Palpimanidae

Palpimanidae, also known as palp-footed spiders, is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Tamerlan Thorell in 1890.[1] They are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, the Mediterranean and one in Uzbekistan, but not Australia. They are not common and there is a high degree of endemism.[2]

Palp-footed spiders
Temporal range: Cretaceous–present
Sarascelis chaperi male
Male Sarascelis chaperi
Palpimanidae-Estereoscopio-artropofauna-hjarasca-Colombia-Atlántico-UniversidaddelAtlántico.
A spider in the family Palpimanidae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Superfamily: Palpimanoidea
Family: Palpimanidae
Thorell, 1870
Diversity
18 genera, 155 species
Distribution.palpimanidae.1
Synonyms
  • Otiothopidae

Description

Anisaedus.levii.diagnostic.drawings
Anisaedus levii

The most obvious features of the Palpimanidae are the front legs, which are disproportionately powerful and heavily sclerotised. The abdomen is round to oval, evenly sprinkled with short straight hairs that in some species are sufficiently dense to form a close-fitting coat, though most species look nearly smooth. Usually the cephalothorax is somewhat less obviously hairy. The abdomen is evenly rounded without conspicuous sculpting, and in many species is elongated into an olive shape twice as long as the cephalothorax, giving the spider a vaguely torpedo-shaped appearance. Instead of having six spinnerets like most spiders, the Palpimanidae have only two. Colour patterns generally are subdued and simple. A few genera, such as Diaphorocellus have light patches on a dark abdomen. Most others are brownish or reddish to dark in general colour, but as a rule the cephalothorax is more heavily sclerotised and darker than the abdomen, as well as glossier. There are eight eyes in two rows of four, but in some species the outer anterior and posterior eyes are close together, which has caused some people to think there are just six eyes. In some species the chelicerae have stimulatory organs, microscopic ridges, with pegs that scrape over them when they rub the chelicerae together. The probable function is to signal to each other in mating, though it might have some defensive role as well.[2]

Biology

The behaviour of the Palpimanidae is in general poorly investigated. All species produce ecribellate silk.[3] They certainly are ground dwellers and do not spin webs, though they many do spin shelters for themselves in holes or under rocks. Palpimanus gibbulus at least, lives in leaf litter or under stones in dry soils. Many or most species go wandering at night, either hunting or seeking mates. They generally keep their very strong first legs held up in front of themselves while walking slowly at night,[2] and on encountering possible prey they may feel it gently before grabbing it very rapidly and powerfully, as shown in some on-line video material.

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Thorell, T. (1870). "On European spiders". Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis. 3 (7): 109–242.
  2. ^ a b c Dippenaar-Schoeman, Ansie (2014). Field Guide to the Spiders of South Africa. LAPA Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7993-6018-9.
  3. ^ Griswold, C.E.; et al. (1999). "Towards a Phylogeny of Entelegyne Spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae)" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 27: 53–63.
  4. ^ "Family: Palpimanidae Thorell, 1870". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.

Further reading

  • Platnick, N.I. (1975): A revision of the palpimanid spiders of the new subfamily Otiothopinae (Araneae, Palpimandae). American Museum Novitates 2562. PDF - Abstract - hdl:2246/2755
  • Platnick, N.I. (1978): A new Otiothops from Colombia (Araneae, Palpimanidae). J. Arachnol. 5: 179-180. PDF (O. kochalkai)
  • Platnick, N.I. (1985): On the Chilean spiders of the family Palpimanidae (Arachnida, Araneae). J. Arachnol. 13: 399-400. PDF
  • Platnick, N.I., Grismado, C.J. & Ramírez, M.J. (1999): On the genera of the spider subfamily Otiothopinae (Araneae, Palpimanidae). American Museum Novitates 3257. PDF - Abstract - hdl:2246/3099
  • Grismado, C.J. (2002): Palpimanid spiders from Guyana: New species of the genera Fernandezina and Otiothops (Araneae, Palpimanidae, Otiothopinae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 92: 3. PDF - HTML - doi:10.1590/S0073-47212002000300002

External links

Anisaedus

Anisaedus is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1893.

Badia rugosa

Badia is a monotypic genus of Senegalese palp-footed spiders containing the single species, Badia rugosa. It was first described by Carl Friedrich Roewer in 1961, and is only found in Senegal.

Boagrius

Boagrius is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1893. As of June 2019 it contains only two species, found only in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Tanzania: B. incisus and B. pumilus.

Chedima

Chedima is a monotypic genus of Moroccan palp-footed spiders containing the single species, Chedima purpurea. It was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1873, and is only found in Morocco.

Chedimanops

Chedimanops is a genus of spiders in the Palpimanidae family. It was first described in 2017 by Zonstein & Marusik. As of 2017, it contains 2 species, both from Congo.

Diaphorocellus

Diaphorocellus is a genus of African palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1893.

Fernandezina

Fernandezina is a genus of South American palp-footed spiders that was first described by M. Birabén in 1951.

Hybosida

Hybosida is a genus of East African palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1898.

Hybosida dauban

Hybosida dauban is a species of spider found on Silhouette Island in the Seychelles.

Levymanus

Levymanus is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by S. Zonstein & Y. M. Marusik in 2013. As of June 2019 it contains only two species, found in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Ethiopia: L. gershomi and L. ras.

Notiothops

Notiothops is a genus of Chilean palp-footed spiders that was first described by Norman I. Platnick, C. J. Grismado & M. J. Ramírez in 1999.

Otiothops

Otiothops is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by W. S. MacLeay in 1839.

Palpimanoidea

The Palpimanoidea or palpimanoids, also known as assassin spiders, are a group of araneomorph spiders, originally treated as a superfamily. As with many such groups, its circumscription has varied. As of September 2018, the following five families were included:

Archaeidae

Huttoniidae

Mecysmaucheniidae

Palpimanidae

StenochilidaeMany palpimanoids specialize in preying on other spiders, hence the name "assassin spiders". They have various adaptations for catching prey, including enlarged spade-like front legs, and heads raised up on a "neck" with long chelicerae ("jaws"). Fossils suggest that the group was once widespread, but most species are now found in the Southern Hemisphere. Morphological studies support the monophyly of the group, although molecular studies have produced different results.

Palpimanus

Palpimanus is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by L. Dufour in 1820.

Sarascelis

Sarascelis is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1887.

Scelidocteus

Scelidocteus is a genus of African palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1907.

Scelidomachus

Scelidomachus socotranus is a species of spider found on the island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean. It is the only member of its genus.

Steriphopus

Steriphopus is a genus of palp-footed spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1887.

Extant Araneae families

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