Pandua, Malda

Pandua (historically known as Hazrat Pandua and Firozabad; also known as Adina) is a historic city of the Indian subcontinent. It was the first capital city of the Bengal Sultanate for 114 years between the mid 14th and mid 15th centuries. It continued to be a "mint town" until the 16th-century. The capital later shifted to Gaur. Pandua was described by travelers as a cosmopolitan administrative, commercial and military base, with a population of natives, royalty, aristocrats and foreigners from across Eurasia.

Pandua was a lost city until it was rediscovered by Francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1808. A detailed study of the city was carried out by Sir Alexander Cunningham. An aerial survey was conducted in 1931 by the Archaeological Survey of India.[1] The notable archaeological sites include the Adina Mosque, the largest mosque in the subcontinent; the Eklakhi Mausoleum; and the Qutb Shahi Mosque. Pandua is located in Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal near the border with Bangladesh.

Pandua
Adina Mosque at Malda district of West Bengal 04
Mihrabs, arches and pillar remnants in Adina Mosque
Pandua, Malda is located in West Bengal
Pandua, Malda
Shown within West Bengal
Alternative nameHazrat Pandua, Firuzabad
LocationWest Bengal, India
Coordinates24°52′N 88°08′E / 24.867°N 88.133°ECoordinates: 24°52′N 88°08′E / 24.867°N 88.133°E
TypeSettlement
History
Founded14th century
Abandoned16th century

History

Codice Casanatense Bengalis
"People of the Kingdom of Bengal", Códice Casanatense
Maritime links of the Sultanate of Bengal
After separating from Delhi, the Bengal Sultanate became a major trading nation

Coins of the Balban dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate refer to Pandua as Firozabad, which is considered to be a reference to the reign of Shamsuddin Firoz Shah.[2] In 1352, rebel governor Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the three Muslim states of Bengal into a single sultanate and founded the Ilyas Shahi dynasty. The Delhi Sultanate was pre-occupied with Mongol invasions in the northwest of India. Muslim governors in Bengal sensed an opportune time to establish an independent authority due to the considerable overland distance with Delhi. The creation of the sultanate is of primary importance in Bengali history, as it resulted in the separation of authority from Delhi and united all parts of Bengal into a single state. Pandua was the capital for the first one hundred years of the Bengal Sultanate.[3] The city was called Hazrat Pandua due to the large presence of Sufi preachers.[4] Pandua was a walled city.

Over the course of 114 years, nine kings ruled Bengal from Pandua. All of them were from the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, with the exception of Raja Ganesha, his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah, and grandson Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah. They built palaces, forts, bridges, mosques, and mausoleums, many of which are now in ruins or have disappeared completely.[5] Sultan Sikandar Shah commissioned the construction of the Adina Mosque after Bengal's victory in the Bengal Sultanate-Delhi Sultanate War. The Adina Mosque was modeled on the Great Mosque of Damascus and became the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent. Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah was buried in the Eklakhi Mausoleum, which is an example of terracotta Bengali architecture. The royal palace had high steps, nine walls, three gates, and a durbar room. A contemporary account describes the durbar room as having pillars plated with brass, carved, polished and ornamented with figurines of flowers and animals; the king sat cross-legged on an elevated throne decorated with precious stones and a two-edged sword laying across his lap.[6] The Sultans of Bengal imitated Persianate court traditions.[7] According to the Ming ambassador Ma Huan, Pandua was transformed from a small hamlet into a cosmopolitan capital and trade center, as well as a military garrison. The population included royalty, aristocrats, soldiers, mercenaries, natives and Eurasian travelers and merchants who either settled or were a floating population along trade routes. Ma Huan wrote that "the city walls are very imposing, the bazaars well-arranged, the shops side by side, the pillars in orderly rows, they are full of every kind of goods". Pandua was a center of production and marketing. At least six varieties of fine muslin, as well as silk products, were found in Pandua's markets. There were four types of wine. High-quality paper was produced from the bark of mulberry trees in the area surrounding the capital. The paper resembled lightweight white cotton cloth.[8]

