Pannonian Basin

The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin,[1][2][3][4] is a large basin in Central Europe. The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense, with only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Epoch Pannonian Sea dried out.

It is a geomorphological subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system, specifically a sediment-filled back-arc basin.[5] Most of the plain consists of the Great Hungarian Plain (in the south and east, including the Eastern Slovak Lowland) and the Little Hungarian Plain (in the northwest), divided by the Transdanubian Mountains.

The Pannonian Basin lies in the southeastern part of Central Europe. It forms a topographically discrete unit set in the European landscape, surrounded by imposing geographic boundaries - the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. The Rivers Danube and Tisza divide the basin roughly in half. It extends roughly between Vienna in the northwest, Bratislava in the northeast, Ostrava in the north, Zagreb in the southwest, Novi Sad in the south and Satu Mare in the east.

In terms of modern state boundaries, the basin centres on the territory of Hungary, but it also covers regions of western Slovakia (the Eastern Slovak Lowland), southeastern Poland, western Ukraine, western Romania, northern Serbia (Vojvodina), the tip of northeast Croatia (Slavonia), northeastern Slovenia, and eastern Austria. The name "Pannonian" comes from Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. Only the western part of the territory (the so-called Transdanubia) of modern Hungary formed part of the ancient Roman Province of Pannonia; this comprises less than 29% of modern Hungary, therefore Hungarian geographers avoid the terms "Pannonian Basin" and "Pannonian Plain".

Pannonian Basin
The Pannonian Basin (marked III.), enclosed by the Carpathians and the Transylvanian Plateau (IV.) to the east and north. Also shown: the Romanian Lowlands (II.) and the Outer Subcarpathian depressions (I.) beyond the Carpathians (also known as Transcarpathia)
Pannonia SPQR
The highlighted borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire
Carpathian Basin-Pannonian Basin
Topography of the basin and surrounding mountains
Hydrography of the Pannonian basin before the river and lake regulations in the 19th century
Hydrography of the Pannonian basin before the river and lake regulations in the 19th century.
Canal Danube-Tisa-Danube in Serbia
The Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal near the village of Rumenka, close to Novi Sad

Terminology

In English-language, the terms "Pannonian Basin" and "Carpathian Basin" are used synonymously. The name "Pannonian" is taken from that of Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. The historical province overlapped but was not coterminous with the geographical plain or basin. Pannonia Inferior covered much of the western half of the basin, as far as the Danube. Pannonia Superior included the western fringe of the basin as well as part of the Eastern Alps, as far as Virunum. The southern fringe of the basin was in Dalmatia and Moesia. The eastern half of the basin was not conquered by the Romans and was considered part of Sarmatia, inhabited by the Iazyges. Likewise, the parts north of the Danube (now in western Slovakia) were not in the empire; they were considered part of Germania, inhabited by the Quadi.

The term Pannonian Plain refers to the lowland parts of the Pannonian Basin as well as those of some adjoining regions like Lower Austria, Moravia, and Silesia (Czech Republic and Poland). The lands adjoining the plain proper are sometimes also called peri-Pannonian.

The term Carpathian Basin is used in Hungarian literature, while the West Slavic languages (Czech, Polish and Slovak), Serbo-Croatian languages, German language, and Romanian language use Pannonian: in Hungarian the basin is known as Kárpát-medence, in Czech; Panonská pánve, in Polish; Panoński Basen, in Slovak; Panónska panva, in Serbo-Croatian; Панонски басен/Panonski bazen/Panonski basen, in Slovenian; Panonski bazen, in German; Pannonisches Becken, and in Romanian; Câmpia Panonică or Bazinul Panonic. The East Slavic languages, namely Ukrainian, use terms Tisa-Danube Basin or Middanubian Basin (Ukrainian: Тисо-Дунайська низовина, Середньодунайська низовина)

In Hungarian geographical literature various subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains (Inner Western Carpathians, Inner Eastern Carpathians, Southern Carpathians, Western Carpathians and Transylvanian Plateau) are also considered parts of the Carpathian Basin on the basis of traditional geopolitical divisions.

