Palermo

Palermo (Italian: [paˈlɛrmo] (listen); Sicilian: Palermu, locally [paˈlɛmmʊ]; Latin: Panormus, from Greek: Πάνορμος, translit. Pánormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as Ziz. Palermo then became a possession of Carthage. Two Greek colonies were established, known collectively as Panormos or "All-Port"; the Carthaginians used this name on their coins after the 5th century BC. As Panormus, the town became part of the Roman Republic and Empire for over a thousand years. From 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Bal'harm[3][4] (Arabic: بَلَرْم‎), the root for Palermo's present-day name. Following the Norman reconquest, Palermo became the capital of a new kingdom (from 1130 to 1816), the Kingdom of Sicily and the capital of the Holy Roman Empire under Emperor Frederick II and King Conrad IV.

The population of Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, while its metropolitan area is the fifth most populated in Italy with around 1.2 million people. In the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, poetically, panormiti. The languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language and the Palermitano dialect of the Sicilian language.

Palermo is Sicily's cultural, economic and tourism capital. It is a city rich in history, culture, art, music and food. Numerous tourists are attracted to the city for its good Mediterranean weather, its renowned gastronomy and restaurants, its Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque churches, palaces and buildings, and its nightlife and music.[5] Palermo is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services, commerce and agriculture.[6] Palermo currently has an international airport, and a significant underground economy. In fact, for cultural, artistic and economic reasons, Palermo was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy and Europe. It is the main seat of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale. The city is also going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro-Mediterranean area.[7]

Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palermitano culture. The Patron Saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia whose Feast Day is celebrated on 15 July. The area attracts significant numbers of tourists each year and is widely known for its colourful fruit, vegetable and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò and Capo.[8]

Palermo

Palermu  (Sicilian)
Comune di Palermo
Clockwise from top: Mondello, Teatro Massimo, Cappella Palatina, Zisa, Cathedral, Virgin Annunciate of Antonello da Messina, Quattro Canti in Maqueda Street, Churches of Martorana and San Cataldo, Interior of Santa Caterina Church, Pretoria Square and Mount Pellegrino
Clockwise from top: Mondello, Teatro Massimo, Cappella Palatina, Zisa, Cathedral, Virgin Annunciate of Antonello da Messina, Quattro Canti in Maqueda Street, Churches of Martorana and San Cataldo, Interior of Santa Caterina Church, Pretoria Square and Mount Pellegrino
Flag of Palermo

Flag
Coat of arms of Palermo

Coat of arms
The municipality of Palermo within the province
The municipality of Palermo within the province
Location of Palermo
Palermo is located in Italy
Palermo
Palermo
Location of Palermo in Sicily
Palermo is located in Sicily
Palermo
Palermo
Palermo (Sicily)
Coordinates: 38°07′N 13°22′E / 38.117°N 13.367°ECoordinates: 38°07′N 13°22′E / 38.117°N 13.367°E
CountryItaly
RegionSicily
Metropolitan cityPalermo (PA)
Founded736 BC
Government
 • MayorLeoluca Orlando (PD)
Area
 • Total160.59 km2 (62.00 sq mi)
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total668,405
 • Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Palermitano
Panormito
Palermitan (English)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
90100
Dialing code091
ISTAT code082053
Patron saintSaint Rosalia, Saint Agata, Saint Oliva and Saint Benedict the Moor
Saint day14 July
WebsiteOfficial website

Geography

Palermo lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto, Kemonia and Oreto rivers. The basin was named the Conca d'Oro (the Golden Basin) by the Arabs in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a mountain range which is named after the city itself. These mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea. Palermo is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea, especially from Monte Pellegrino.

