The Panthéon (Latin: pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve and to house the reliquary châsse containing her relics but, after many changes, now functions as a secular mausoleum containing the remains of distinguished French citizens. It is an early example of neo-classicism, with a façade modelled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante's Tempietto. Located in the 5th arrondissement on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the Panthéon looks out over all of Paris. Designer Jacques-Germain Soufflot had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles, but its role as a mausoleum required the great Gothic windows to be blocked.
|Construction started||1758 AD|
|Design and construction|
King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from his illness he would replace the ruined church of the Abbey of St Genevieve with an edifice worthy of the patron saint of Paris. He did recover, and entrusted Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Marigny with the fulfillment of his vow. In 1755, Marigny commissioned Jacques-Germain Soufflot to design the church, with construction beginning two years later.
The overall design was that of a Greek cross with a massive portico of Corinthian columns. Its ambitious lines called for a vast building 110 metres long by 84 metres wide, and 83 metres high. No less vast was its crypt. Soufflot's masterstroke is concealed from casual view: the triple dome, each shell fitted within the others, permits a view through the oculus of the coffered inner dome of the second dome, frescoed by Antoine Gros with The Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve. The outermost dome is built of stone bound together with iron cramps and covered with lead sheathing, rather than of carpentry construction, as was the common French practice of the period. Concealed flying buttresses pass the massive weight of the triple construction outwards to the portico columns.
The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to economic problems work proceeded slowly. In 1780, Soufflot died and was replaced by his student, Jean-Baptiste Rondelet. The re-modelled Abbey of St. Genevieve was finally completed in 1790, coinciding with the early stages of the French Revolution. Upon the death of the popular French orator and statesman Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau on 2 April 1791, the National Constituent Assembly, whose president had been Mirabeau, ordered that the building be changed from a church to a mausoleum for the interment of great Frenchmen, retaining Quatremère de Quincy to oversee the project. Mirabeau was the first person interred there, on 4 April 1791. Jean Guillaume Moitte created a pediment sculptural group The Fatherland crowning the heroic and civic virtues that was replaced upon the Bourbon Restoration with one by David d'Angers. Twice since then it has reverted to being a church, only to become again a meeting house dedicated to the great intellectuals of France. The cross of the dome, which was retained in compromise, is again visible during the current major restoration project.
In 1851, physicist Léon Foucault demonstrated the rotation of the Earth by constructing a 67-metre (220 ft) Foucault pendulum beneath the central dome. The original sphere from the pendulum was temporarily displayed at the Panthéon in the 1990s (starting in 1995) during renovations at the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original pendulum was later returned to the Musée des Arts et Métiers, and a copy is now displayed at the Panthéon. It has been listed since 1920 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. From 1906 to 1922 the Panthéon was the site of Auguste Rodin's famous sculpture The Thinker. In 2006, Ernesto Neto, a Brazilian artist, installed "Léviathan Thot", an anthropomorphic installation inspired by the biblical monster. The art installation was in the Panthéon from 15 September 2006 until 31 October for Paris's Autumn Festival.
In late 2006, a "cultural guerilla movement" calling itself The Untergunther (part of the larger organisation les UX) completed a year-long project by which they covertly repaired the Panthéon's antique clockworks. The Government tried (unsuccessfully) to sue the group for the intervention.
By burying its great people in the Panthéon, the nation acknowledges the honour it received from them. As such, interment here is severely restricted and is allowed only by a parliamentary act for "National Heroes". Similar high honours exist in Les Invalides for historical military leaders such as Napoléon, Turenne and Vauban.
Among those buried in its necropolis are Voltaire, Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola, Jean Moulin, Louis Braille, Jean Jaurès and Soufflot, its architect. In 1907 Marcellin Berthelot was buried with his wife Mme Sophie Berthelot. Marie Curie was interred in 1995, the first woman interred on merit. Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz and Germaine Tillion, heroines of the French resistance, were interred in 2015. Simone Veil was interred in 2018, and her husband Antoine Veil was interred alongside her so not to be separated.
The widely repeated story that the remains of Voltaire were stolen by religious fanatics in 1814 and thrown into a garbage heap is false. Such rumours resulted in the coffin being opened in 1897, which confirmed that his remains were still present.
