Palustrine wetland

Palustrine wetlands include any inland wetland that lacks flowing water, contains ocean-derived salts in concentrations of less than 0.5 parts per thousand, and is non-tidal.[1] The word palustrine comes from the Latin word palus or marsh.[2] Wetlands within this category include inland marshes and swamps as well as bogs, fens, tundra and floodplains.

Palustrine wetlands are one of five categories of wetlands within the Cowardin classification system. The other categories are:[1]

  • Marine wetlands, exposed to the open ocean
  • Estuarine wetlands, partially enclosed by land and containing a mix of fresh and salt water
  • Riverine wetlands, associated with flowing water
  • Lacustrine wetlands, associated with a lake or other body of fresh water
Flickr - ggallice - Swamp in Osceola National Forest
Forested swamp in Osceola National Forest


  1. ^ a b Cowardin, L. M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F. C.; LaRoe, E. T. "Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States". U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original (HTML) on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  2. ^ "American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 26 April 2015.

See also

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) is a list of wetlands of national importance to Australia. Intended to augment the list of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, it was formerly published in report form, but is now essentially an online publication. Wetlands that appear in the Directory are commonly referred to as "DIWA wetlands" or "Directory wetlands".

Causeway Lake, Queensland

Causeway Lake is a coastal locality on the Capricorn Coast in the Shire of Livingstone, Queensland, Australia.

Ecology of the Sierra Nevada

See Sierra Nevada for general information about the mountain range in the United States.The ecology of the Sierra Nevada, located in the U.S. state of California, is diverse and complex: the plants and animals are a significant part of the scenic beauty of the mountain range. The combination of climate, topography, moisture, and soils influences the distribution of ecological communities across an elevation gradient from 1,000 to 14,500 feet (300 to 4,400 m). Biotic zones range from scrub and chaparral communities at lower elevations, to subalpine forests and alpine meadows at the higher elevations. Particular ecoregions that follow elevation contours are often described as a series of belts that follow the length of the Sierra Nevada. There are many hiking trails, paved and unpaved roads, and vast public lands in the Sierra Nevada for exploring the many different biomes and ecosystems.The western and eastern Sierra Nevada have substantially different species of plants and animals, because the east lies in the rain shadow of the crest. The plants and animals in the east are thus adapted to much drier conditions.The altitudes listed for the biotic zones are for the central Sierra Nevada.

The climate across the north-south axis of the range varies somewhat: the boundary elevations of the biotic zones move by as much as 1,000 feet (300 m) from the north end to the south end of the range.

Lake Galilee (Queensland)

Lake Galilee is a semi-arid salt lake in the locality of Galilee, Barcadline Region, within the Desert Uplands area of Central West Queensland, Australia. The lake is about 36 kilometres long, up to 12.5 kilometres wide and covers approximately 25,700 hectares.Lake Galilee is registered on the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) and provides an important refuge and breeding site for waterbirds. It has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because it regularly supports over 1% of the world populations of freckled ducks and grey teals. and possibly more than 1% of the world population of other waterbirds and shorebirds.

The weed Parkinsonia is posing as an environmental threat to the lake as are feral animals, grazing impacts and tourism pressures. The group of property owners adjacent to the lake are working with local natural resource management groups (Desert Uplands Committee and Desert Channels Queensland) to manage these threats.

Littabella National Park

Littabella is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 336 km north of Brisbane.

The park protects a mostly palustrine wetland within the catchments of Baffle Creek and Kolan River. Three rare or threatened animal species and one plant species have been found within the park.

Little Brier Run

Little Brier Run is a tributary of Little Fishing Creek in Lycoming County and Columbia County, in Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is approximately 2.9 miles (4.7 km) and flows through Jordan Township in Lycoming County and Pine Township in Columbia County. The watershed of the stream has an area of 2.62 square miles (6.8 km2). The stream itself is inhabited by trout and is considered to be an Exceptional Value stream and a Migratory Fishery. It has one unnamed tributary. Various wetlands are present in the vicinity of the stream and its unnamed tributary.

Mata Redonda Wildlife Refuge

The Mata Redonda Wildlife Refuge is a Wildlife refuge of Costa Rica, part of the Tempisque Conservation Area, which protects tropical forest and wetlands near the Tempisque River and the town of Rosario, Guanacaste.

It consists of seasonal palustrine wetland and contains habitats suitable for over 60 species of resident and migratory water birds, including black-bellied whistling ducks and jabiru.

