Pamparaptor is an extinct genus of carnivorous deinonychosaur from the late Cretaceous period. It is a basal dromaeosaurid dinosaur with troodontid-like pes which lived during the late Cretaceous period (Turonian to Coniacian stage) in what is now Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina. It is known from the holotype MUCPv-1163, an articulated and nearly complete left foot.

The specimen recovered from the Portezuelo Formation (Río Neuquén Subgroup) of Neuquén Group. It was initially considered to be a juvenile specimen of another dromaeosaurid species, Neuquenraptor argentinus.[1] However, it was later re-interpreted as a new genus and named Pamparaptor by Juan D. Porfiri, Jorge O. Calvo and Domenica dos Santos in 2011 and the type species is Pamparaptor micros. The generic name honors Indian Pampas people who lived in central Argentina while "raptor" (robber in Latin). The specific name (micros, meaning "small") refers to the specimen's size (estimated at 0.5 to 0.7 metres (1.6 to 2.3 ft) in length).[2]

Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 89 Ma
Pamparaptor micros
Pamparaptor micros
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Dromaeosauridae
Genus: Pamparaptor
Porfiri, Calvo & Santos, 2011
P. micros
Binomial name
Pamparaptor micros
Porfiri, Calvo & Santos, 2011

See also


  1. ^ Porfiri, Calvo, dos Santos and Valieri, 2007. New record of Neuquenraptor (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 44(S), 34R.
  2. ^ Porfiri, Juan D.; Jorge O. Calvo; Domenica dos Santos (2011). "A new small deinonychosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 83 (1): 109–116. doi:10.1590/S0001-37652011000100007. ISSN 0001-3765.

Dromaeosaurinae is a subfamily of Dromaeosauridae. Most dromaeosaurines lived in what is now the United States and Canada, as well as Mongolia, and possibly Denmark as well. Isolated teeth that may belong to African dromaeosaurines have also been discovered in Ethiopia. These teeth date to the Tithonian stage, of the Late Jurassic Period.All North American and Asian dromaeosaurine dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous were generally small, no more than 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) long, in Dromaeosaurus and Adasaurus. However, among the dromaeosaurines were the largest dromaeosaurs ever; Dakotaraptor was ~5.5 metres (18 ft) long, Achillobator 6 metres (20 ft), and Utahraptor up to ~7 metres (23 ft).


Eudromaeosauria ("true dromaeosaurs") is a subgroup of terrestrial dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs. They were relatively large-bodied, feathered hypercarnivores (with diets consisting almost entirely of other terrestrial vertebrates) that flourished in the Cretaceous Period.

Eudromaeosaur fossils are known almost exclusively from the northern hemisphere. They first appeared in the early Cretaceous Period (early Aptian stage, about 124 million years ago) and survived until the end of the Cretaceous (Maastrichtian stage, 66 Ma). The earliest known definitive eudromaeosaur is the dromaeosaurine Utahraptor ostrommaysorum, from the Cedar Mountain Formation, dated to 124 million years ago. However, the earlier (143-million-year-old) fossils such as those of Nuthetes destructor and several indeterminate teeth dating to the Kimmeridgian stage may represent eudromaeosaurs.


Graciliraptor (meaning "graceful thief") is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the early Cretaceous Period. It is a microraptorine dromaeosaurid.

The type species Graciliraptor lujiatunensis was first named and described in 2004 by Xu Xing and Wang Xiaoling. The generic name is derived from Latin gracilis and raptor. The specific name refers to the village Lujiatun where the fossil site is located. Its fossil, holotype IVPP V 13474, was found in Beipiao, Liaoning Province, China.


Halszkaraptorinae is a basal ("primitive") subfamily of Dromaeosauridae that includes the enigmatic genera Halszkaraptor, Mahakala, and Hulsanpes. A comparison of the fossils of Halszkaraptor with the bones of extant crocodilians and aquatic birds revealed evidence of a semiaquatic lifestyle. The group is named after Polish paleontologist Halszka Osmólska.


Hulsanpes is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from Mongolia that lived during the Late Cretaceous.


Itemirus is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the Turonian age of the Late Cretaceous period of Uzbekistan.

Jorge O. Calvo

Jorge Orlando Calvo is an Argentine geologist and paleontologist working for "Centro de Investigaciones Paleontológicas Lago Barreales" (National University of Comahue).Dr. Jorge Orlando Calvo was born in Córdoba, Argentina, in 1961. At present, he is a professor in Geology and Paleontology at the National University of Comahue, Neuquén. He is one of the founders of the Geology Career (2010) at this University as well as the Director of the Barreales Lake Paleontological Center.