Name

Julius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[6]

Geography

Europe biogeography countries
Biogeographic regions of Europe

Climate and natural resources

Although rain is not plentiful, it usually falls when necessary and the plain is a major agricultural area; it is sometimes said that these fields of rich loamy loess soil could feed the whole of Europe. For its early settlers, the plain offered few sources of metals or stone. Thus when archaeologists come upon objects of obsidian or chert, copper or gold, they have almost unparalleled opportunities to interpret ancient pathways of trade.

Geomorphology

LandscapeTemerin
Wheat field near Temerin

The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains (Hungarian: Dunántúli-középhegység). The northwestern part is called Western Pannonian plain (or province) and the southeastern part Eastern Pannonian plain (or province). They comprise the following sections:

Note: The Transylvanian Plateau and the Lučenec-Košice Depression (both parts of the Carpathians) and some other lowlands are sometimes also considered part of the Pannonian Plain in non-geomorphological or older divisions.

Regions

Relatively large or distinctive areas of the plain that do not necessarily correspond to national borders include:

History

Prehistory

Pannonian sea01
Approximate extent of Pannonian Sea during the Miocene Epoch

The Pannonian Basin has its geological origins in the Pannonian Sea, a shallow sea that reached its greatest extent during the Pliocene Epoch, when three to four kilometres of sediments were deposited.

Antiquity

The plain was named after the Pannon named Medes. Various different peoples inhabited the plain during its history. In the first century BC, the eastern parts of the plain belonged to the Dacian state, and in the first century AD its western parts were subsumed into the Roman Empire. The Roman province named Pannonia was established in the area, and the city of Sirmium, today Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, became one of the four capital cities of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century.

Middle Ages

In the Age of Migrations and the early Middle Ages, the region belonged to several realms such as the Hun Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, the Kingdom of the Lombards, the Avar Khaganate, the West Slavic state of Samo, the Bulgarian Empire, the Frankish Empire, Great Moravia, the Balaton Principality, the Pannonian Principality and the Kingdom of Syrmia.

The Principality of Hungary established in 895 by the Magyars and neighboring West Slavs was centred on the plain and included almost all of it (as did the former Avar Kingdom). It was established as the Catholic Kingdom of Hungary in AD 1000, with the coronation of Stephen I of Hungary.

Pusztai pásztorok
A csikós in the puszta of Hungary, c. 1852

The kingdom of Hungary by the 11th century comprised the entire Pannonian basin, but the changing fates of this part of Europe during the Ottoman wars of the 14th to 17th centuries left the Pannonian basin divided between numerous political entities. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the central and eastern regions of the kingdom and the plain on which they lay were incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, while the remainder to the north-west was subsumed into the holdings of the Habsburg Monarchy and retitled Royal Hungary. Under Ottoman administration, the plain was reorganised into the Eyalet of Budim, the Eyalet of Egri, the Eyalet of Sigetvar and the Eyalet of Temeşvar.

Modern history

The Pannonian Plain was frequently a scene of conflict between the two empires. At the end of the 17th century the Habsburgs won decisive battles against the Ottomans, and most of the plain gradually came under Habsburg rule. Under Habsburg rule the region was eventually reorganised into the Kingdom of Hungary, the Banat of Temeswar, the Military Frontier, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia and Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat.

The Habsburg Monarchy was subsequently transformed into the Austrian Empire (in 1804) and later became Austria-Hungary (in 1867). Most of the plain was located within the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, since all other Habsburg possessions in the plain were integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary until 1882. The autonomous Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, which was one of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, comprised the south-western portion of the plain.

With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the region was divided between Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929). The borders drawn in 1918 and 1919 are mostly preserved as those of the contemporary states of Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, and Romania.