Climate

Il golfo di Mondello
Gulf of Mondello seen from Monte Pellegrino

Palermo experiences a hot-summer subtropical Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) that is mild with moderate seasonality. Summers are very long, hot and dry due to the domination of subtropical high pressure system, while winters experience moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather due to the polar front.[9] Temperatures in autumn and spring are usually mild. Palermo is one of the warmest cities in Europe (mainly due to its warm nights), with an average annual air temperature of 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), it's one of the warmest cities in Italy. It receives approximately 2,530 hours of sunshine per year. Snow is a rare occurrence having snowed about a dozen times since 1945.[10] Since the 1940s to nowadays there have been at least five times when considerable snowfall has occurred. In 1949 and in 1956, when the minimum temperature went down to 0 °C (32 °F), the city was blanketed by some centimetres of snow.[11] Snowfalls also occurred in 1981, 1986, 1999 and 2014.[12] The average annual temperature of the sea is above 19 °C (66 °F); from 14 °C (57 °F) in February to 26 °C (79 °F) in August. In the period from November to May, the average sea temperature exceeds 18 °C (64 °F) and in the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds 21 °C (70 °F).[13]

Topography

Sommer, Giorgio (1834-1914) - n. 9000 - PALERMO - Monte Pellegrino
Monte Pellegrino pictured at the end of the 19th century; the mountain is visible from everywhere in the city

Palermo is surrounded by mountains, which form a cirque around the city. Some districts of the city are divided by the mountains themselves. Historically, it was relatively difficult to reach the inner part of Sicily from the city because of the mounts. The tallest peak of the range is La Pizzuta, about 1,333 metres (4,373 ft) high. However, historically, the most important mount is Monte Pellegrino, which is geographically separated from the rest of the range by a plain. The mount lies right in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Monte Pellegrino's cliff was described in the 19th century by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as "the most beautiful promontory in the world", in his essay "Italian Journey".

Rivers

Today both the Papireto river and the Kemonia are covered up by buildings. However, the shape of the former watercourses can still be recognised today, because the streets that were built on them follow their shapes. Today the only waterway not drained yet is the Oreto river that divides the downtown of the city from the western uptown and the industrial districts. In the basins there were, though, many seasonal torrents that helped formed swampy plains, reclaimed during history; a good example of which can be found in the borough of Mondello.

View of Palermo from Monte Pellegrino
View of Palermo from Monte Pellegrino

Districts

Quarters of Palermo
Municipality Quarters
I Kalsa, Albergheria, Seralcadio & La Loggia
II Settecannoli, Brancaccio & Ciaculli-Oreto
III Villagrazia-Falsomiele & Stazione-Oreto
IV Montegrappa, S. Rosalia, Cuba, Calafatimi, Mezzomonreale, Villa Tasca-Altarello & Boccadifalco
V Zisa, Noce, Uditore-Passo di Rigano & Borgo Nuovo
VI Cruillas, S. Giovanni Apostolo, Resuttana & San Lorenzo
VII Pallavicino, Tommaso Natale, Sferracavallo, Partanna Mondello, Arenella, Vergine Maria & San Filippo Neri (formerly known as ZEN)
VIII Politeama, Malaspina-Palagonia, Libertà & Monte Pellegrino

Shown above are the thirty five quarters of Palermo: these thirty five neighbourhoods or "quartiere" as they are known, are further divided into eight governmental community boards.[16]

Landmarks

Palermo Cathedral
Palermo Cathedral

Palermo has a large architectural heritage and is notable for its many Norman buildings.

