Panopticon

The panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The scheme of the design is to allow all (pan-) inmates of an institution to be observed (-opticon) by a single watchman without the inmates being able to tell whether or not they are being watched. Although it is physically impossible for the single watchman to observe all the inmates' cells at once, the fact that the inmates cannot know when they are being watched means that they are motivated to act as though they are being watched at all times. Thus, they are effectively compelled to regulate their own behaviour.

The design consists of a circular structure with an "inspection house" at its centre, from which the manager or staff of the institution is able to watch the inmates. The inmates, who are stationed around the perimeter of the structure, are unable to see into the inspection house. Bentham conceived the basic plan as being equally applicable to hospitals, schools, sanatoriums, and asylums, but he devoted most of his efforts to developing a design for a panopticon prison. It is his prison that is now most widely meant by the term "panopticon".

Panopticon
Elevation, section and plan of Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon penitentiary, drawn by Willey Reveley, 1791

Conceptual history

In 1785 Jeremy Bentham, an English social reformer and founder of utilitarianism, travelled to Krichev in White Russia (modern Belarus) to visit his brother, Samuel who accompanied Prince Potemkin. Bentham stayed in Krichev for almost two years and scetched out the concept of the panopticon in letters. Bentham applied his brother's ideas on the constant observation of workers to prisons. Back in England Bentham with the assistance of his brother continued to develop his theory on the panopticon.[1] Prior to fleshing out his ideas of a panopticon prison, Bentham had drafted a complete penal code and explored fundamental legal theory. While in his lifetime Bentham was a prolific letter writer, he published little and remained obscure to the public until his death.[2]

Bentham thought that the chief mechanism that would bring the manager of the panopticon prison in line with the duty to be humane would be publicity. Bentham tried to put his duty and interest junction principle into practice by encouraging a public debate on prisons. Bentham's inspection principle applied not only to the inmates of the panopticon prison, but also the manager. The unaccountable goaler, was to be observed by the general public and public officials. The apparently constant surveilance of the prison inmates by the panopticon manager and the occasional observation of the manager by the general public was to solve the age old philosophic question: "who guards the guards?".[3]

Bentham commissioned drawings from an architect, Willey Reveley. The 1843 plans for the panopticon prison were described by Bentham as a "new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind, in quantity hitherto without example". Bentham reasoned that if the prisoners of the panopticon prison could be seen but never knew when they were watched, the prisoners would need to stick to the rules. Bentham also thought, that Reveley's prison design could be used for factories, asylums, hospitals and schools.[4] Bentham attempted to convince the British prime minister William Pitt to revive an earlier abandoned scheme for a National Penitentiary in England, this time to be built as a panopticon. He was eventually successful in winning over Pitt and his advisors, and in 1794 was paid £2,000 for preliminary work on the project. But in 1801 Pitt resigned from office, and in 1803 the new Addington administration decided not to proceed with the project. Bentham was devastated: "They have murdered my best days."

Bentham remained bitter throughout his later life about the rejection of the panopticon scheme, convinced that it had been thwarted by the King and an aristocratic elite. It was largely because of his sense of injustice and frustration that he developed his ideas of sinister interest — that is, of the vested interests of the powerful conspiring against a wider public interest—which underpinned many of his broader arguments for reform.[5]

Prison design

The building circular—A cage, glazed—a glass lantern about the Size of Ranelagh—The prisoners in their cells, occupying the circumference—The officers in the centre. By blinds and other contrivances, the inspectors concealed […] from the observation of the prisoners: hence the sentiment of a sort of omnipresence—The whole circuit reviewable with little, or if necessary without any, change of place. One station in the inspection part affording the most perfect view of every cell.