Major cities

This is a list of cities in the Pannonian Basin with a population larger than 100,000 within the city proper:

See also

References

  1. ^ Eldridge M. Moores; Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (1997). Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology. Springer. ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4.
  2. ^ Adami Jordan; Peter Jordan; Milan Orožen Adamič (2007). Exonyms and the International Standardisation of Geographical Names: Approaches Towards the Resolution of an Apparent Contradiction. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 240. ISBN 978-3-8258-0035-2.
  3. ^ George Walter Hoffman; Christopher Shane Davies (1983). A Geography of Europe: Problems and Prospects. Wiley. p. 647. ISBN 978-0-471-89708-8.
  4. ^ George Walter Hoffman; Nels August Bengtson (1953). A Geography of Europe. Ronald Press Co. p. 757.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, No. 1481 Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Media related to Pannonian Basin at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 46°30′N 20°00′E / 46.5°N 20°E

ALCAPA

ALCAPA may refer to:

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, rare congenital anomaly

ALCAPA (tectonic plate), tectonic plate of Eastern Alps, Western Carpathians and partially pre-Miocene basement of Pannonian Basin

Adonis vernalis

Adonis vernalis, known variously as pheasant's eye, spring pheasant's eye, yellow pheasant's eye and false hellebore, is a perennial flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae It is found in dry meadows and steppes in Eurasia. Isolated populations are found from Spain in the west across Central Europe with fine examples in Valais, Switzerland, and southern Europe, reaching southern Sweden in the north and Abruzzo in the south, with its main area of distribution being the Pannonian Basin and the West Siberian Plain. In contrast to most other European Adonis species, the flowers appear in springtime, and are up to 80 mm in diameter, with up to 20 bright yellow petals.

The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used as an ornamental plant. Infusions of the plant are used in the medicine Bekhterev's mixture.(Green false hellebore, sometimes also called simply "false hellebore," is Veratrum viride, a member of the lily family.)

Alpine foothills

The Alpine foothills, or Prealps (German: Voralpen; French: Préalpes; Italian: Prealpi; Slovene: Predalpe) can refer generally to any foothills at the base of the European Alps. They are the transition zone between the High Alps to the Swiss Plateau and the Bavarian Alpine Foreland in the north, as well as to the Pannonian Basin (Alpokalja) in the east, the Padan Plain in the south and the Rhone Valley in the west.

Avaria

Avaria may refer to:

Avar Khanate of the Caucasian Avars in the Caucasus

Avar Khaganate of the medieval Pannonian Avars in the Pannonian Basin

Avar March

Avaria (genus), a genus of moths

Charaton

Charaton (Olympiodorus of Thebes: Χαράτων) was one of the first kings of the Huns.

In end of 412 or beginning of 413, Charaton received the Byzantine ambassador Olympiodorus sent by Honorius. Olympiodorus travelled to Charaton’s kingdom by sea, but does not record whether the sea in question was the Black Sea or the Adriatic Sea. As the History deals exclusively with the Western Roman Empire, it was probably the Adriatic, and visited them somewhere in Pannonian Basin. Olympiodorus recounts;

"Donatus and the Huns, and the skillfulness of their kings in shooting with the bow. The author relates that he himself was sent on a mission to them and Donatus, and gives a tragic account of his wanderings and perils by the sea. How Donatus, being deceived by an oath, was unlawfully put to death. How Charaton, the first of the kings, being incensed by the murder, was appeased by presents from the emperor."

Although some scholars such as E. A. Thompson and Hyun Jin Kim have read Donatus as being a previous ruler, others, such as Franz Altheim and Otto Maenchen-Helfen reject this assumption. Maenchen-Helfen argues that the name Donatus was common in the Roman Empire and that Donatus may have been a Roman who fled the empire to live with the Huns, as others are known to have done.