Churches

  • Palermo Cathedral: Located at Corso Vittorio Emanuele, corner Via Matteo Bonello, its long history has led to an accumulation of different architectural styles, the latest being the 18th century.
  • Cappella Palatina, the 12th century chapel of the Palazzo dei Normanni, has outstanding mosaics in both Western and the Eastern traditions and a roof by Saracen craftsmen.
  • San Giovanni dei Lebbrosi
  • San Giovanni degli Eremiti (St. John of the Hermit Order): Located near the Palazzo dei Normanni, a 12th-century church notable for its bright red domes, a remnant of Arab influence in Sicily. In his Diary of an Idle Woman in Sicily, F. Elliot described it as "... totally oriental... it would fit well in Baghdad or Damascus". The bell tower is an example of Gothic architecture.
  • Chiesa della Martorana: Also known as Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (St Mary of the Admiral), the church is annexed to the next-door church of San Cataldo and overlooks the Piazza Bellini in central Palermo. The original layout was a compact cross-in-square ("Greek cross plan"), a common south Italian and Sicilian variant of the middle Byzantine period church style. Three eastern apses adjoin directly to the naos, instead of being separated by an additional bay, as was usual in eastern Byzantine architecture.[17] The bell tower, lavishly decorated, still serves as the main entrance to the church. The interior decoration is elaborate, and includes Byzantine mosaics.
  • San Cataldo: Church, on the central Piazza Bellini, which is a good example of Norman architecture.
  • Santa Maria della Gancia
  • Santa Caterina: This church is located behind Piazza Pretoria and built between 1566 and 1596 in the baroque style.
  • Santa Maria della Catena: This church was built between 1490-1520. Designed by Matteo Carnilivari: The name derives from chains that were once attached to one of the walls.
  • San Domenico: Located near Via Roma, it is known as the “Pantheon of illustrious Sicilians.
  • San Giuseppe dei Teatini: Located near the Quattro Canti, it is an example of Sicilian Baroque.
  • Oratorio di San Lorenzo Working in stucco, Rococo sculptor Giacomo Serpotta, his brother Giuseppe and his son Procopio, decorated the church (1690/98–1706) with such a profusion of statuary, and an abundance of putti, the walls appear alive. In October 1969, two thieves removed Caravaggio's Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence from its frame. It has never been recovered.[18][19]
  • Oratorio del Rosario: Completed by Giacomo Serpotta in (1710–17)
  • Santa Teresa alla Kalsa, which derives its name from Al-Khalisa, an Arabic term meaning elected, was constructed between 1686-1706 over the former Emir's residence, is one of the best examples of Sicilian Baroque. It has a single, airy nave, with stucco decorations from the early 18th century.
  • Santa Maria dello Spasimo was built in 1506 and later turned into a hospital. This church inspired Raphael to paint his famous Sicilia's Spasimo, now in the Museo del Prado. The church today is a fascinating open-air auditorium, which occasionally houses exhibitions and musical shows.
  • Church of the Gesu (Church of Jesus): Located in the city centre, the church was built in 1564 in the late-Renaissance style by the Jesuits. It was built over a pre-existing convent of Basilian monks. Alterations in 1591 were completed in a Sicilian Baroque. The church was heavily damaged after the 1943 bombings, which destroyed most of the frescos. The interior has a Latin cross plan with a nave and two aisles, and has a particularly rich decoration of marbles, intarsia and stuccoes, especially in St Anne's Chapel. At the right is the Casa Professa, with a 1685 portal and a precious 18th century cloister. The building has been home to the Municipal Library since 1775.
  • San Francesco di Assisi: this church was built between 1255 and 1277 in what was once the market district of the city, at the site of two pre-existing churches and was largely renovated in the 15th, 16th, 18th and 19th centuries, the last after an earthquake. After the 1943 bombings, the church was restored to its Medieval appearance, which now includes part of the original building such as part of the right side, the apses and the Gothic portal in the façade. The interior has a typical Gothic flavour, with a nave and two aisles separated by two rows of cylindrical pilasters. Some of the chapels are in Renaissance style, as well as the late 16th century side portals. The church includes precious sculptures by Antonio, Giacomo Gagini and Francesco Laurana. Of note are also statues built by Giacomo Serpotta in 1723.
  • Church of the Magione: Officially known as the church of the Holy Trinity. This church was built in the Norman style in 1191 by Matteo d'Ajello, who donated it to the Cistercian monks.

Palaces and museums

Palermo-Castle-bjs-1
Palazzo dei Normanni, seat of the Sicilian Regional Assembly.