— Jeremy Bentham, 1798[6]
Millbank Prison Plan
Plan of Millbank Prison, six pentagons with a tower at the centre are arranged around a chapel.
J F A McNair, architectural drawing of a proposed prison at Outram, Singapore (1880s)
An 1880s architectural drawing by John Frederick Adolphus McNair depicting a proposed prison at Outram that was never built.
Presidio Modelo
Presidio Modelo prison, Cuba, 2005
Presidio-modelo2
Presidio Modelo prison, inside one of the buildings, 2005

Bentham's proposal for a panopticon prison met with great interest among British government officials not only because it incorporated the pleasure-pain principle developed by the materialist philosopher Thomas Hobbes, but also because Bentham joined the emerging discussion on political economy. Bentham argued that the confinement of the prison, "which is his punishment, preventing [the prisoner from] carrying the work to another market." Key to Bentham's proposals and efforts to build a panopticon prison in Millbank at his own expense, was the "means of extracting labour" out of prisoners in the panopticon.[7]

In 1812 persistent problems with Newgate Prison and other London prisons prompted the British government to fund the construction of a prison in Millbank at the taxpayers' expense. Based on Betham's panopticon plans, the National Penitentiary opened in 1821. Millbank Prison, as it became known, was controversial and failed in extracting valuable labour out of prisoners. Millbank Prison was even blamed for causing mental illness among prisoners. Nevertheless, the British government placed an increasing emphasis on prisoners doing meaningful work, instead of engaging in humiliating and meaningless kill-times.[8] Bentham lived to see Millbank Prison built and did not support the approach taken by the British government. His writings had virtually no immediate effect on the architecture of tax-payer funded prisons that were to be built. Between 1818 and 1821 a small prison for women was built in Lancaster. It has been observed that the architect Joseph Gandy modelled it very closely on Bentham's panopticon prison plans. The K-wing near Lancaster Castle prison is a semi-rotunda with a central tower for the supervisor and five storeys with nine cells on each floor.[9]

It was the Pentonville prison, which was built in London after Bentham's death in 1832, that was to serve as a model for a further 54 prisons in Victorian Britain. Build between 1840 and 1842 according to the plans of Joshua Jebb, Pentoville prison had a central hall with radial prison wings.[10] It has been claimed that Bentham panopticon influenced the radial design of 19th-century prisons built on the principles of the "separate system", including Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, which opened in 1829.[11] But the Pennsylvania-Pentoville architectural model with its radial prison wings was not designed to facilitate constant surveillance of individual prisoners. Guards had to walk from the hall along the radial corridors and could only observe prisoners in their cells by looking through the cell door's peephole.[12]

In 1925 Cuba's president Gerardo Machado set out to build a modern prison, based on Bentham's concepts and employing the latest scientific theories on rehabilitation. A Cuban envoy tasked with studying US prisons in advance of the construction of Presidio Modelo had been greatly impressed with Stateville Correctional Center in Illinois and the cells in the new circular prison were to faced inwards towards a central guard tower. Because of the shuttered guard tower the guards could see the prisoners, but the prisoners could not see the guards. Cuban officials theorised that the prisoners would "behave" if there was a probable chance that they were under surveillance and once prisoners behaved they could be rehabilitated.

Between 1926 and 1931 the Cuban government built four such panopticons connected with tunnels to a massive central structure that served as a community centre. Each panopticon had five floors with 93 cells. In keeping with Bentham's ideas, none of the cells had doors. Prisoners were free to roam the prison and participate in workshops to learn a trade or become literate, the hope being that they would become productive citizens. However, by the time Fidel Castro was imprisoned in Gerardo Machado, the four circulars were packed with 6,000 men, every floor was filled with trash, there was no running water, food rations were meagre and government supplied only the bare necessities of life.[13]

In the Netherlands Breda, Arnhem and Haarlem penitentiary are cited as historic panopticon prisons. But these circular prisons with their 400 or so cells fail as panopticon because the inwards facing cell windows were so small that guards could not see the entire cell. The lack of surveillance that was actually possible in prisons with small cells and doors, discounts many circular prison designs from being a panopticon as it had been envisaged by Bentham.[14] In 2006 one of the first digital panopticon prisons opened near Amsterdam. Every prisoner in the Lelystad Prison wears an electronic tag and by design, only six guards are needed for 150 prisoners instead of the usual 15 or more.[15]

Architecture of other institutions

Contrasted Residences for the Poor
"Contrasted Residences for the Poor": a plate from Augustus Pugin's Contrasts (1841)
Sampson Kempthorne workhouse design for 300 paupers, plan view
Sampson Kempthorne's cruciform design for a workhouse accommodating 300 paupers.