On 30 November 2002, in an elaborate but solemn procession, six Republican Guards carried the coffin of Alexandre Dumas (1802–1870), the author of The Three Musketeers and other famous novels, to the Panthéon. Draped in a blue-velvet cloth inscribed with the Musketeers' motto: "Un pour tous, tous pour un" ("One for all, all for one,") the remains had been transported from their original interment site in the Cimetière de Villers-Cotterêts in Aisne, France. In his speech, President Jacques Chirac stated that an injustice was being corrected with the proper honouring of one of France's greatest authors.
In January 2007, President Jacques Chirac unveiled a plaque in the Panthéon to more than 2,600 people recognised as Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem memorial in Israel for saving the lives of Jews who would otherwise have been deported to concentration camps. The tribute in the Panthéon underlines the fact that around three quarters of the country's Jewish population survived the war, often thanks to ordinary people who provided help at the risk of their own life. This plaque says :
Sous la chape de haine et de nuit tombée sur la France dans les années d'occupation, des lumières, par milliers, refusèrent de s'éteindre. Nommés "Juste parmi les Nations" ou restés anonymes, des femmes et des hommes, de toutes origines et de toutes conditions, ont sauvé des juifs des persécutions antisémites et des camps d'extermination. Bravant les risques encourus, ils ont incarné l'honneur de la France, ses valeurs de justice, de tolérance et d'humanité.
Which can be translated as follows :
Under the cloak of hatred and darkness that spread over France during the years of [Nazi] occupation, thousands of lights refused to be extinguished. Named as "Righteous among the Nations" or remaining anonymous, women and men, of all backgrounds and social classes, saved Jews from anti-Semitic persecution and the extermination camps. Braving the risks involved, they embodied the honour of France, and its values of justice, tolerance and humanity.
|Year of burial
in the Panthéon
|1791||Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau||First person honoured with burial in the Panthéon, 4 April 1791. Disinterred on 25 November 1794 and buried in an anonymous grave. His remains are yet to be recovered.|
|1793||Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau||Assassinated deputy, disinterred from the Panthéon. His body was removed by his family on 14 February 1795.|
|1794||Jean-Paul Marat||Disinterred from the Panthéon.|
|1806||François Denis Tronchet|
|1806||Claude Louis Petiet|
|1807||Louis-Joseph-Charles-Amable d'Albert, duc de Luynes||Disinterred from the Panthéon and returned to his family in 1862 at their request.|
|1808||Francois Barthélemy, comte Béguinot|
|1808||Pierre Jean George Cabanis|
|1808||Gabriel-Louis, marquis de Caulaincourt|
|1808||Antoine-César de Choiseul, duc de Praslin|
|1808||Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher||Urn with his heart.|
|1809||Jean Baptiste Papin, comte de Saint-Christau|
|1809||Pierre Garnier de Laboissière|
|1809||Jean Pierre, comte Sers||Urn with his heart.|
|1809||Jérôme-Louis-François-Joseph, comte de Durazzo||Urn with his heart.|
|1809||Justin Bonaventure Morard de Galles||Urn with his heart.|
|1809||Emmanuel Crétet, comte de Champnol|
|1810||Giovanni Battista Caprara|
|1810||Louis-Vincent-Joseph Le Blond de Saint-Hilaire|
|1810||Jean Baptiste Treilhard|
|1810||Jean Lannes, duc de Montebello|
|1810||Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu|
|1811||Louis Antoine de Bougainville|
|1811||Charles, cardinal Erskine of Kellie|
|1811||Alexandre-Antoine Hureau, baron de Sénarmont||Urn with his heart|
|1811||Ippolito Antonio, cardinal Vicenti Mareri|
|1811||Nicolas-Marie Songis des Courbons|
|1811||Michel Ordener, First Count Ordener|
|1812||Jan Willem de Winter or in French Jean Guillaume De Winter, comte de Huessen||Body only; his heart is sepulchred in his birthplace Kampen, Overijssel.|
|1813||Hyacinthe-Hugues-Timoléon de Cossé, Comte de Brissac|
|1813||Jean-Ignace Jacqueminot, Comte de Ham|
|1813||Joseph Louis Lagrange|
|1813||Jean, Comte Rousseau|
|1813||François-Marie-Joseph-Justin, Comte de Viry|
|1814||Claude-Ambroise Régnier, duc de Massa di Carrara|
|1815||Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand|
|1889||Lazare Carnot||Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution.|
|1889||Théophile-Malo Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne||Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution.|
|1889||François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers||Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution – Only his ashes are buried there.|
|1894||Marie François Sadi Carnot||Buried immediately after his assassination.|
|1907||Sophie Berthelot||Buried with her husband: Marcellin Berthelot.|
|1907||Marcellin Berthelot||Buried with his wife: Sophie Berthelot, the first woman buried here.|
|1920||Léon Gambetta||Urn with his heart|
|1924||Jean Jaurès||Interred ten years after his assassination.|
|1948||Jean Perrin Nobel Prize Winner||Buried the same day as Paul Langevin.|
|1949||Victor Schoelcher||His father Marc is also in the Panthéon. Victor wanted to be buried with his father.|
|1949||Félix Éboué||Buried the same day as Victor Schoelcher.|
Body moved to the Panthéon on the centenary of his death.
