Pallopteridae

Pallopteridae is a family of flies. The various species are collectively called flutter-wing flies, trembling-wing, or waving-wing flies, because of the striking vibration of the wings in many species. Over 50 species in about 15 genera are found in the temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Pallopteridae
Palloptera.umbellatarum
Palloptera umbellatarum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Superfamily: Tephritoidea
Family: Pallopteridae
Subfamilies
  • Eurygnathomyiinae
  • Pallopterinae
Diversity
15 genera, ca. 50+ species
Pallopteridae P1050533b

Biology

Adults have been found on flowers and low-hanging branches in shady habits. Known larvae are phytophagous or carnivorous (some species preying on beetles of the families Cerambycidae and Scolytidae. One species is recorded as preying on larvae of the family Cecidomyiidae. Some have been found in flower buds and stems.

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera

They are medium-sized or relatively small flies, they have spots on their wings (dark smoky apical spot in Palloptera ustulata). The wings are considerably longer than the abdomen. The head is semispherical and the postvertical bristles on the head are parallel or divergent. Vibrissae on the head are absent. The arista is bare or has a short pubescence. The mesonotom has four to six pairs of dorso-central bristles. Tibiae without subapical bristles. The costa is interrupted near the end of the subcosta. The subcosta reaches the costa. The subcosta is complete and well separated from vein 1. The cross vein closing the anal cell is usually convex and the angle the cross vein closing anal cell meets vein 6 at more than 90°. See [1]

Identification (literature)

  • Czerny, L., 1927:in Lindner,E. 53a. Helomyzidae, 53b. Trichoscelidae und 53c. Chiromyidae, in: Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region., Stuttgart. Keys genera.
  • Morge, G., 1967 Die Lonchaeidae und Pallopteridae Österreichs und der Angrenzenden Gebiete. 2. Teil: Die Pallopteridae. Naturkundliches Jahrbuch der Stadt Linz 13: 141-212.
  • Séguy, E., 1934 Diptères: Brachycères. T.II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28.BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique pdf
  • Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Pallopteridae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision .

Genera

These 14 genera belong to the family Pallopteridae:

  • Aenigmatomyia c g
  • Eurygnathomyia c g
  • Gorbunia c g
  • Heloparia c g
  • Homaroides c g
  • Morgea c g
  • Neomaorina c g
  • Palloptera Fallén, 1820 i c g b
  • Pallopterites Hennig, 1967 g
  • Pseudopyrgota c g
  • Sciochthis c g
  • Temnosira i c g
  • Toxoneura i g
  • Toxonevra Macquart, 1835 c g b

Data sources: i = ITIS,[1] c = Catalogue of Life,[2] g = GBIF,[3] b = Bugguide.net[4]

Species lists

Images

Fossils

Five species in four genera are recorded in the fossil record of this family.

References

  1. ^ "Pallopteridae Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  2. ^ "Browse Pallopteridae". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  3. ^ "Pallopteridae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  4. ^ "Pallopteridae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Culicoidea

The Culicoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea:

Dixidae – meniscus midges

Corethrellidae – frog-biting midges

Chaoboridae – phantom midges

Culicidae – mosquitoes

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Lonchaeidae

The Lonchaeidae are a family of acalyptrate flies commonly known as lance flies. About 500 described species are placed into 9 genera. These are generally small but robustly built flies with blue-black or metallic bodies. They are found, mainly in wooded areas, throughout the world with the exception of polar regions and New Zealand.

Oestroidea

Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:

Calliphoridae

Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Mystacinobiidae

Oestridae

Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Rhinophoridae

Sarcophagidae

Tachinidae

Ulurumyiidae

Palloptera

Palloptera is a genus of flutter flies in the family Pallopteridae. There are at least 30 described species in Palloptera.

Palloptera claripennis

Palloptera claripennis is a species of flutter fly in the family Pallopteridae.

Palloptera muliebris

Palloptera muliebris is a species of fly in the family Pallopteridae. It is found in the Palearctic.

Palloptera saltuum

Palloptera saltuum is a species of fly in the family Pallopteridae. It is found in the Palearctic .

Palloptera subusta

Palloptera subusta is a species of flutter fly in the family Pallopteridae.

Palloptera umbellatarum

Palloptera umbellatarum is a species of fly in the family Pallopteridae. It is found in the Palearctic.

Palloptera ustulata

Palloptera ustulata is a species of fly in the family Pallopteridae. It is found in the Palearctic .

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Tipulomorpha

The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Toxonevra

Toxonevra is a genus of flutter flies in the family Pallopteridae. There are about eight described species in Toxonevra.

Toxonevra superba

Toxonevra superba is a species of flutter fly in the family Pallopteridae.

Extant Diptera families

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