A wooden panopticon factory, capable of holding 5000 workers, was constructed by Samuel Bentham in Saint Petersburg, on the banks of the Neva River, between 1805 and 1808: its purpose was to educate and employ young men in trades connected with the navy. It burned down in 1818.[16] The Round Mill in Belper, Derbyshire, England, is supposed to have been built on the panopticon principle with a central overseer. Designed by William Strutt, and constructed in 1811, it had fallen into disuse by the beginning of the 20th century and was demolished in 1959.[17]

Despite the fact that no panopticon was built during Bentham's lifetime (and virtually none since), his concept has prompted considerable discussion and debate. Shortly after Jeremy Bentham's death in 1832 his ideas were criticised by Augustus Pugin, who in 1841 published the second edition of his work Contrasts in which one plate showed a "Modern Poor House". He contrasted an English medieval gothic town in 1400 with the same town in 1840 where broken spires and factory chimneys dominate the skyline, with a panopticon in the foreground replacing the Christian hospice. Pugin, who went on to become one of the most influential 19th century writers on architecture, was influenced by Hegel and German idealism.[18]

Bentham always conceived the panopticon principle as being beneficial to the design of a variety of institutions in which surveillance was important, including hospitals, schools, workhouses, and lunatic asylums, as well as prisons. In particular, he developed it in his ideas for a "chrestomathic" school (one devoted to useful learning), in which teaching was to be undertaken by senior pupils on the monitorial principle, under the overall supervision of the Master;[19] and for a pauper "industry-house" (workhouse).[20][21] In 1835 the first annual report of the Poor Law Commission included two designs by the commission's architect Sampson Kempthorne. His Y-shape and cross-shape designs for workhouse expressed the panopticon principle by positioning the master's room as central point. The designs provided for the segregation of inmates and maximum visibility from the centre.[22]

The Worcester State Hospital, Massachusetts, USA, constructed in the late 19th century, extensively employed panoptic structures to allow more efficient observation of the wards. It was considered a model facility at the time. The panopticon has been suggested as an "open" hospital architecture:

Hospitals required knowledge of contacts, contagions, proximity and crowding ... at the same time to divide space and keep it open, assuring a surveillance which is both global and individualising.

— 1977 interview (preface to French edition of Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon)[23]

Criticism and use as metaphor

In 1965 the conservative historian Shirley Robin Letwin traced the Fabian zest for social planning to early utilitarian thinkers. She argued that Bentham's pet gadget, the panopticon prison, was a device of such monstrous efficiency that it left no room for humanity. She accused Bentham of forgetting the dangers of unrestrained power and argued that "in his ardour for reform, Bentham prepared the way for what he feared." Libertarian thinkers began to regard Bentham's entire philosophy as having paved the way for totalitarian states.[24] In the late 1960s the American historian Gertrude Himmelfarb, who had published The Haunted House of Jeremy Bentham in 1965, was at the forefront of depicting Bentham's mechanism of surveillance as a tool of oppression and social control.[25][26] David John Manning published The Mind of Jeremy Bentham in 1986, in which he reasoned that Bentham's fear of instability caused him to advocate ruthless social engineering and a society in which there could be no privacy or tolerance for the deviant.[27]

In the mid-1970s the panopticon was brought to the wider attention by the French psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller and the French philosopher Michel Foucault.[28] In 1975 Foucault used the panopticon as metaphor for the modern disciplinary society in Discipline and Punish. He argued that the disciplinary society had emerged in the 18th century and that discipline are techniques for assuring the ordering of human complexities, with the ultimate aim of docility and utility in the system.[29] Foucault first came across the panopticon architecture when he studied the origins of clinical medicine and hospital architecture in the second half of the 18th century. He argued that discipline had replaced the pre-modern society of kings and that the panopticon should not be understood as a building, but as a mechanism of power and a diagram of political technology.[30] Foucault argued that discipline had crossed the technological threshold already in the late 18th century, when the right to observe and accumulate knowledge had been extended from the prison to hospitals, schools and later factories.[31] In his historic analysis Foucault reasoned that with the disappearance of public executions pain had been gradually eliminated as punishment in a society ruled by reason.[32] The modern prison in the 1970s, with its corrective technology, was rooted in the changing legal powers of the state. While acceptance for corporal punishment diminished the state gained the right to administer more subtle methods of punishment, such as to observe.[33]

