Panyassis of Halicarnassus, sometimes known as Panyasis (Ancient Greek: Πανύασις), was a 5th century BC Greek epic poet from Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).

Bust of Panyassis.
Bust of Panyassis.
Native name
Born5th-century BC
Died454 BC
Cause of deathExecuted
Notable work
  • Heracleia
  • Ionica
RelativesHerodotus (nephew or cousin)


Panyassis was the son of Polyarchus (Ancient Greek: Πολύαρχος) from Halicarnassus [1], but the historian Duris of Samos claimed that Panyasis was the son of Diocles (Ancient Greek: Διοκλῆς) and from Samos.[2] In addition, the historian Herodotus was either his nephew or his cousin.

In 454 BC, Panyassis was executed for political activities by the tyrant of Halicarnassus and grandson of Artemisia, Lygdamis ΙΙ (Λύγδαμις), after an unsuccessful uprising against him.[3]

The Suda encyclopedia mention Panyassis.


Panyassis enjoyed relatively little critical appreciation during his lifetime, but was posthumously recognised as one of the greatest poets of archaic Greece. His most famous works are: the Heracleia about the hero Heracles, written in epic hexameter, and the Ionica about the histories of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, reportedly written in pentameter. These works are preserved today only in fragments. It is believed that he also wrote other works which have since been lost.[4]


  1. ^ PANYASSIS, HERACLEA - Testimonia
  2. ^ Priestley, Jessica (April 2014). Herodotus and Hellenistic Culture: Literary Studies in the Reception of the Histories. Oxford University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0199653096.
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 - Panyasis
  4. ^ Matthews, V. J. (1974). Panyassis of Halikarnassos: text and commentary. Leiden: Brill. pp. , Poetarum Epicorum Graecorum testimonia et fragmenta, pt. 1, ed.A. Bernabé, Berlin, 1987.
Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.

Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek.

Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most derived from Koine Greek.


Antimachus of Colophon (Greek: Ἀντίμαχος ὁ Κολοφώνιος), or of Claros, was a Greek poet and grammarian, who flourished about 400 BC.Scarcely anything is known of his life. The Suda claims that he was a pupil of the poets Panyassis and Stesimbrotus. His poetical efforts were not generally appreciated, although he received encouragement from his younger contemporary Plato (Plutarch, Lysander, 18).His chief works were: an epic Thebais, an account of the expedition of the Seven against Thebes and the war of the Epigoni; and an elegiac poem Lyde, so called from the poet's mistress, for whose death he endeavoured to find consolation telling stories from mythology of heroic disasters (Plutarch, Consul, ad Apoll. 9; Athenaeus xiii. 597).Antimachus was the founder of "learned" epic poetry, and the forerunner of the Alexandrian school, whose critics allotted him the next place to Homer. He also prepared a critical recension of the Homeric poems.He is to be distinguished from Antimachus of Teos, a much earlier poet to whom the lost Cyclic epic Epigoni was apparently ascribed (though the attribution may result from confusion).

Fragments, ed. Stoll (1845); Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci (1882); Kinkel, Fragmenta epicorum Graecorum (1877).

20th century ed: V.J. Matthews, Antimachus of Colophon, text and commentary (Leiden : Brill, 1996) ISBN 90-04-10468-2

Creophylus of Samos

Creophylus (Ancient Greek: Κρεώφυλος ὁ Σάμιος, Kreophylos ho Samios) is the name of a legendary early Greek epic poet, native to Samos or Chios. He was said to have been a contemporary of Homer and author of the lost epic Capture of Oechalia. According to some sources, Homer gave the poem to Creophylus in return for hospitality; one source says that Panyassis of Halicarnassus, in turn, stole it from Creophylus. Panyassis, however, is a much later poet who worked in writing: the story is presumably a way of saying that Panyassis, in his literary epic on the life of Heracles, plagiarised the work of Creophylus.Creophylus may represent a tradition parallel to the Homeridae. In Plutarch's Lives in the biography of Lycurgus, Lycurgus in his travels "…had the first sight of Homer's works, in the hands, we may suppose, of the posterity of Creophylus… scattered proportions, as chance conveyed them, were in the hands of individuals; but Lycurgus first made them really known." (John Dryden transl.). Another descendant of Creophylus, Hermodamas of Samos, was said to be the teacher of Pythagoras of Samos (see Iamblichus, Porphyry, Diogenes Laërtius). So we have two examples of descendants of Creophylus teaching outsiders (non-Homeridae) the Epic tradition. It seems that the restrictions on the Homeridae in regards to teaching may have not been applicable to the descendants of Creophylus, Homer's host and friend.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.