|1964||Jean Moulin||Ashes transferred from Père Lachaise Cemetery on 19 December 1964.|
|1967||Antoine de Saint-Exupéry||Commemorated with an inscription in November 1967, as his body was never found.|
|1987||René Cassin Nobel Prize Winner||Entered the Panthéon on the centenary of his birth.|
|1988||Jean Monnet||Entered the Panthéon on the centenary of his birth.|
|1989||Abbé Baptiste-Henri Grégoire||Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution.|
|1989||Gaspard Monge||Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution.|
|1989||Marquis de Condorcet||Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution. The coffin is in fact empty, his remains having been lost.|
|1995||Pierre Curie Nobel Prize Winner|
Both Pierre Curie and his wife Marie Skłodowska-Curie were enshrined in the crypt in April 1995.
|1995||Marie Curie Nobel Prize Winner|
Second woman to be buried in the Panthéon, but the first honoured for her own merits, her contributions to science. Her full name was Marie Skłodowska-Curie.
|1996||André Malraux||Ashes transferred from Verrières-le-Buisson (Essonne) Cemetery on 23 November 1996 on the 20th anniversary of his death.|
|1998||Toussaint Louverture||Commemorative plaque installed on same day as Louis Delgrès|
|1998||Louis Delgrès||Commemorative plaque installed on same day as Toussaint Louverture|
|2002||Alexandre Dumas, père||Reburied here 132 years after his death.|
|2011||Aimé Césaire||Commemorative plaque installed 6 April 2011; Césaire is buried in Martinique.|
|2015||Germaine Tillion||Symbolic interment. The coffin of Germaine Tillion at the Panthéon does not contain her remains but soil from her gravesite, because her family did not want the body itself moved.|
|2015||Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz||Symbolic interment. The coffin of Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz at the Panthéon does not contain her remains but soil from her gravesite, because her family did not want the body itself moved.|
|2018||Simone Veil||Originally buried at Montparnasse Cemetery following her death in 2017.|
|2018||Antoine Veil||Husband of Simone Veil, originally buried at Montparnasse Cemetery following his death in 2013.|
Christian Cambon (born 8 March 1948) is a French member of the Senate (since 2004), constituency of Val-de-Marne department.
He is a member of the Les Républicains party, Secretary of the Managing Committee, Deputy-Chairman of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Armed forces, Chairman of the interparliamentary group France-Morocco.
He is Mayor of Saint-Maurice (Val-de-Marne) since 1989 and Senior Vice-Chairman of The Syndicat des eaux d’Ile-de-France (public drinking water service for the greater metropolitan Paris area)
Master’s degree in Public Law (Panthéon-Assas University) and graduated from the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po).Conspiracy of the Equals
The Conspiracy of the Equals (French: Conjuration des Égaux) of May 1796 was a failed coup de main during the French Revolution. It was led by François-Noël Babeuf, who wanted to overthrow the Directory and replace it with an egalitarian and proto-socialist republic, inspired by Jacobin ideals.Hugues Portelli
Hugues Portelli (born 22 December 1947 in Constantine, Algeria) is a member of the Senate of France, representing the Val-d'Oise department. He is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement.
Portelli is also the mayor of Ermont, a city located in the North of Paris (Val-d'Oise department) as well as a Professor of Political science and Constitutional Law at the prestigious Panthéon-Assas University.Jacques-Germain Soufflot
Jacques-Germain Soufflot (22 July 1713 – 29 August 1780) was a French architect in the international circle that introduced neoclassicism. His most famous work is the Panthéon in Paris, built from 1755 onwards, originally as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve.Jean Baptiste Treilhard
Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (3 January 1742 – 1 December 1810) was an important French statesman of the revolutionary period. He passed through the troubled times of the Republic and Empire with great political savvy, playing a decisive role at important times.
