as tumblewings giving flight times because of gliding aerodynamics.

In recent years the use of confetti as a cosmetic addition to trophy presentations at sporting events has become increasingly common. In this case, larger strips of paper (typically measuring 20 mm × 60 mm) in the colors appropriate to the team or celebration are used. For smaller volumes of confetti, ABS or PVC "barrels" are filled and the confetti is projected via a "cannon" (a small pressure vessel) using compressed air or carbon dioxide. For larger venues or volumes of confetti, a venturi air mover powered by carbon dioxide is used to propel significantly larger volumes of confetti greater distances.

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Deli Company (Chinese:得力; pinyin: dé lì , anglicized /dәˈliː/) is an office supplies and stationery manufacturer based in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. Deli is a well-known brand in China, thanks to its national advertisement campaign that is broadcast on CCTV, inviting Yang Lan to participate as the brand ambassador. The company claims to be the leader in China's stationery market, selling its products to more than 45,000 stores nationwide. Deli also leads the industry's e-commerce business through a strong presence on Tmall and

Girl with Balloon

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In 2018, a framed copy of the work spontaneously shredded during an auction, by way of a mechanical device Banksy had hidden in the frame. Banksy authenticated he was responsible for the shredding and gave the altered piece a new name, Love Is in the Bin. Sotheby said it was "the first work in history ever created during a live auction."

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Louis Theroux

Louis Sebastian Theroux ( LOO-ee thə-ROO; born 20 May 1970) is a British-American documentary filmmaker, journalist and broadcaster.

Theroux is best known for his documentary series, including Louis Theroux's Weird Weekends, When Louis Met..., and his BBC Two specials. His career started in journalism and it bears the influences of notable writers in his family, such as his father Paul and his brother Marcel. The BBC has produced all of his documentaries and television series. He has received two British Academy Television Awards and a Royal Television Society Television Award for his work.

Love is in the Bin

Love is in the Bin is a 2018 art intervention by Banksy at Sotheby's London, with an unexpected self-destruction of his 2006 painting of Girl with Balloon immediately after it was sold at auction for a record £1,042,000. According to Sotheby's, it is "the first artwork in history to have been created live during an auction." The painting will be on permanent loan to the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart in the future.

Movana Chen

Movana Chen (陳麗雲) is a Hong Kong–based female artist and curator. She is renowned for her unique approach of using shredded magazine papers to knit clothes. She uses paper-shredder to transform print media into a textile-like material and knits the magazine shreds together to form various clothing, containers and structures. Her artworks are multidisciplinary fusion of media transformation, fashion, performance, and sculpture, which has been presented in diverse exhibitions and festivals events in Hong Kong, Beijing, Seoul, London and Paris.

National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2

National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's Island Adventure is a 2003 American made-for-television comedy film. It premiered December 20, 2003 on NBC and stars Randy Quaid and Miriam Flynn reprising their roles as Cousin Eddie and Catherine, along with Dana Barron reprising her role as Audrey Griswold. It is a spin-off sequel to the 1989 film, National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation.


Shred-it is a document destruction company, founded by the late Greg Brophy in 1987 and incorporated in 1989. With headquarters in Oakville, Ontario, and a head office in Cincinnati, Ohio, the company operates in more than 140 markets in 17 different countries. In 2014, Shred-it merged with Cintas Document Shredding, which now operates under the Shred-it name.

Local Shred-it branches operate free Community Shred-it events.

Take Your Daughter to Work Day (The Office)

"Take Your Daughter To Work Day" is the eighteenth episode of the second season of the American comedy television series The Office, and the show's twenty-fourth episode overall. It was written by Mindy Kaling and directed by Victor Nelli, Jr. It first aired on March 16, 2006 on NBC. The episode guest stars Jazz Raycole as Melissa Hudson, Delaney Ruth Farrell as Sasha Flenderson, Spencer Daniels as Jake Palmer, and Jake Kalender as a young Michael Scott.

The series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. In this episode, Take Your Daughter to Work Day results in four children spending the day at the office—Toby Flenderson's (Paul Lieberstein) daughter Sasha, Stanley Hudson's (Leslie David Baker) daughter Melissa, Kevin Malone's (Brian Baumgartner) fiancée's daughter Abby, and Meredith Palmer's (Kate Flannery) son Jake. Pam Beesly (Jenna Fischer) tries to befriend at least one child, Melissa develops a crush on Ryan Howard (B. J. Novak), Michael Scott (Steve Carell) tries to impress the children by claiming he was a child star, and Dwight Schrute (Rainn Wilson) struggles to show secret girlfriend Angela Martin (Angela Kinsey) that he can be stern with Jake.

"Take Your Daughter to Work Day" was one of the last episodes filmed for the season. Due to the presence of actual children on the set, all of the main cast members had to tone down their behavior, making sure that no one cursed or told inappropriate jokes. The installment received largely positive reviews from television critics. "Take Your Daughter to Work Day" received a Nielsen rating of 4.2 and was seen by 8.8 million viewers.

The Merger (The Office)

"The Merger" is the eighth episode of the third season of the American comedy television series The Office and the show's 36th overall. It was written by consulting producer Brent Forrester and directed by Ken Whittingham. It first aired on November 16, 2006, as a special "super-sized" 40-minute (including commercials) episode on NBC.

The series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton and Stamford branches of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. In this episode, the two branches are merged. Jim Halpert (John Krasinski) and Pam Beesly (Jenna Fischer) have an awkward reunion, Michael Scott (Steve Carell) tries to make his new employees feel welcome, and a rivalry begins between Dwight Schrute (Rainn Wilson) and Andy Bernard (Ed Helms).

The episode featured recurring guest stars Helms, Creed Bratton, Rashida Jones, Wayne Wilderson, Mike Bruner, and Ursula Burton. According to Nielsen Media Research, an estimated 8.63 million viewers watched "The Merger" on its first broadcast. Critical reception to the episode was mainly positive, with many reviewers spotlighting Helms and his character in particular as highlights.


Undeletion is a feature for restoring computer files which have been removed from a file system by file deletion. Deleted data can be recovered on many file systems, but not all file systems provide an undeletion feature. Recovering data without an undeletion facility is usually called data recovery, rather than undeletion. Although undeletion can help prevent users from accidentally losing data, it can also pose a computer security risk, since users may not be aware that deleted files remain accessible.

and process

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