Cyclic Poets

Cyclic Poets is a shorthand term for the early Greek epic poets, approximate contemporaries of Homer. We know no more about these poets than we know about Homer, but modern scholars regard them as having composed orally, as did Homer. In the classical period, surviving early epic poems were ascribed to these authors, just as the Iliad and Odyssey were ascribed to Homer. Together with Homer, whose Iliad covers a mere 50 days of the war, they cover the complete war "cycle", thus the name. Most modern scholars place Homer in the 8th century BC. The other poets listed below seemed to have lived in the 7th–5th centuries BC. Excluding Homer's, none of the works of the cyclic poets survive.


Demonax (Greek: Δημώναξ, Dēmōnax, gen.: Δημώνακτος; c. AD 70 – c. 170) was a Greek Cynic philosopher. Born in Cyprus, he moved to Athens, where his wisdom, and his skill in solving disputes, earned him the admiration of the citizens. He taught Lucian, who wrote a Life of Demonax in praise of his teacher. When he died he received a magnificent public funeral.

Eleusis (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Eleusis (Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσῖνι or Ἐλευσῖνα) was the eponymous hero of the town of Eleusis. He was a son of Hermes and the Oceanid Daeira, or of Ogygus. Panyassis wrote of him as father of Triptolemus, adding that "Demeter came to him"; this version of the myth is found in the works of Hyginus and Servius. According to it, King Eleusis and Cothonea (Cyntinia), parents of Triptolemus, are visited by Demeter, who rears their son, feeding him divine milk by day and placing him into the fire at night, which makes Triptolemus grow faster than mortal children normally do. She eventually kills Eleusis for intervening when the fire ritual is performed. The myth is closely parallel with the one that deals with Demeter visiting Celeus and Metaneira (also possible parents of Triptolemus) and nursing their son Demophon.

Greece in the Roman era

Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when Ancient Greece was dominated by the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC), the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 395), and the Byzantine Empire (AD 395 – 1453). The Roman era of Greek history began with the Corinthian defeat in the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. However, before the Achaean War, the Roman Republic had been steadily gaining control of mainland Greece by defeating the Kingdom of Macedon in a series of conflicts known as the Macedonian Wars. The Fourth Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna in 148 BC and defeat of the Macedonian royal pretender Andriscus.

The definitive Roman occupation of the Greek world was established after the Battle of Actium (31 BC), in which Augustus defeated Cleopatra VII, the Greek Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, and the Roman general Mark Antony, and afterwards conquered Alexandria (32 BC), the last great city of Hellenistic Greece. The Roman era of Greek history continued with Emperor Constantine the Great's adoption of Byzantium as Nova Roma, the capital city of the Roman Empire; in AD 330, the city was renamed Constantinople; afterwards, the Byzantine Empire was a generally Greek-speaking polity.

Greek Dark Ages

The Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time),

is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis (city states) in the 9th century BC.

The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed and in Egypt the New Kingdom fell into disarray that led to the Third Intermediate Period.

Following the collapse, fewer and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler, generally geometric styles (1000–700 BC).

It was previously thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east, particularly the Levant coast, developed from c. 900 BC onwards. Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina.


Herodotus (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars. He is widely considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. On account of this, he is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero.Despite Herodotus' historical significance, little is known about his personal life. His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information. Herodotus has been criticized for the fact that his book includes a large number of obvious legends and fanciful accounts. Many authors, starting with the late fifth-century BC historian Thucydides, have accused him of making up stories for entertainment. Herodotus, however, states that he is merely reporting what he has been told. A sizable portion of the information he provides has since been confirmed by historians and archaeologists.


Ionica can refer to:

Ionica (company), a British telephony service provider.

The title of a poem by Panyassis.

The title of a poetry anthology by William Johnson Cory.

List of Ancient Greek poets

This list of Ancient Greek poets covers poets writing in the Ancient Greek language, regardless of location or nationality of the poet. For a list of modern-day Greek poets, see List of Greek poets.