He became a geologist in 1986 and in 1991 he won a Fulbright scholarship to do a Master in Paleontological Sciences (1992) at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA, getting his degree in 1994. In 2006, he earned his PhD degree at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

He has devoted all his life to the discovering, digging and studying of Vertebrate Paleontology. He has been the first paleontologist living and working in the Neuquén province. He is both author and co-author of many discoveries of his own about new taxa in dinosaurs, birds, crocodiles, frogs, turtles, eggs and dinosaur tracks. He is the first paleontologist to have helped develop not only the Paleontological Science in Norpatagonia (1987) but also the Paleontological Tourism. He is the founder of the Geology and Paleontology Museum of the National University of Comahue (1990), the Paleontological Museum of Rincón de los Sauces (2000) and the Barreales Lake Paleontological Center (2002).

As a researcher of the National University of Comahue, he has been the Director of more than 15 national and international research projects led from institutions such as Conicet, Agencia Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and Universidad Nacional del Comahue (Argentina), Duke Foundation of United State, Dinosaur Society of America, National Geographic Society, etc.

He has been the Director of theses for graduates, Master and PhD students. He has published more than 88 scientific papers and more than 60 in non-specialist magazines. He has also read more than 135 papers and lectures at Congresses of the specialty worldwide.

He has been invited to lecture on Dinosaurs from Norpatagonia in different cities of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Finland, Romania and Serbia. He has been a coordinator in more than 25 events of paleontological shows, exhibitions and Interactive museums.

He both described and co-described many species:

Andesaurus delgadoi Calvo & Bonaparte, 1991

Picunichnus benedettoi Calvo, 1991 (a)

Sauropodichnus giganteus Calvo, 1991 (a)

Sousaichnium monetae Calvo, 1991 (a)

Deferrariischnium mapuchensis Calvo, 1991 (a)

Limayichnus major Calvo, 1991 (a)

Neuquenornis volans Chiappe & Calvo, 1994

Limaysaurus tessonei Calvo & Salgado, 1995 (b)

Megaloolithus patagonicus Calvo, Engelland, Heredia & Salgado, 1997 (c)

Avitabatrachus uliana Báez, Trueb & Calvo, 2000

Araripesuchus patagonicus Ortega, Gasparini, Buscalioni & Calvo, 2000

Anabisetia saldiviai Coria & Calvo, 2002

Rinconsaurus caudamirus Calvo & González Riga, 2003

Unenlagia paynemili Calvo, Porfiri & Kellner, 2004

Ekrixinatosaurus novasi Calvo, Rubillar-Rogers & Moreno, 2004

Puertasaurus reuili Novas, Salgado, Calvo & Agnolin, 2005

Pehuenchesuchus enderi Turner & Calvo, 2005

Futalognkosaurus dukei Calvo, Porfiri, González Riga & Kellner, 2007

Neuquensuchus universitas Fiorelli & Calvo, 2007

Muyelensaurus pecheni Calvo, González Riga & Porfiri, 2007

Macrogryphosaurus gondwanicus Calvo, Porfiri & Novas, 2007

Linderochelys rinconensis De la Fuente, Calvo & Gonzalez Riga, 2007

Austroraptor cabazai Novas, Pol, Canale, Porfiri & Calvo, 2009

Titanopodus mendozensis Gonzalez Riga & Calvo, 2009

Panamericansaurus schroederi Calvo & Porfiri, 2010

Willinakaqe salitralensis R. D. Juárez Valieri, J. A. Haro, L. E. Fiorelli & J. O. Calvo, 2010

Pamparaptor minimus J. D. Porfiri, J. O. Calvo and D. Dos Santos, 2011

Leufuichthys minimus Gallo, Calvo & Kellner, 2011

Traukutitan eocaudata Juárez Valieri & Calvo, 2011

Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi B. J. González Riga, M. C. Lamanna, L. D. Ortiz David, J. O. Calvo & J. P. Coria, 2016


Linheraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur which lived in what is now China in the Late Cretaceous. It was named by Xu Xing and colleagues in 2010, and contains the species Linheraptor exquisitus. This bird-like dinosaur was less than 2 m (6.5 ft) long and was found in Inner Mongolia. It is known from a single, nearly complete skeleton.


Luanchuanraptor (meaning "Luanchuan thief") is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is based on a partial skeleton from the Qiupa Formation in Luanchuan, Henan. A medium-sized dromaeosaurid, it is the first Asian dromaeosaurid described from outside the Gobi Desert or northeastern China. The fossil material is cataloged as 4HIII-0100 in the Henan Geological Museum and includes four teeth, one frontal, a neck vertebra, one or two back vertebrae, seventeen tail vertebrae, ribs, chevrons, a humerus (upper arm bone), claw and finger bones, partial shoulder and pelvic girdles, and other fragmentary bones from a moderately sized dromaeosaurid. The type species is L. henanensis, described by Lü et al. in 2007.


Neuquenraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous of Argentina, one of the first dromaeosaurids found in the Southern Hemisphere.


Pyroraptor (meaning "fire thief") is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of what is now southern France, it lived during the late Campanian and early Maastrichtian stages, approximately 70.6 million years ago. It is known from a single partial specimen that was found in Provence in 1992. The animal was named Pyroraptor olympius by Allain and Taquet in 2000.


Saurornitholestinae is a subfamily of dromaeosaurid dinosaurs. The saurornitholestines currently include three monotypic genera: Atrociraptor marshalli, Bambiraptor feinbergorum, and Saurornitholestes langstoni. All are medium-sized dromaeosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of western North America. The group was originally recognized by Longrich and Currie as the sister taxon to a clade formed by the Dromaeosaurinae and Velociraptorinae. However, not all phylogenetic analyses recover this group.


Shanag is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period of Mongolia.

The type species of Shanag is S. ashile. It was named and described by Alan Turner, Sunny Hai-Ching Hwang and Mark Norell in 2007. The generic name refers to the black-hatted dancers in the Buddhist Cham dance. The specific name refers to the Ashile Formation, the old name for the layers where Shanag was found, used by Henry Fairfield Osborn.The holotype of Shanag, IGM 100/1119, was discovered in the Öösh Formation, the stratification of which is uncertain but probably dating to the Berriasian-Barremian. Shanag bears a strong resemblance to basal Chinese dromaeosaurids such as Microraptor and Sinornithosaurus, suggesting a close similarity between the fauna of the Öösh deposits, dated tentatively to 130 million years ago, and the Jehol Biota of China (such as the animals found in the roughly contemporary Yixian Formation), during the Early Cretaceous. The holotype specimen, about six centimetres long, is composed of an associated uncompressed upper and lower jaw fragment, containing a nearly complete right maxilla with teeth, a partial right dentary with teeth and an attached partial splenial.Shanag was a small predator. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at 1.5 metres, the weight at five kilogrammes. Shanag shows a mixture of dromaeosaurid, troodontid and basal avialan traits.Turner et alii assigned Shanag to the Dromaeosauridae. Their cladistic analysis indicated that it was a basal dromaeosaurid but higher in the tree than the Unenlagiinae. Later analyses recovered it in the Microraptorinae.


Unenlagiinae is a subfamily of dromaeosaurid theropods. Unenlagiines are known from South America and Antarctica.


Unquillosaurus (meaning "Unquillo river lizard") is a genus of maniraptoran dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period, discovered in Argentina. Known only from a single fossilized pubis (a pelvic bone), its total body length may have reached 2 to 3 metres (6.6 to 9.8 ft).


Variraptor ( VARR-i-rap-tor; "Var thief") is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of France.


Velociraptorinae is a subfamily of the theropod group Dromaeosauridae. The earliest velociraptorines are probably Nuthetes from the United Kingdom, and possibly Deinonychus from North America. However, several indeterminate velociraptorines have also been discovered, dating to the Kimmeridgian stage, in the Late Jurassic Period. These fossils were discovered in the Langenberg quarry, Oker near Goslar, Germany.In 2007 paleontologists studied front limb bones of Velociraptor and discovered small bumps on the surface, known as quill knobs. The same feature is present in some bird bones, and represents the attachment point for strong secondary wing feathers. This finding provided the first direct evidence that velociraptorines, like all other maniraptorans, had feathers.While most velociraptorines were generally small animals, at least one species may have achieved gigantic sizes comparable to those found among the dromaeosaurines. So far, this unnamed giant velociraptorine is known only from isolated teeth found on the Isle of Wight, England. The teeth belong to an animal the size of dromaeosaurines of the genus Utahraptor, but they appear to belong to a velociraptorine, judging by the shape of the teeth and the anatomy of their serrations.


Yurgovuchia is an extinct genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (probably Barremian stage) of Utah. It contains a single species, Yurgovuchia doellingi. According to a phylogenetic analysis performed by its describers, it represents an advanced dromaeosaurine, closely related to Achillobator, Dromaeosaurus and Utahraptor.


Zhongjianosaurus is a genus of dromaeosaurid belonging to the Microraptoria. Believed to hail from the Yixian Formation, specifically the middle of the Jehol Biota, it is the smallest known microraptorine thus far discovered and one of the smallest non-avian theropod dinosaurs.


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