City walls

Palermo has at least two rings of city walls, many pieces of which still survive. The first ring surrounded the ancient core of the Phoenician city – the so-called Palaeopolis (in the area east of Porta Nuova) and the Neapolis. Via Vittorio Emanuele was the main road east–west through this early walled city. The eastern edge of the walled city was on Via Roma and the ancient port in the vicinity of Piazza Marina. The wall circuit was approximately Porto Nuovo, Corso Alberti, Piazza Peranni, Via Isodoro, Via Candela, Via Venezia, Via Roma, Piazza Paninni, Via Biscottari, Via Del Bastione, Palazzo dei Normanni and back to Porto Nuovo.

In the medieval period the walled city was expanded. Via Vittorio Emanuele continued to be the main road east–west through the walled city. The west gate was still Porta Nuova, the walls continued to Corso Alberti, to Piazza Vittorio Emanuele Orlando where it turned east along Via Volturno to Piazza Verdi and along the line of Via Cavour. At this northeast corner there was a defence, Castello a Mare, to protect the port at La Cala. A huge chain was used to block La Cala with the other end at Santa Maria della Catena (St Mary of the Chain). The sea-side wall was along the western side of Foro Italico Umberto. The wall turns west along the northern side of Via Abramo Lincoln, continues along Corso Tukory. The wall turns north approximately on Via Benedetto, to Palazzo dei Normanni and back to Porta Nuova.[20]

Several gates in the city wall survive. Images of the wall can be seen here.[21]

Opera houses

Palermo-Teatro-Massimo-bjs2007-02
Teatro Massimo opera house.

Up until the beginning of 20th century there were hundreds of small opera theatres known as magazzeni in the city of Palermo.

  • The Teatro Massimo ("Greatest Theatre") was opened in 1897. It is the biggest in Italy (8,000 m2, 86,000 sq ft), and one of the largest of Europe (the third after the Paris Opera and the Vienna State Opera), renowned for its perfect acoustics. Enrico Caruso sang in a performance of La Gioconda during the opening season, returning for Rigoletto at the very end of his career. Closed for renovation from 1974 until 1997, it is now restored and has an active schedule.
  • The Teatro Politeama was built between 1867 and 1874.

Squares

Sicilia Palermo1 tango7174
Piazza Pretoria.
  • Quattro Canti is a small square at the crossing of the ancient main roads (now: Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Via Maqueda) dividing the town into its quarters (mandamenti). The buildings at the corner have diagonal baroque façades so the square has an almost octagonal form.
  • Piazza Pretoria was planned in the 16th century near the Quattro Canti as the site of a fountain by Francesco Camilliani, the Fontana Pretoria

Other sights

Orto botanico Palermo 04
Palermo Botanical Garden: the Winter Garden greenhouses.

The cathedral has a heliometer (solar observatory) dating to 1690, one of a number[22] built in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. The device itself is quite simple: a tiny hole in one of the minor domes acts as pinhole camera, projecting an image of the sun onto the floor at solar noon (12:00 in winter, 13:00 in summer). There is a bronze line, la Meridiana, on the floor, running precisely north–south. The ends of the line mark the positions as at the summer and winter solstices; signs of the zodiac show the various other dates throughout the year.

The purpose of the instrument was to standardise the measurement of time and the calendar. The convention in Sicily had been that the (24‑hour) day was measured from the moment of dawn, which of course meant that no two locations had the same time and, more importantly, did not have the same time as in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It was also important to know when the vernal equinox occurred, to provide the correct date for Easter.

The Orto botanico di Palermo (Palermo Botanical Garden), founded in 1785, is the largest in Italy with a surface of 10 hectares (25 acres).

One site of interest is the Capuchin Catacombs, with many mummified corpses in varying degrees of preservation.

Close to the city is the 600-metre-high (2,000 ft) Monte Pellegrino, offering a panorama of the city, its surrounding mountains and the sea.