Croatia proper

Croatia proper (Croatian: Središnja Hrvatska), or only Croatia ( (listen); Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), is one of the four historical regions of the Republic of Croatia, together with Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria. It is located between Slavonia in the east, the Adriatic Sea in the west, and Dalmatia to the south. The region is not officially defined, and its borders and extent are described differently by various sources. Croatia proper is the most significant economic area of the country, contributing well over 50% of Croatia's gross domestic product. The capital of both Croatia proper, and the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, is the largest city and most important economic centre in the region.

It only became Croatia proper in 1522, when the capital of Croatia was moved from Dalmatia to Bihać.

Croatia proper comprises several smaller regions of its own: Lika, Gorski Kotar, Međimurje, the Croatian Littoral, Podravina, Posavina, Kordun, Banovina, Prigorje, Turopolje, Moslavina, and Žumberak. The region covers 28,337 square kilometres (10,941 square miles) of land and has a population of 2,418,214. Croatia proper straddles the boundary between the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Basin. The boundary of these two geomorphological units runs from Žumberak to Banovina, along the Sava River. The Dinaric Alps area is typified by karst topography, while the Pannonian Basin exhibits plains, especially in the river valleys—along the Sava, Drava, and Kupa—interspersed with hills and mountains developed as horst and graben structures. Lika and Gorski Kotar are part of the Dinaric Alps, and contain five out of eight mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres (4,900 feet). Karst topography predominates in that area, resulting in specific landforms and hydrology because of the interaction of the karst and the region's watercourses—this is exemplified by the Plitvice Lakes. Most of the region has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate, although there is considerable seasonal snow at greater elevations. The region belongs almost exclusively to the Black Sea drainage basin and includes most of the large rivers flowing in Croatia.

The boundaries of Croatia proper were shaped by territorial losses of medieval Croatia to the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman conquest starting in the 15th century. In effect, Croatia proper loosely corresponds to what was termed reliquiae reliquiarum olim magni et inclyti regni Croatiae (the relics of the relics of the formerly great and glorious Kingdom of Croatia) and the subsequent Kingdom of Croatia within the Habsburg Monarchy. The region contains most of the 180 preserved or restored castles and manor houses in Croatia, as it was spared any large-scale war damage throughout its history. Varaždin and Zagreb occupy prominent spots in terms of culture among the region's cities. The west of the region represents a natural barrier between the Adriatic Sea and the Pannonian Basin, and this, along with Ottoman conquest and resulting military frontier status, has contributed to the relatively poor development of the economy and infrastructure of that area.

Geography of Croatia

The Geography of Croatia is defined by its location—it is described as a part of Central Europe and Southeast Europe, a part of the Balkans and Mitteleuropa. Croatia's territory covers 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi), making it the 127th largest country in the world. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in the east, Slovenia in the west, Hungary in the north and Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea in the south, it lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Croatia's territorial waters encompass 18,981 square kilometres (7,329 sq mi) in a 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) wide zone, and its internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 square kilometres (4,826 sq mi).

The Pannonian Basin and the Dinaric Alps, along with the Adriatic Basin, represent major geomorphological parts of Croatia. Lowlands make up the bulk of Croatia, with elevations of less than 200 metres (660 ft) above sea level recorded in 53.42% of the country. Most of the lowlands are found in the northern regions, especially in Slavonia, itself a part of the Pannonian Basin plain. The plains are interspersed with horst and graben structures, believed to have broken the Pliocene Pannonian Sea's surface as islands. The greatest concentration of ground at relatively high elevations is found in the Lika and Gorski Kotar areas in the Dinaric Alps, but high areas are found in all regions of Croatia to some extent. The Dinaric Alps contain the highest mountain in Croatia—1,831-metre (6,007 ft) Dinara—as well as all other mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). Croatia's Adriatic Sea mainland coast is 1,777.3 kilometres (1,104.4 mi) long, while its 1,246 islands and islets encompass a further 4,058 kilometres (2,522 mi) of coastline—the most indented coastline in the Mediterranean. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps, as well as throughout the coastal areas and the islands.