Without achieving the notoriety of some of his more famous revolutionary colleagues, he held a number of key positions - President of the National Constituent Assembly (20 July - 1 August 1790), President of the National Convention (27 December 1792 - 10 January 1793, coinciding with the trial of Louis XVI, three-time member of the Committee of Public Safety (7 April 1793 - 12 June 1793; 31 July 1794 - 5 November 1794; 4 May 1795 - 2 August 1795), chairman of the Council of Five Hundred, member of the French Directory.
Eugene Marbeau describes Jean-Baptiste Treilhard as "a man honest and right, who is content to do his duty in the situation... but who does not seek... to dominate events". He is buried at the Panthéon.Jean Lannes
Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, Prince de Siewierz (10 April 1769 – 31 May 1809), was a Marshal of the Empire. He was one of Napoleon's most daring and talented generals. Napoleon once commented on Lannes: "I found him a pygmy and left him a giant". A personal friend of the emperor, he was allowed to address him with the familiar "tu", as opposed to the formal "vous".Khalid Naciri
Khalid Naciri (Arabic: خالد الناصري – born 5 March 1946, Casablanca) is a Moroccan politician of the Party of Progress and Socialism. Between 2007 and 2012, he held the position of Minister of Communications and Spokesperson of the Government in the cabinet of Abbas El Fassi.Khalid Naciri was born in Casablanca and studied in the Mission laïque française (Lycée Lyautey); in 1970 he graduated with a bachelor in law from the "Casablanca faculty of law" and the University of Mohammad V of Rabat. He then worked as a lawyer and was an active member of Morocco's communist party.Lycée Henri-IV
The Lycée Henri-IV is a public secondary school located in Paris. Along with Louis-le-Grand and Lycée Condorcet it is widely regarded as one of the most prestigious and demanding sixth-form colleges (lycées) in France.
The school has more than 2,500 students from collège (the first four years of secondary education in France) to classes préparatoires (classes to prepare students for entrance to the elite grandes écoles such as École normale supérieure, École polytechnique, Centrale Paris, Mines ParisTech, ESSEC Business School or HEC Paris, among others).Its motto is "Domus Omnibus Una" ("A Home For All").Marie François Sadi Carnot
Marie François Sadi Carnot (French: [maʁi fʁɑ̃swa sadi kaʁno]; 11 August 1837 – 25 June 1894) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1887 until his assassination in 1894.Panagiotis Pikrammenos
Panagiotis Pikrammenos (Greek: Παναγιώτης Πικραμμένος, pronounced [panaˈʝotis pikraˈmenos]; born 1945) is a Greek judge who served as caretaker Prime Minister of Greece in May–June 2012 after the legislative election in May 2012 resulted in an absence of majority.Panthéon-Assas University
Panthéon-Assas University (French: Université Panthéon-Assas; [ynivɛʁsite pɑ̃teɔ̃ asas]), also referred to as Assas [asas], Paris II [paʁi dø], or Sorbonne-Assas, is a public university in Paris, France.
Panthéon-Assas is renowned for excellence in law and often described as the top law school in France.It is considered as the direct inheritor of the Paris Law School (1257-1970) since most of the latter’s law professors (88 out of 108) went to Panthéon-Assas and its main campuses are the same ones of those of the Paris Law Faculty (i.e., Place du Panthéon and rue d’Assas), from which its name comes. It currently provides law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law.Since its founding in 1971, it has produced two presidents, four prime ministers, and the holders of thirty-seven other ministerships in France and around the world. Forty alumni of the university have been members of various parliaments as well.
The majority of the nineteen campuses of Panthéon-Assas are located in the Latin Quarter, with the main campuses on place du Panthéon and rue d'Assas. The university is composed of five departments specializing in law, journalism and media, economics, public and private management, and political science and hosts twenty-four research centres and five specialized doctoral schools. Every year, the university enrolls approximately 18,000 students, including 3,000 international students.Paul Langevin
Paul Langevin (; French: [pɔl lɑ̃ʒvɛ̃]; 23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation. He was one of the founders of the Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes, an antifascist organization created in the wake of the 6 February 1934 far right riots. Langevin was also president of the Human Rights League (LDH) from 1944 to 1946 – he had just recently joined the French Communist Party. Being a public opponent against fascism in the 1930s resulted in his arrest and consequently he was held under house arrest by the Vichy government for most of the war.