People from different parts of the known world were found in Pandua. The city generated significant exports, including cloth and wine. Merchants built ships, went abroad for trade and acted as royal envoys. The rich lived lavishly in Pandua. They woke up in the morning to the tune of sehnai musicians, who would be rewarded with taka and wine. The noblemen entertained with dancing women. Paan was offered to visitors. The guests were served roast beef, mutton, rose water, and various kinds of sherbet.[9] The city's male inhabitants wore cotton robes and shirts, turbans, dhutis, leather shoes and belts on the waist. Women wore cotton saris. Upper-class women wore gold jewelry. Performers would stage performances with a chained tiger. The Hindus did not eat beef. Bengali was the common language. Courtiers and merchants often spoke Persian.[10]

The capital of Bengal was shifted from Pandua to Gaur in 1450. The reasons for the shift are yet to be ascertained but a change in the course of a river has been speculated.[3] Pandua continued to host mints that produced silver taka for the duration of the sultanate period. It was an important administrative center. The mints were known as Shahr-i-Naw and Muzzafarabad.[11] Pandua's decline began with the conquest of Sher Shah Suri. Pandua became part of the wilderness. Earthquakes damaged its buildings during the 19th century. The high humidity and monsoon seasons of Bengal also caused much of its architecture to crumble. Nothing remains of the former royal palace except for traces in raised mounds.

Geography

Pandua is located at 25°08′N 88°10′E / 25.13°N 88.16°E.[12]

Architecture

The architecture of Pandua has elements of Bengali, Arab, Persian and Byzantine architecture.

Adina Mosque Malda (14)
Adina Mosque Exterior Walls 01
Adina Mosque at Malda district of West Bengal 08
Adina Mosque exterior view
Adina Mosque at Malda district of West Bengal 07
Adina Mosque at Malda district of West Bengal 14
Adina Mosque at Malda district of West Bengal 11
Adina Mosque central mihrab on large basalt wall
Adina Mosque Badhsah ki Takht low angle shot
Excellent View of Adina Mosque
Adina Mosque Malda (37)
Malda adina5
Adina Mosque Malda (17)
Qutub Shahi Mosque in Pandua at Malda district 26
Beautiful sky from inside the ruins of Qutub Shahi Masjid
Inside Qutub Shahi Masjid
Inside the Qutab Shahi Masjid
Qutub Shahi Mosque at Pandua in Malda district 01
Exterior view of Qutub Shahi Masjid
Qutub Shahi Mosque at Pandua in Malda district 05
Qutub Shahi Mosque in Pandua at Malda district 17
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 02
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 11
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 13
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 25
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 23
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 04
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 07
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 08
Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua in Malda district 12

See also

Notes

  1. ^ https://www.livehistoryindia.com/cover-story/2018/06/25/pandua-the-lost-capital-of-the-sultanate-of-bengal
  2. ^ https://www.livehistoryindia.com/cover-story/2018/06/25/pandua-the-lost-capital-of-the-sultanate-of-bengal
  3. ^ a b Aniruddha Ray (13 September 2016). Towns and Cities of Medieval India: A Brief Survey. Taylor & Francis. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-351-99731-7.
  4. ^ https://www.livehistoryindia.com/cover-story/2018/06/25/pandua-the-lost-capital-of-the-sultanate-of-bengal
  5. ^ https://www.livehistoryindia.com/cover-story/2018/06/25/pandua-the-lost-capital-of-the-sultanate-of-bengal
  6. ^ https://www.livehistoryindia.com/cover-story/2018/06/25/pandua-the-lost-capital-of-the-sultanate-of-bengal
  7. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal
  8. ^ María Dolores Elizalde; Wang Jianlang (6 November 2017). China's Development from a Global Perspective. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 57–70. ISBN 978-1-5275-0417-2.
  9. ^ María Dolores Elizalde; Wang Jianlang (6 November 2017). China's Development from a Global Perspective. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 57–70. ISBN 978-1-5275-0417-2.
  10. ^ María Dolores Elizalde; Wang Jianlang (6 November 2017). China's Development from a Global Perspective. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 57–70. ISBN 978-1-5275-0417-2.
  11. ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mint_Towns
  12. ^ "Yahoo maps location of Pandua". Yahoo maps. Retrieved 21 December 2008.