62% of Croatia's territory is encompassed by the Black Sea drainage basin. The area includes the largest rivers flowing in the country: the Danube, Sava, Drava, Mur and Kupa. The remainder belongs to the Adriatic Sea drainage basin, where the largest river by far is the Neretva. Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. The mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F). Croatia has a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology, and the country is consequently among the most biodiverse in Europe. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia: Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland; Alpine in the elevated Lika and Gorski Kotar; Pannonian along the Drava and Danube; and Continental in the remaining areas. There are 444 protected natural areas in Croatia, encompassing 8.5% of the country; there are about 37,000 known species in Croatia, and the total number of species is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000.

The permanent population of Croatia by the 2011 census reached 4.29 million. The population density was 75.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, and the overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 75.7 years. The country is inhabited mostly by Croats (89.6%), while minorities include Serbs (4.5%), and 21 other ethnicities (less than 1% each) recognised by the constitution. Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities. The average urbanisation rate in Croatia stands at 56%, with a growing urban population and shrinking rural population. The largest city and the nation's capital is Zagreb, with an urban population of 686,568 in the city itself and a metropolitan area population of 978,161. The populations of Split and Rijeka exceed 100,000, and five more cities in Croatia have populations over 50,000.

Geology of Hungary

Hungary is located in the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. The country is surrounded by the Carpathians, Alps and Dinarides, but for the most part lowlands dominate the country. Sixty-eight percent of the country is lowlands below 200 meters altitude. Hilly terrain covers 30% of the country, while mountains cover only 2%. The entire Pannonian Basin is in the Danube watershed.

History of Hungary before the Hungarian Conquest

This article spans the known pre-history and early history of the territory of the historical Hungary up to the Magyar (Hungarian) conquest in the 9th century and the foundation of the Principality of Hungary. For the prehistory of the Magyar tribes before they came to the Carpathian Basin, see Hungarian prehistory.

The relatively warm and fertile Carpathian Basin has been settled since around 500,000 years ago. The first known traces belong to the Homo heidelbergensis, with scarce or nonexistent evidence of human presence until the Neanderthals around 100,000 years ago. Anatomically modern humans arrived at the Carpathian Basin before 30,000 BC and belonged to the Aurignacian group. Some sources also distinguish a very local culture, the Szeleta culture, but this claim is disputed. Development in the Paleolithic is similar to that of the rest of Europe and findings from both the Aurignacian and the succeeding Gravettian (mammoth hunter) culture can be found as far as France and Spain. The rest of the Stone Age is marked by minimal or not-yet-processed archeological evidence, with the exception of the Linear Pottery culture - the "garden type civilization" that introduced agriculture to the Carpathian Basin.

During the Copper and Bronze Ages, three significant groups were the Baden, the Makó and the Ottomány cultures. The major improvement was obviously metalworking, but the Baden culture also brought about cremation and even long-distance trade with remote areas such as the Baltic or Iran flourished during the Makó and Ottomány periods. Turbulent changes during the late Bronze Age gave an end to the native, relatively advanced civilization and the beginning of the Iron Age saw mass immigration of Indo-european nomads believed to be of ancient Iranian ancestry. However, as the time went on, the Carpathian Basin attracted immigration from all directions: the Halstatt Celts from the West were the first and most influential at around 750 BC, the mysterious Sigynnae around 500 BC, the Pannonians - an Illyrian tribe gave the future Roman province its name while the very East became occupied by other Thracian, Iranian and later Celtic tribes. Before 100 BC, most of the area was occupied by various Celtic or celticized people, such as the successor of the Halstatt culture, the Taurisci, the Boii and the Pannonians.