In 1984 Michael Radford gained international attention for the cinematographic panopticon he had staged in the film Nineteen Eighty-Four. Of the telescreens in the landmark surveillance narrative Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), George Orwell said: "there was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment... you had to live... in the assumption that every sound you made was overheard, and, except in darkness, every movement scrutinised".[34] In Radford's film the telescreens were bidirectional and in a world with an ever increasing number of telescreen devices the citizens of Oceania were spied on more than they thought possible.[35] In The Electronic Eye: The Rise of Surveillance Society (1994) the sociologist David Lyon concluded that "no single metaphor or model is adequate to the task of summing up what is central to contemporary surveillance, but important clues are available in Nineteen Eighty-Four and in Bentham's panopticon.[36]

The French philosopher Gilles Deleuze shaped the emerging field of surveillance studies with the 1990 essay Postscript on the Societies of Control.[37] Deleuze argued that the society of control is replacing the discipline society. With regards to the panopticon, Deleuze argued that "enclosures are moulds ... but controls are a modulation". Deleuze observed that technology had allowed physical enclosures, such as schools, factories, prisons and office buildings, to be replaced by a self-governing machine, which extends surveillance in a quest to manage production and consumption. Information circulates in the control society, just like products in the modern economy, and meaningful objects of surveillance are sought out as forward-looking profiles and simulated pictures of future demands, needs and risks are drawn up.[38]

In 1997 Thomas Mathiesen in turn expanded on Foucault's use of the panopticon metaphor when analysing the effects of mass media on society. He argued that mass media such as broadcast television gave many people the ability to view the few from their own homes and gaze upon the lives of reporters and celebrities. Mass media has thus turned the discipline society into a viewer society.[39] In the 1998 satirical science fiction film The Truman Show protagonists eventually escaped the OmniCam Ecosphere, the reality television show that broadcasts the lives of the unknowing inhabitants around the clock and across the globe. But in 2002 Peter Weibel noted that the entertainment industry does not consider the panopticon as a threat or punishment, but as "amusement, liberation and pleasure". With reference to the Big Brother television shows of Endemol Entertainment, in which a group of people live in a container studio apartment and allow themselves to be recorded 24/7, Weibel argued that the panopticon provides the masses with "the pleasure of power, the pleasure of sadism, voyeurism, exhibitionism, scopophilia, and narcissism." In 2006 Shoreditch TV became available to residents of the Shoreditch in London, so that they could tune in to watch CCTV footage live. The service allowed residents "to see what's happening, check out the traffic and keep an eye out for crime".[40]

In their 2004 book Welcome to the Machine: Science, Surveillance, and the Culture of Control Derrick Jensen and Gerge Draffan called Bentham "one of the pioneers of modern surveillance" and argued that his panopticon prison design serves as the model for modern supermaximum security prisons, such as Pelican Bay State Prison in California.[41] In the 2015 book Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness Simone Browne noted that Bentham travelled on a ship carrying slaves as cargo while drafting his panopticon proposal. She argues that the structure of chattel slavery haunts the theory of the panopticon. She proposes that the 1789 plan of the slave ship Brookes should be regarded as the paradigmatic blueprint.[42] Drawing on Didier Bigo's Banopticon, Brown argues that society is ruled by exceptionalism of power, were the state of emergency becomes permanent and certain groups are excluded on the basis of their future potential behaviour as determined through profiling.[43]

Surveillance technology

THE CENTRAL POLICE CONTROL STATION, MANNED 24 HOURS A DAY CONTROLS ALL TRAFFIC LIGHTS, RECEIVES REMOTE TV INPUTS FROM... - NARA - 551905
Closed circuit TV monitoring at the Central Police Control Station, Munich Germany in 1973.

