In cinematography and photography panning means swivelling a still or video camera horizontally from a fixed position. This motion is similar to the motion of a person when they turn their head on their neck from left to right. In the resulting image, the view seems to "pass by" the spectator as new material appears on one side of the screen and exits from the other, although perspective lines reveal that the entire image is seen from a fixed point of view.
The term panning is derived from panorama, suggesting an expansive view that exceeds the gaze, forcing the viewer to turn their head in order to take everything in. Panning, in other words, is a device for gradually revealing and incorporating off-screen space into the image.
Panning should never be confused with tracking or "travelling," in which the camera is not just swivelled but is physically displaced left or right, generally by being rolled parallel to its subject.
In video technology, panning refers to the horizontal scrolling of an image wider than the display.
The technique also has limited applications in still photography.
In other disciplines, this motion is called yaw.
When photographing a moving subject, the panning technique is achieved by keeping the subject in the same position of the frame for the duration of the exposure. The exposure time must be long enough to allow the background to blur due to the camera movement as the photographer follows the subject in the viewfinder.
The exact length of exposure required will depend on the speed at which the subject is moving, the focal length of the lens and the distance from the subject and background. An F1 car speeding along a straight might allow the photographer to achieve a blurred background at 1/250 second, while the photographer might need to go as slow as 1/40 to achieve the same amount of blur for a picture of a running man.
The faster shutter speed allowed by fast moving subjects are easier to capture in a smoothly panned shot. With slower moving subjects, the risk is that the panning motion will be jerky, and it is also harder to keep the subject in the same position of the frame for the longer period of time.
To aid in capturing panned pictures, photographers use aids such as tripods and monopods, which make it easy to swing the camera along one plane, while keeping it steady in the others.
Media related to Panning at Wikimedia CommonsAircraft principal axes
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: yaw, nose left or right about an axis running up and down; pitch, nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and roll, rotation about an axis running from nose to tail. The axes are alternatively designated as vertical, transverse, and longitudinal respectively. These axes move with the vehicle and rotate relative to the Earth along with the craft. These definitions were analogously applied to spacecraft when the first manned spacecraft were designed in the late 1950s.
These rotations are produced by torques (or moments) about the principal axes. On an aircraft, these are intentionally produced by means of moving control surfaces, which vary the distribution of the net aerodynamic force about the vehicle's center of gravity. Elevators (moving flaps on the horizontal tail) produce pitch, a rudder on the vertical tail produces yaw, and ailerons (flaps on the wings that move in opposing directions) produce roll. On a spacecraft, the moments are usually produced by a reaction control system consisting of small rocket thrusters used to apply asymmetrical thrust on the vehicle.Azimuth
An azimuth ( (listen); from Arabic اَلسُّمُوت as-sumūt, “the directions”, the plural form of the Arabic noun السَّمْت as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth.
When used as a celestial coordinate, the azimuth is the horizontal direction of a star or other astronomical object in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local area (e.g. a circular area 5 km in radius at sea level) around an observer on Earth's surface, and the reference vector points to true north. The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the star's vector on the horizontal plane.Azimuth is usually measured in degrees (°). The concept is used in navigation, astronomy, engineering, mapping, mining, and ballistics.Cinematic techniques
This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described.EuroTrip
EuroTrip is a 2004 American sex comedy film directed by Jeff Schaffer and written by Alec Berg, David Mandel, and Schaffer. It stars Scott Mechlowicz, Jacob Pitts, Michelle Trachtenberg, Travis Wester, and Jessica Boehrs (in her film debut). Mechlowicz portrays Scott "Scotty" Thomas, an American teenager who travels across Europe in search of his German pen pal, Mieke (Boehrs). Accompanied by his friend Cooper (Pitts) and siblings Jenny and Jamie (Trachtenberg and Wester), Scott's quest takes him to London, Paris, Amsterdam, Bratislava, Berlin, and Rome, encountering awkward, humorous, and embarrassing situations along the way.Genma Wars
Genma Wars (Japanese: 幻魔大戦, Hepburn: Genma Taisen) is a science fiction manga that began in 1967. It was a collaboration in Weekly Shōnen Sunday by science fiction writer Kazumasa Hirai and Shotaro Ishinomori.Killer Instinct (1994 video game)
Killer Instinct is a fighting video game developed by Rare and published by Midway and Nintendo. It was released as an arcade game in the fall of 1994 and, the following year, ported to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) and the Game Boy. The game's plot involves an all-powerful corporation organizing a fighting tournament. The story was adapted in a limited comic book series published under the short-lived Acclaim Comics imprint.