The Roman era in the territory of present-day Hungary begins with several attacks between 156 and 70 BC, but their gradual conquest was interrupted by the Dacian king Burebista, whose kingdom stretched as far as today's Slovakia at its greatest extent. However, the period of Dacian dominance did not last long and by 9 BC the Romans have subjugated the entire area and made it into the Pannonia subprovince of province Illyricum and eventually Pannonia province. Under Roman rule, many contemporary cities such as Budapest, Győr or Sopron were founded and the population romanized and culture as a whole flourished. Roman emperors sometimes also tolerated other tribes settling in the territory, such as the Iazyges or Vandals. Christianity spread during the fourth century AD, when it became the state religion.

In the first years of the Age of Migration, the Carpathian Basin was settled by the Huns, whose empire was centered there, as well as numerous Germanic tribes such as the Goths, Marcomanni, Quadi or Gepidi, the last of which stayed the longest. The next wave of migration during the sixth century saw other Germanic tribes, the Lombards and Heruli overpower the Gepidi, only to be ousted by another major nomadic tribe, the Avars. Like the Huns, the Avars established an empire there and posed a significant threat to their neighbours, but were eventually defeated by both neighbouring states and internal strife (around 800). However, Avar population remained quite steady until the Hungarian conquest. The territory became divided between East Francia and First Bulgarian Empire with the northeastern part under Moravian Slavic Principality of Nitra. This state lasted until the arrival of the Magyar tribes, the Hungarian conquest (cca. 860-907).

Outer Subcarpathia

Outer Subcarpathia (Polish: Podkarpacie Zewnętrzne; Ukrainian: Прикарпаття, Prykarpattia; Czech: Vněkarpatské sníženiny; German: Karpatenvorland) denotes the depression area at the outer (western, northern and eastern) base of the Carpathian arc, including foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians. It stretches from northeastern Austria, through eastern Czech Republic, southern Poland, western Ukraine and northeastern Romania.The opposite foothill regions on the inner side of the Carpathian arc are known as Inner Subcarpathia, transitioning further to the Pannonian Basin.

Pannonia (disambiguation)

Pannonia may refer to:

the Pannonian Basin, a geomorphological feature and historical region in East-Central Europe.Historical territories in the Pannonian Basin:

Pannonia, a historical Roman province

Diocese of Pannonia, Roman diocese

Pannonia, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine province

Duchy of Pannonia, a Slavic principality vassal to the Franks that existed in the 8th and 9th century

the territory of the medieval kingdom of Hungary was contemporarily still known as Pannonia, the king of Hungary being called rex Pannoniae (or Pannonicorum) in medieval Latin.In science:

1444 Pannonia, an asteroid

Pannonian (stage), the Paratethys domain (Central Europe, west Asia) in the stratigraphy

Pannonia, a part of the surface of the asteroid 21 LutetiaOther:

Pannonie, an old Cistercian farm near Rocamadour in France, and a castle built in the 15th and 18th century

PannóniaFilm, the largest animation studio in Hungary

Pannónia, a brand of motorcycles manufactured in Hungary

Pannonia Federal Credit Union, a non-profit financial institution chartered in 1938 in the greater Philadelphia area

Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were an alliance of several groups of Eurasian nomads of unknown origins.They are probably best known for their invasions and destruction in the Avar–Byzantine wars from 568 to 626.

The name Pannonian Avars (after the area in which they eventually settled) is used to distinguish them from the Avars of the Caucasus, a separate people with whom the Pannonian Avars may or may not have been linked.

They established the Avar Khaganate, which spanned the Pannonian Basin and considerable areas of Central and Eastern Europe from the late 6th to the early 9th century.Although the name Avar first appeared in the mid-5th century, the Pannonian Avars entered the historical scene in the mid-6th century, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe as a people who wished to escape the rule of the Göktürks.

Pannonian Sea

The Pannonian Sea was a shallow ancient sea, where the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe is now. The Pannonian Sea existed during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, when a 3–4 km (1.9–2.5 mi) depth of marine sediments were deposited in the Pannonian Basin.

Pannonian Steppe

The Pannonian Steppe is a variety of grassland ecosystems found in the Pannonian Basin.