Lygdamis II of Halicarnassus

Lygdamis II (Greek: Λύγδαμις) (ruled c.460-454 BCE) was a tyrant of Caria during the 5th century BCE, under the Achaemenid Empire. His capital was in Halicarnassus. He was the grandson of Artemisia, and son of Pisindelis, the previous tyrant.Lydamis assassinated the poet Panyassis, uncle of famous historian Herodotus, in 461, which forced Herodotus to leave his native city of Halicarnassus, fleeing to the island of Samos.After the death of Lygdamis, circa 454 BCE, Halicarnassus joined the Athenian alliance, known as the Delian League. At that time, Halicarnassus started to appear on the Athenian tribute quota lists.From 395 BCE, Caria would again fall under the control of the Achaemenid Empire and be ruled by a new dynasty of local tyrants, the Hecatomnids.


In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.


Pinara (Lycian: 𐊓𐊆𐊍𐊍𐊁𐊑𐊏𐊆 Pilleñni, presumably from the adjective "round"; Greek: τὰ Πίναρα, formerly Artymnesus or Artymnesos according to one account) was a large city of ancient Lycia at the foot of Mount Cragus (now Mount Babadağ), and not far from the western bank of the River Xanthos, homonymous with the ancient city of Xanthos (now Eşen Stream).

The remains of several ancient temples can be seen in Pinara, as well as rock tombs including one "royal tomb", an upper and a lower acropolis, a theatre, an odeon, an agora and a church. The name Pinara has somewhat been assimilated to the name of the present-day village of Minare, half an hour below the ruins and depending Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey.


In Greek mythology, Praxidike (Ancient Greek: Πραξιδίκη, Greek pronunciation: [praksidíkeː]) is the goddess of judicial punishment and the exactor of vengeance, which were two closely allied concepts in the classical Greek world-view.

The Orphic hymn to Persephone identifies Praxidike as an epithet of Persephone: "Praxidike, subterranean queen. The Eumenides’ source [mother], fair-haired, whose frame proceeds from Zeus’ ineffable and secret seeds." As praxis "practice, application" of dike "justice", she is sometimes identified with Dike, goddess of justice.

The plural Praxidikai refers to the following groups of mythological figures who presided over exacting of justice:

1. Arete and Homonoia, daughters of Praxidike and Soter, sisters to Ktesios.2. Alalcomenia, Thelxionoea and Aulis, daughters of the early Boeotian king Ogyges. At Haliartos in Boeotia, Pausanias saw the open-air "sanctuary of the goddesses whom they call Praxidikae. Here the Haliartians swear, but the oath is not one they take lightly". Their images only portrayed their heads, and only heads of animals were sacrificed to them.According to Stephanus of Byzantium, a daughter of Ogygus named Praxidike was married to Tremilus or Tremiles (after whom Lycia had been previously named Tremile) and had by him four sons: Tlos, Xanthus, Pinarus and Cragus. Of them Tlos had a Lycian city named Tlos after himself. Cragus may be identical with the figure of the same name mentioned as the husband of Milye, sister of Solymus.

Victor J. Matthews

Victor John Matthews (January 29, 1941 – November 28, 2004) was an Irish-Canadian classical scholar. He is known for his publication of text and commentary on Panyassis of Halikarnassos.

Matthews was born in Derry, Northern Ireland and studied at Foyle College, Queen's University Belfast, and McMaster University. He taught at the University of Guelph from 1965 until his death.

Xanthus (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the name Xanthus or Xanthos (; Ancient Greek: Ξάνθος "yellow" or "fair hair") may refer to:


Xanthus, the gods' name for Scamander, the great river of Troy and its patron god.

Xanthus, one of the twelve sons of the god Pan who were allied with Dionysus.


Xanthus, an Argive prince and son of Triopas and Oreasis.

Xanthus, a Trojan warrior and son of Phaenops. Together with his twin brother Thoon, they were killed by Diomedes during the Trojan War.

Xanthos (King of Thebes), the son of Ptolemy, killed by Andropompus or Melanthus.

Xanthus, a son of Aegyptus who was killed by the Danaid Arcadia.

Xanthus, one of the Niobids.

Xanthus, lover of Alcinoe, who left her family to be with him.

Xanthus, son of Erymanthus and father of Psophis.

Xanthus, husband of Herippe.

Xanthus, one of the four sons of Tremiles and Praxidike.

Xanthus, husband of Laodamia, daughter of Bellerophon and by her father of Sarpedon who fought in the Trojan War.

Xanthus, father of Glaucippe, possible mother of Hecuba. He may be the same as the above river-god Xanthus (Scamander).


Xanthus, one of Achilles' two horses; see Balius and Xanthus.

Xanthus, one of Hector's horses.

Xanthus, one of the Mares of Diomedes.

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