Killer Instinct features several gameplay elements unique to fighting games of the time. Instead of fighting enemies in best-of-three rounds bouts, each player has two life bars. The player that depletes the other player's life bars first wins the match. The game also introduced "auto-doubles", a feature which allows players to press a certain sequence of buttons to make characters automatically perform combos on opponents. Also featured in the game are "combo breakers", special defensive moves that can interrupt combos.
Critically acclaimed, Killer Instinct was followed by a sequel, the 1996 arcade game Killer Instinct 2, later ported to the Nintendo 64 as Killer Instinct Gold, as well as a 2013 revival of the franchise as a launch title for Xbox One. A port of the original game is included with the 2013 game under the title Killer Instinct Classic. Retrospective lists by various publications included it among the best fighting games of all time.Magic lantern
The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name lanterna magica, is an early type of image projector employing pictures painted, printed or produced photographically on transparent plates (usually made of glass), one or more lenses, and a light source. It was mostly developed in the 17th century and commonly used for entertainment purposes. It was increasingly applied to educational purposes during the 19th century. Since the late 19th century smaller versions were also mass-produced as a toy for children. The magic lantern was in wide use from the 18th century until the mid-20th century, when it was superseded by a compact version that could hold many 35 mm photographic slides: the slide projector.Stratosphere Girl
Stratosphere Girl (also known as The Stratosphere Girl in the United States) is a 2004 film from Germany written and directed by Matthias X. Oberg.
The film is about a teenage girl who travels to Japan to work at an exclusive club for rich businessmen.The Foundation (Seinfeld)
"The Foundation" is the 135th episode of the American television sitcom Seinfeld. This was the first episode of the eighth season. It was originally broadcast on the NBC network on September 19, 1996.Tilt (camera)
Tilting is a cinematographic technique in which the camera stays in a fixed position but rotates up/down in a vertical plane. Tilting the camera results in a motion similar to someone raising or lowering their head to look up or down. It is distinguished from panning in which the camera is horizontally pivoted left or right. Pan and tilt can be used simultaneously. In some situations the lens itself may be tilted with respect to the fixed camera body in order to generate greater depth of focus. The camera's tilt will change the position of the horizon, changing the amount of sky or ground that is seen. Tilt downward is usually required for a high-angle shot and bird's-eye view while a tilt upward is for a low-angle shot and worm's-eye view. The vertical offset between subjects can reflect differences in power, with superior being above.
Tilting can be used as a reveal as in tilting up from seeing the murder victim, to the weapon, to the identity of the killer. It can also be an establishing shot, tilting down from a tall landmark to the characters or as in Star Wars: A New Hope opening, tilting down from the stars, to the arc of the planet.A tilting Point-of-view shot expresses either attention or head motion. Attention might convey a potential love interest with "elevator eyes" or concern with sizing up an opponent. Head motion could show a nodding "yes". Combining tilt with camera position could show a face plant or tipping over backwards.
Minor tilting is used for reframing to maintain headroom.Extreme tilting would follow the subject past the zenith or nadir to a full 180 degrees, starting or ending with an inverted view of the world.
The Dutch angle, also known as Dutch tilt, is a head tilt to one side, is a type of camera shot where the camera is set at an angle on its roll axis so that the shot is composed with vertical lines at an angle to the side of the frame, or so that the horizon line of the shot is not parallel with the bottom of the camera frame.