External links

Alaul Haq Pandavi

Shaikh Alaul Haq Pandavi was a 13th Century eminent Sufi saint of Bengal belonging to the Chisti spiritual order. He was the disciple of another prominent Chishti Sufi of Bengal Khwaja Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind.His major shrine at Pandua Sharif Dargah, of the ruined city of Pandua, in Malda.Alaul Haq Pandavi was an erudite saint who also served as a member of the elite in the government of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, the Sultan of Bengal. Two of his most eminent and notable authorized disciples are his son Shaikh Noor Qutbe Alam Pandavi and the illustrious Sufi saint Ashraf Jahangir Semnani.His URS (demise anniversary) is commemorated every year on the 23rd, 24th and 25th Rajab in Pandua Sharif Dargah, Pandua, Malda in West Bengal, India.

Indo-Islamic architecture

Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh, the development of Indo-Islamic architecture began in earnest with the establishment of Delhi as the capital of the Ghurid dynasty in 1193 CE. Succeeding the Ghurids was the Delhi Sultanate, a series of Central Asian dynasties that consolidated much of North India, and later the Mughal Empire by the 15th century CE. Both of these dynasties introduced Persianate, Turkic and Islamicate architecture and art styles from Western Eurasia into the Indian subcontinent.The types and forms of large buildings required by Muslim elites, with mosques and tombs much the most common, were very different from those previously built in India. The exteriors of such buildings are often capped by large domes, and make extensive use of arches. Neither of these features are prominent in early Hindu temple architecture or other indigenous Indian styles. Both types of building essentially consist of a single large space under a high dome, and completely avoid the figurative sculpture integral to Hindu temples.Islamic buildings initially adapted the skills of a workforce trained in earlier Indian traditions to their own designs. Unlike most of the Islamic world, where brick tended to predominate, India produced highly skilled builders trained in the creation of extremely high-quality masonry. Alongside the architecture developed in Delhi and prominent centers of Mughal culture such as Agra, Lahore and Allahabad, a variety of regional styles developed in regional kingdoms like the Bengal, Gujarat, Deccan, Jaunpur and Kashmir Sultanates. By the Mughal period, generally agreed to represent the peak of the style, aspects of Islamic style influenced even Hindu architecture, as in the case of Rajasthan; with even temples and palatial complexes employing scalloped arches and domes. Following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, regional nawabs such as in Lucknow, Hyderabad and Mysore continued to commission and patronize the construction of Mughal-style architecture in their respective princely states and cities.

Indo-Islamic architecture has left a large impact on modern Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture, as in the case of its influence on the Indo-Saracenic Revivalism of the late British Raj. Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture.

List of Monuments of National Importance in West Bengal

This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state West Bengal. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 133 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in West Bengal.

List of State Protected Monuments in West Bengal

This is a list of State Protected Monuments as officially reported by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state West Bengal. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 106 State Protected Monuments have been recognized by the ASI in West Bengal. Besides the State Protected Monuments, also the Monuments of National Importance in this state might be relevant.

Pandua

Pandua may refer to:

Pandua, Malda, now known as Adina, ruins of a historic town in Malda district, West Bengal, India.

Pandua, Hooghly, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India

Pandua (community development block), Hooghly District, West Bengal

Pandua (Vidhan Sabha constituency), Hooghly District, West Bengal

Sonargaon

Sonargaon (Bengali: সোনারগাঁও; pronounced as Show-naar-gaa; meaning Golden Hamlet) is a historic city in central Bangladesh. It is one of the old capitals of the historic region of Bengal and was an administrative center of eastern Bengal. It was also a port and trading center. During British colonial rule, merchants built many Indo-Saracenic townhouses in the Panam neighborhood. Sonargaon was central to the muslin trade in Bengal.

Extinct cities of the Sultanate of Bengal
Cities, towns and locations in Malda district
Cities, municipal
and census towns
Locations
other than cities and towns
Related topics
Ancient Places in Bengal
Mosques/ Muslim Religious Centres in West Bengal
Mosques/Religious centre
See also

Languages

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