The metaphor of the panopticon prison has been employed to analyse the social significance of surveillance by closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras in public spaces. In 1990 Mike Davis reviewed the design and operation of a shopping mall, with its centralised control room, CCTV cameras and security guards, and came to the conclusion that it "plagiarizes brazenly from Jeremy Bentham's renowned nineteenth-century design". In their 1996 study of CCTV camera installations in British cities, Nicholas Fyfe and Jon Bannister called central and local government policies that facilitated the rapid spread of CCTV surveillance a dispersal of an "electronic panopticon". Particular attention has been drawn to the similarities of CCTV with Bentham's prison design because CCTV technology enabled a quasi central observation tower, staffed by an unseen observer.[44]

Employment and management

Shoshana Zuboff used the metaphor of the panopticon in her 1988 book In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power to describe how computer technology makes work more visible. Zuboff examined how computer systems were used for employee monitoring to track the behavior and output of workers. She used the term panopticon because the workers could not tell that they were being spied on, while the manager was able to check their work continuously. Zuboff argued that there is a collective responsibility formed by the hierarchy in the information panopticon that eliminates subjective opinions and judgements of managers on their employees. Because each employee's contribution to the production process is translated into objective data, it becomes more important for managers to be able to analyze the work rather than analyze the people.[45]

Hemlock Overlook - Peanut Butter Pit - 04
Problem-solving: Team coordination

Foucault's use of the panopticon metaphor shaped the debate on workplace surveillance in the 1970s. In 1981 the sociologist Anthony Giddens expressed scepticism about the ongoing surveillance debate, criticising that "Foucault's "archaeology", in which human beings do not make their own history but are swept along by it, does not adequately acknowledge that those subject to the power... are knowledgeable agents, who resist, blunt or actively alter the conditions of life."[46] The social alienation of workers and management in the industrialised production process had long been studied and theorised. In the 1950s and 1960s the emerging behavioural science approach led to skills testing and recruitment processes that sought out employees that would be organisationally committed. Fordism, Taylorism and bureaucratic management of factories was still assumed to reflect a mature industrial society. The Hawthorne Plant experiments (1924-1933) and a significant number of subsequent empirical studies led to the reinterpretation of alienation, instead of being a given power relationship between the worker and management it came to be seen as hindering progress and modernity.[47]

Callcentreterminal
A call centre worker confined to a small workstation/booth.

However, in 1993 David Steingard and Dale Fitzgibbons argued that modern management, far from empowering workers, had features of neo-Taylorism, where teamwork perpetuated surveillance and control. They argued that employees had become their own "thought police" and the team gaze was the equivalent of Bentham's panopticon guard tower.[48] A critical re-evaluation of the Hawthorne Plant experiments has in turn given rise to the notion of a Hawthorne effect, where workers increase their productivity in response to their awareness of being observed or because they are gratified for being chosen to participate in a project.[49] The increasing employment in the service industries has also been re-evaluated. In Entrapped by the electronic panopticon? Worker resistance in the call centre (2000) Phil Taylor and Peter Bain argue that the large number of people employed in call centres undertake predictable and monotonous work that is badly paid and offers few prospects. As such, they argue, it is comparable to factory work.[50]

The panopticon has become a symbol of the extreme measures that some companies take in the name of efficiency as well as to guard against employee theft. Time-theft by workers has become accepted as an output restriction and theft has been associated by management with all behaviour that include avoidance of work. In the past decades unproductive behaviour has been cited as rational for introducing a range of surveillance techniques and the vilification of employees who resist them.[51] In a 2009 paper by Max Haiven and Scott Stoneman entitled Wal-Mart: The Panopticon of Time[52] and the 2014 book by Simon Head Mindless: Why Smarter Machines Are Making Dumber Humans, which describes conditions at an Amazon.com depot in Augsburg, it is argued that catering at all times to the desires of the customer can lead to increasingly oppressive corporate environments and quotas in which many warehouse workers can no longer keep up with demands of management.[53]

Social media

Social media team.jpeg
Modern day teenagers interacting.

The concept of panopticon has been referenced in early discussions about the impact of social media. The notion of dataveillance was coined by Roger Clarke in 1987, since then academic researchers have used expressions such as superpanopticon (Mark Poster, 1990), panoptic sort (Oscar H. Gandy Jr., 1993) and electronic panopticon (David Lyon 1994) to describe social media. Because the controlled is at the center and surrounded by those who watch early surveillance studies treats social media as a reverse panopticon.[54]

In modern academic literature on social media terms like lateral surveillance, social searching and social surveillance are employed to critically evaluate the effects of social media. However, the sociologist Christian Fuchs treats social media like a classical panopticon. He argues that the focus should not be on the relationship between the users of a medium, but the relationship between the users and the medium. Therefore, he argues that the relationship between the large number of users and the sociotechnical Web 2.0 platform, like Facebook, amounts to a panopticon.