Murray Bridge Training Area

The Murray Bridge Training Area (also called Murray Bridge Army Training Area) is an Australian Army training area located in South Australia in the locality of Burdett about 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) east of the city of Murray Bridge and about 70 kilometres (43 miles) east of the centre of the city of Adelaide. The training area was established prior to 1970. As of 2011, the training area contained shooting ranges for use with small arms for distances up to 800 metres (2,600 feet), space for the training of subunits from Australian Army units located within South Australia and support facilities such as a “vehicle maintenance compound.” An area of about 71 hectares (180 acres) within the training area was developed as an artificial wetland in 1992 for the purpose of treating effluent that would otherwise have been discharged into the Murray River. This wetland has been listed as a wetland of national importance since at least 1995.

National Wetlands Inventory

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) was established by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to conduct a nationwide inventory of U.S. wetlands to provide biologists and others with information on the distribution and type of wetlands to aid in conservation efforts. To do this, the NWI developed a wetland classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) that is now the official FWS wetland classification system and the Federal standard for wetland classification (adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee on July 29, 1996: 61 Federal Register 39465). The NWI also developed techniques for mapping and recording the inventory findings. The NWI relies on trained image analysts to identify and classify wetlands and deepwater habitats from aerial imagery. NWI started mapping wetlands at a small scale (1:250,000 map which covers an area the size of 128-1:24,000 USGS topographic maps or approximately 7,400 square miles). Eventually, large-scale (1:24K scale) maps became the standard product delivered by NWI. As computerized mapping and geospatial technology evolved, NWI discontinued production of paper maps in favor of distributing data via online "mapping tools" where information can be viewed and downloaded. Today, FWS serves its data via an on-line data discovery "Wetlands Mapper". GIS users can access wetlands data through an online wetland mapping service or download data for various applications (maps, data analyses, and reports). The techniques used by NWI have recently been adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee as the federal wetland mapping standard (FGDC Wetlands Subcommittee 2009). This standard applies to all federal grants involving wetland mapping to insure the data can be added to the Wetlands Layer of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. NWI also produces national wetlands status and trends reports required by the United States Congress.


Pocosin is a type of palustrine wetland with deep, acidic, sandy, peat soils. Groundwater saturates the soil except during brief seasonal dry spells and during prolonged droughts. Pocosin soils are nutrient-deficient (oligotrophic), especially in phosphorus.Pocosins occur in the southern portions of the Atlantic coastal plain of North America, spanning from southeastern Virginia, through North Carolina, and into South Carolina. However, the majority of pocosins are found in North Carolina. The Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1984 to help preserve pocosin wetlands.

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives. COP12 was held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 2015. COP13 was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in October 2018.

Sleaford Mere

Sleaford Mere (alternative name: Kuyabidni) is a permanent saline lake, located on the Jussieu Peninsula on the south eastern tip of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) south west of Port Lincoln. The lake was discovered and named by the British explorer, Matthew Flinders, on 26 February 1802. Since 1969, the lake has been part of the Sleaford Mere Conservation Park and since 2005, it has been listed as a nationally important wetland. The lake and its environs are notable as a venue for recreational pursuits such as canoeing.

Watervalley Wetlands

The Watervalley Wetlands is a nationally important wetland system located in the Australian state of South Australia which consists of a series of contiguous wetlands, lying on 56.6 square kilometres (21.9 sq mi) of private land between the Coorong National Park and Gum Lagoon Conservation Park, in the state's south-east.

Wildlife of Tanzania

Tanzania contains some 20 percent of the species of Africa’s large mammal population, found across its reserves, conservation areas, marine parks, and 17 national parks, spread over an area of more than 42,000 square kilometres (16,000 sq mi) and forming approximately 38 percent of the country's territory. Wildlife resources of Tanzania are described as "without parallel in Africa" and "the prime game viewing country". Serengeti National Park, the country's second largest national park area at 14,763 square kilometres (5,700 sq mi), is located in northern Tanzania and is famous for its extensive migratory herds of wildebeests and zebra while also having the reputation as one of the great natural wonders of the world. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area, established in 1959, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and inhabited by the Maasai people. Its Ngorongoro Crater is the largest intact caldera in the world.The national parks are also part of the wetlands of Tanzania. The wild animals tend to be closer to the wetlands, particularly the water loving species such as the hippopotamus, waterbuck, common warthog, elephant, crocodile, sitatunga as well as water birds such as flamingoes and ducks.

Wooroolin, Queensland

Wooroolin is a town and a locality in the South Burnett Region, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Wooroolin had a population of 315 people.

Classification systems

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.