Previously a doctoral student of Pierre Curie and later a lover of Marie Curie, he is also famous for his two US patents with Constantin Chilowsky in 1916 and 1917 involving ultrasonic submarine detection. He is entombed at the Panthéon.Pierre Curie
Pierre Curie (; French: [kyʁi]; 15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Prokopios Pavlopoulos, GColIH (Greek: Προκόπιος Παυλόπουλος, pronounced [proˈkopios pavˈlopulos]; born 10 July 1950), commonly shortened to Prokopis (Προκόπης), is the current President of Greece, in office since 2015. A lawyer, university professor and politician, he was Minister for the Interior from 2004 to 2009.
On 18 February 2015, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Hellenic Parliament as President of Greece, with 233 votes in favour.René Cassin
René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist, law professor and judge.
Cassin was born in Bayonne, Basque Country, France. The son of a French-Jewish merchant, he served as a soldier in World War I, and went on to form the Union Fédérale, a leftist, pacifist Veterans organisation. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 for his work in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. That same year, he was also awarded one of the UN's own Human Rights Prizes.
René Cassin founded the French Institute of Administrative Sciences (IFSA) which was recognized as a public utility association.Sorbonne University
Sorbonne University (French: Sorbonne Université) is a public research university in Paris, France, established by the merger in 2018 of Paris-Sorbonne University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, and other smaller institutions. The date 1257 on its emblem refers to the historical University of Paris, whose Collège de Sorbonne was founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, and had 13 inheritors, and these universities such as the Panthéon-Sorbonne University share many facilities.University of Paris
The University of Paris (French: Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (French: [sɔʁbɔn]), was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.
Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was later often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257.Internationally highly reputed for its academic performance in the humanities ever since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured ever since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty, scientists, and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins (18, rue de Poissy 75005), Hotel de Cluny (6, Place Paul Painleve 75005), College Sainte Barbe (4, rue Valette 75005), College d'Harcourt (44 Boulevard Saint-Michel 75006), and Cordeliers (21, Rue Ecole de Medecine 75006).In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities (French: Faculté des Lettres), the Faculty of Law (later including Economics), the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology (closed in 1885).
In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University (Paris I); University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle; and Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris IV).From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions (COMUE) that later were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur". As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, and so on.In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are also expected to merge.University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (French: Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), also known as Paris 1 or Pantheon-Sorbonne University, is a multidisciplinary public research university in Paris, France. It focuses on the areas of humanities, law, political science, social sciences, economics and finance. It is one of the thirteen inheritors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris — colloquially referred to as the Sorbonne —, shortly before the latter officially ceased to exist on December 31, 1970, as a consequence of the French cultural revolution of 1968, often referred to as "the French May". The double origin of the founders is now found in the name of the university: Panthéon for law and Economics, Sorbonne for humanities.Pantheon-Sorbonne is multidisciplinary, and has three main domains: Economic and Management Sciences, Human Sciences, and Legal and Political Sciences; comprising several subjects such as: Economics, Law, Philosophy, Geography, Humanities, Cinema, Plastic arts, Art history, Political science, Mathematics, Management, and Social sciences.Pantheon-Sorbonne's headquarters is located on the Place du Panthéon in the Latin Quarter, an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris. The university also occupies part of the historical Sorbonne campus. Overall, its campus includes over 25 buildings in Paris, such as the Centre Pierre Mendès France ("Tolbiac"), the Maison des Sciences Économiques, among others.In 2018, Pantheon-Sorbonne was globally ranked 299th by QS World University Rankings, and 501-600th by The Times Higher Education By world reputation, it was ranked 71-80th (2nd of France) in 2017 by The Times Higher Education. It was also ranked by the 2019 QS World University Ranking by Subject as being 1st in France in Archaeology (18th in the world), History, Law, Philosophy, Geography, Anthropology, and Economics. In the French Eduniversal rankings, it is ranked 1st of France in Economics, 4th in Law and 14th in Business.Édouard de Rothschild
Édouard Étienne Alphonse de Rothschild (French pronunciation: [edwaʁ etjɛn alfɔ̃s də ʁɔtʃild]; born 27 December 1957) is a businessman and part of the French branch of the Rothschild family.
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