Pelso Plate

Pelso Plate or Pelsonia Terrane is a small tectonic unit. It is situated in the Pannonian Basin in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains and the basin surrounded by them were formed from the Cretaceous until the Miocene in the collision of continental Europe with smaller continental fragments of ALCAPA, Tisza, Pelso and Dacia microplates. The Zagreb-Hernád line is the former plate margin between the Pelso of African origin and the Tisza Plate of Eurasian origin.

The Pelso block is sometimes considered as southern portion of the ALCAPA and compared with internal zone of Western Carpathian Mts. which is called Internal Western Capathians. The typical feature of this zone is Dinaric - Apulian facies of Triassic rocks, while the whole Alcapa is in some papers considered as part of the Apulian plate. The Pelso sensu stricto is therefore composed of Tornaic, Bukkic and Silicic superunits, that evolved south of the Meliata-Halstatt Ocean and the superimposed Cenozoic sedimentary cover.

Thurisind

Thurisind (Latin: Turisindus, died c. 560) was king of the Gepids, an East Germanic Gothic people, from c. 548 to 560. He was the penultimate Gepid king, and succeeded King Elemund by staging a coup d'état and forcing the king's son into exile. Thurisind's kingdom, known as Gepidia, was located in Central Europe and had its centre in Sirmium, a former Roman city on the Sava River (now the town of Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

His reign was marked by multiple wars with the Lombards, a Germanic people who had arrived in the former Roman province of Pannonia under the leadership of their king, Audoin. Thurisind also had to face the hostility of the Byzantine Empire, which was resentful of the Gepid takeover of Sirmium and anxious to diminish Gepid power in the Pannonian Basin, a plain covering most of modern Hungary and partly including the bordering states. The Byzantines' plans to reduce the Gepids' power took effect when Audoin decisively defeated Thurisind in 551 or 552. The Byzantine Emperor Justinian forced a peace accord on both leaders so that equilibrium in the Pannonian Basin could be sustained.

Thurisind lost his eldest son, Turismod, in the Battle of Asfeld, during which the prince was killed by Alboin, son of Audoin. In about 560, Thurisind died and was succeeded by his remaining son Cunimund, who was killed by Alboin in 567. Cunimund's death marked the end of the Gepid Kingdom and the beginning of the conquest of their territories by the Lombards' allies, the Avars, a nomadic people migrating from the Eurasian Steppe.

Tisza Plate

The Tisza Plate is a tectonic block, or microplate, in present-day Europe. The two major crustal blocks of the Pannonian Basin, Pelso and Tisza, underwent a complex process of rotation and extension of variable magnitude during the Cenozoic era. The northward push of the Adriatic Block initiated the eastward displacement and rotation of both the Alcapa (or Pelso) and Tisza blocks. The Zágráb-Hernád line is the former plate margin between the Pelso of African origin and the Tisza Plate of Eurasian origin.

Topography of Croatia

Topography of Croatia is defined through three major geomorphological parts of the country. Those are the Pannonian Basin, the Dinaric Alps, and the Adriatic Basin. The largest part of Croatia consists of lowlands, with elevations of less than 200 metres (660 feet) above sea level recorded in 53.42% of the country. Bulk of the lowlands are found in the northern regions of the country, especially in Slavonia, itself a part of the Pannonian Basin plain. The plains are interspersed by the horst and graben structures, believed to break the Pannonian Sea surface as islands. The greatest concentration of ground at relatively high elevations is found in Lika and Gorski Kotar areas in the Dinaric Alps, but such areas are found in all regions of Croatia to some extent. The Dinaric Alps contain the highest mountain in Croatia—1,831-metre (6,007 ft) Dinara, as well as all other mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres (4,900 feet). Croatia's Adriatic Sea mainland coast is 1,777.3 kilometres (1,104.4 miles) long, while its 1,246 islands and islets encompass further 4,058 kilometres (2,522 miles) of coastline—the most indented coastline in the Mediterranean. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps, as well as throughout the coastal areas and the islands.

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