Fuchs draws attention to the fact that use of such platforms requires identification, classification and assessment of users by the platforms and therefore, he argues, the definition of privacy must be reassessed to incorporate stronger consumer protection and protection of citizens from corporate surveillance.[55]

Literature and the arts

  • In Gabriel García Márquez's novella Chronicle of a Death Foretold (1981), the Vicario brothers spend three years in the "panopticon of Riohacha" awaiting trial for the murder of Santiago Nasar.
  • Angela Carter includes a critique of the panopticon prison system during the Siberian segment of her novel Nights at the Circus (1984).
  • Charles Stross's novel Glasshouse (2006) features a technology-enabled panopticon as the novel's primary location.
  • In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Justice", law on the planet Rubicun III closely follows the idea of the panopticon, with lawmen known as overseers are randomly assigned to a given area at a given time. If a citizen commits any crime and falls within the randomly changing areas of the overseers, the citizen will be given the death penalty.
  • In the TV series Doctor Who, the centre of the Time Lord's capitol on Gallifrey is known as "The Panopticon". It featured heavily in the stories The Deadly Assassin and The Invasion of Time.
  • In the film adaptation of Guardians of the Galaxy, the Kyln, a Nova Corps prison, is based on a Panopticon.
  • In The Disreputable History of Frankie Landau-Banks, the panopticon is repeatedly mentioned.
  • The third studio album of the American post-metal band ISIS is entitled Panopticon.
  • The book The Traveler by John Twelve Hawks is about surveillance society as virtual panopticon, and how pervasive surveillance by a "benevolent" government can be used as a panopticon after a change of personnel in the government.
  • The TV series Person of Interest has an episode named "Panopticon". The main theme of the show is a all-seeing, super intelligent computer.
  • The band Silent Planet’s full length album “Everything Was Sound” takes place in a panopticon.
  • The book series Magisterium, by Holly Black and Cassandra Clare, has a prison for mages called the panopticon.
  • In Black Mirror series episode "Nosedive", the plot revolves around a society ruled by a system that follows the patterns of a reverse panopticon, where individuals are controlled by the rest of the society through a mobile application.[56]

See also

References

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Alhambra Theatre

The Alhambra was a popular theatre and music hall located on the east side of Leicester Square, in the West End of London. It was built originally as the Royal Panopticon of Science and Arts opening on 18 March 1854. It was closed after two years and reopened as the Alhambra. The building was demolished in 1936. The name was also adopted by many other British music hall theatres located elsewhere; in Bradford, in Hull and in Glasgow etc. The name comes from association with the Moorish splendour of the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain.

Britannia Music Hall

The Britannia Music Hall (also known as The Panopticon or The Britannia Panopticon) in Trongate, Glasgow, Scotland is one of the oldest remaining music halls in Britain. It is now located above an amusement arcade, at 113-117 Trongate.

Built in 1857 by Thomas Gildard and Robert H. M. MacFarlane, the Panopticon was one of the first buildings in Glasgow to become powered by electricity and one of the first cinemas in Scotland. It opened in 1859 (the music hall was in operation by early January 1860) and was closed in 1938 when it was sold to a tailors and converted to a workshop. However, following the removal of the false ceiling in 2003, the Britannia opened again. It is currently being conserved by a trust who regularly perform traditional shows in the auditorium. The building is now protected as a category A listed building.

Brutal Juice

Brutal Juice is a self-proclaimed "acid punk" (LSD-influenced hardcore punk and progressive rock) band from Denton, Texas. The band formed in 1990 and officially disbanded in February 1997, although they held several reunion concerts between 1999 and 2012, which usually took place at Fry Street Fair in Denton. They officially reformed in 2012 and released their latest album, titled "Welcome to the Panopticon," on October 28, 2016. Brutal Juice still performs a few times a year, typically playing shows in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, or in Austin.

Carron Crag

Carron Crag is a small fell in Grizedale Forest in the English Lake District with a height of 314 metres (1,030 ft). Adjacent to the trig point is a large panopticon sculpture, one of over 70 in the forest. It is the second highest point in Grizedale Forest after Top o'Selside.

It is the subject of a chapter of Wainwright's book The Outlying Fells of Lakeland. Wainwright describes a circular walk from Grizedale.

Colin Marston

Colin Marston (born September 13, 1982) is an American multi-instrumentalist musician and record producer residing in New York City. He graduated from New York University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in music technology in 2004, and runs Menegroth The Thousand Caves Recording Studios in Woodhaven, Queens while not on tour with one of a number of bands. He also known for his performances in acts such as Behold... The Arctopus, Dysrhythmia, Krallice, and the reunion lineup of Gorguts. Marston has produced, mastered, and mixed music for artists such as Genghis Tron, Kayo Dot, Jarboe, Capillary Action, Origin, Panopticon, Altar of Plagues, Liturgy, Pyrrhon, and Orthrelm, as well as for his own bands.

Freedom Wars

Freedom Wars (フリーダムウォーズ, Furīdamuwōzu) is a Japanese action role-playing video game developed by SCE Japan Studio for the PlayStation Vita. Set in the distant future at a time where the majority of humankind is imprisoned in penal city-states known as Panopticons which wage war against one another, the game involves players cooperating together to fight against enemies and contribute towards their Panopticon. The game received positive reviews and was one of most successful first-party PlayStation Vita titles within Japan, having attained the second highest all-time opening sales for Vita software sold there. It was released on June 26, 2014 in Japan, August 7, 2014 in Asia, and October 2014 in North America and Europe.

Isis (band)

Isis (sometimes stylized ISIS) was an American heavy metal band founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1997 and later based in Los Angeles. The band borrowed from and helped to evolve the post-metal sound pioneered by bands such as Neurosis and Godflesh, characterized by lengthy songs focusing on repetition and evolution of structure. Isis's last studio album, Wavering Radiant, was released on May 5, 2009. Isis disbanded in June 2010, just before the release of a split EP with the Melvins. In 2018, the group reformed as 'Celestial' for a one-off show to pay tribute to Caleb Scofield.

Monuments to an Elegy

Monuments to an Elegy is the ninth studio album by American alternative rock band The Smashing Pumpkins, released on December 5, 2014. Band leader Billy Corgan has noted that—similar to the band's previous release, Oceania—the album was the final part of the project, Teargarden by Kaleidyscope, due to cancellation of the project in 2018 by Corgan. The album received generally positive reviews from music critics, but sold poorly compared to the band's previous albums, peaking at number 33 in the U.S. and number 59 in the U.K., thus making it (at the time) their lowest charting album in both regions since their debut, Gish (1991).

Panopticism

Panopticism is a social theory named after the Panopticon, originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his 1975 book Discipline and Punish. The "panopticon" refers to an experimental laboratory of power in which behaviour could be modified, and Foucault viewed the panopticon as a symbol of the disciplinary society of surveillance.

Panopticon (album)

Panopticon is the third full-length album by Los Angeles, California based post-metal band ISIS, released by Ipecac Recordings in 2004. The album's title is derived from philosopher Jeremy Bentham's panopticon prison ideal and philosopher/historian Michel Foucault's later allegorical appropriation of the concept. The liner notes also include quotes from technology writer Howard Rheingold and futurist Alex Steffen; as a concept album, Panopticon's focus is on the proliferation of surveillance technologies throughout modern society and the government's role in that spread.

Critical response to Panopticon was generally very warm; as it followed 2002's critically acclaimed Oceanic, many reviewers were quick to hold the two in comparison. The consensus was that Panopticon represented a progression, of sorts. The album's sound continued Isis' departure from the strictures of sludge and metal – which had been the hallmarks of their earlier material – and continued along the trajectory of post-metal, achieved by heightened use of melody and clean vocals.

On April 29, 2014 a deluxe version of Panopticon, remastered by Mika Jussila, was released by Ipecac Recordings. It contains extra music in the transitions to and from "Wills Dissolve," adding 10 seconds to the overall running time of the album.

Panopticon (band)

Panopticon is a black metal band created by Austin Lunn. The project began as a studio-only effort with Lunn writing and performing all parts. While he remains the driving creative force, Panopticon has since expanded to include a lineup of musicians for live performances. The music features many familiar elements of black metal, but additionally incorporates bluegrass and Appalachian folk. In addition to sounds typical to heavy metal music, such as distorted guitars and rapid drumming, Panopticon also incorporates a diverse range of additional instrumentation, such as banjos, fiddles, bells, synthesizers and acoustic guitars.Lunn is an avid outdoorsman, and some listeners have noted the influence of the natural world on Panopticon's music; for example, in a review of the album Autumn Eternal on Pitchfork.com, one music critic noted, "one can easily imagine a Henry David Thoreau-like figure retreating to the woods to contemplate personal, spiritual, and environmental concerns." Lunn's music has also been described as "natural, organic, and methodical, masterful in its writing, fiery and alive in its execution."

Panopticon (song)

"Panopticon" is the second single from The Smashing Pumpkins's eighth album Oceania. It was originally released as a promotional single to radio airplay on September 15, 2012.

Panopticon Software

Panopticon Software (now known as Datawatch Panopticon Streaming Analytics) was a multi-national data visualization software company specializing in monitoring and analysis of real-time data. The firm was headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden, with additional offices in New York City, London, Boston, San Francisco, and Chicago. It partnered with several large systems integrators and infrastructure software companies, including SAP, Thomson Reuters, Kx Systems, and One Market Data (OneTick). The company's name is derived from the Greek: 'pan' for all, 'optic' for sight. The company name is derived from the word panopticon which is an architectural concept originally intended to facilitate surveillance of prisons.

In August 2013, Panopticon was acquired by Datawatch Corporation.Panopticon Software was a key player in the data visualization sector along with for example Qliktech, Tableau Software and Tibco Software. Its Swedish origins are shared with GapMinder, Qliktech and Spotfire, making Sweden a centre for Information Visualization research and development.

It historically specialised in selling Treemapping and Heatmap visualisation software and development tools to clients within the financial services and telecommunications industries. It uses a variety of other visual analysis tools in its products, including Scatter Plots, Dot Plots, Pie Charts, Line Graphs, and Bullet Graph visualizations. The company's products are sometimes deployed as Executive Dashboards that allow managers to interact, explore, monitor and analyze rapidly changing and/or large data sets. Panopticon tools are also often embedded in other enterprise applications using the company's software development kit, which is available for Java, Microsoft .NET and the Windows Presentation Foundation. The Panopticon products are optimized for use with real-time data message buses, complex event processing engines, relational databases, and column-oriented databases and is a regular exhibitor at financial industry events such as Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, and SIA.

Presidio Modelo

The Presidio Modelo was a "model prison" of Panopticon design, built on Isla de Pinos (now the Isla de la Juventud) in Cuba. It is located in the suburban quarter of Chacón, Nueva Gerona.

Royal Panopticon

The Royal Panopticon of Science and Art was one of the grand social institutions and architectural splendours of Victorian London, that is now lost. It was given a Royal Charter in 1850 and in July 1851 a lease was taken out on a premium site for 60 years, and building could commence. The Panopticon was built on the eastern side of Leicester Square, opening on 18 March 1854. As a showcase venue for the very best achievements in Science and Arts of the time, it attracted 1,000 visitors per day. Two years later however it closed, obtained a licence for theatrical performances and was re-opened as the Alhambra Theatre. The site is now occupied by the Odeon Leicester Square.

Run2me

"Run2me" is a song by The Smashing Pumpkins, released as the fourth single from the band's ninth studio album Monuments to an Elegy. The accompanying music video was premiered on Vulture.com on October 22, 2015.

The Flenser

The Flenser (also known as Flenser Records) is a San Francisco-based record label specializing in experimental music. The Flenser's risk-taking ethos has been rewarded with notoriety in the international heavy metal music community. Notable bands that work with or have worked with The Flenser include: Have a Nice Life, Botanist, Deafheaven, Wreck and Reference, Bosse-de-Nage, and Planning for Burial.

The Panopticon (book)

The Panopticon is a novel published in 2012 by Jenni Fagan.

Group pressures
Conforming oneself
Experiments
Counterconformity
Principles
Privacy laws
Data protection authorities
Areas
Information privacy
Advocacy
organizations
See also
Websites
Tools
General
Applications
User interface
Implications
Related concepts
Protocols
Defunct
Books
Essays, lectures,
dialogues and anthologies
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