Another good panoramic viewpoint is the promontory of Monte Gallo (586 m, 1,923 ft), near Mondello Beach.[23]

Palermo 0454 2013
La fontaine de la honte (Palerme) (6877773882)
Palermo 0579 2013
Palermo 0586 2013
Palermo 0601 2013
Palermo 0461 2013

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

UNESCO World Heritage Sites include the Palazzo Reale with the Cappella Palatina, the Chiesa di San Giovanni degli Eremiti, the Chiesa di Santa Maria dell’Ammiraglio, the Chiesa di San Cataldo, the Cattedrale di Palermo, the Palazzo della Zisa and the Ponte dell’Ammiraglio.[24][25][26] This makes Italy the country with the most UNESCO world heritage sites,[27][28] and Sicily the region hosting the most within Italy.[29]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 199,911—    
1871 223,689+11.9%
1881 244,898+9.5%
1901 309,566+26.4%
1911 339,465+9.7%
1921 397,486+17.1%
1931 379,905−4.4%
1936 411,879+8.4%
1951 490,692+19.1%
1961 587,985+19.8%
1971 642,814+9.3%
1981 701,782+9.2%
1991 698,556−0.5%
2001 686,722−1.7%
2008 (Est.) 659,623−3.9%
Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2010, there were 1.2 million people living in the greater Palermo area, 655,875 of which resided in the City boundaries, of whom 47.4% were male and 52.6% were female. People under age 15 totalled 15.6% compared to pensioners who composed 17.2% of the population. This compares with the Italian average of 14.1% people under 15 years and 20.2% pensioners. The average age of a Palermo resident is 40.4 compared to the Italian average of 42.8. In the ten years between 2001 and 2010, the population of Palermo declined by 4.5%, while the population of Italy, as a whole, grew by 6.0%. The reason for Palermo's decline is a population flight to the suburbs, and to Northern Italy.[30] The current birth rate of Palermo is 10.2 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.3 births.

As of 2006, 97.79% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from South Asia (mostly from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka): 0.80%, other European countries (mostly from Albania, Romania, Serbia, North Macedonia and Ukraine): 0.3%, and North Africa (mostly from Tunisia): 0.28%.[31]

2015 largest resident foreign-born groups[32]
Country of birth Population
 Bangladesh 5,567
 Sri Lanka 3,846
 Romania 3,056
 Ghana 2,803
 Philippines 1,757
 Morocco 1,295
 Tunisia 1,184
 China 1,135
 Mauritius 1,034
other countries each <600

History

Early history

Evidence of human settlement in the area now known as Palermo goes back to at least the Mesolithic period, perhaps around 8000 BC, where a group of cave drawings at nearby Addaura from that period have been found.[33] The original inhabitants were Sicani people who, according to Thucydides, arrived from the Iberian Peninsula (perhaps Catalonia).[34][35]

Ancient period

MuraPunichePalermo
A brief stretch of Palermo's Phoenician defence wall, now enclosed in the Santa Caterina Monastery.

In 734 BC the Phoenicians, maritime traders from northern Canaan, built a small settlement on the natural harbor of Palermo, which became known as Ziz[36] (Punic: 𐤑‬𐤉𐤑, ṢYṢ).[37] It became one of the three main Phoenician colonies of Sicily, along with Motya and Soluntum. However, the remains of the Phoenician presence in the city are few and mostly preserved in the very populated center of the downtown area, making any excavation efforts costly and logistically difficult. The site chosen by the Phoenicians made it easy to connect the port to the mountains with a straight road that today has become Corso Calatifimi. This road helped the Phoenicians in trading with the populations that lived beyond the mountains that surround the gulf.

The first settlement is known as Paleapolis (Greek: Παλεάπολις), meaning "Old City", in order to distinguish it from a second settlement built during the 5th century BC, called Neapolis (Νεάπολις) or "New City". Neapolis was erected towards the east and along with it, monumental walls around the whole settlement were built to prevent attacks from foreign threats. Some part of this structure can still be seen in the Cassaro district. This district was named after the walls themselves; the word Cassaro deriving from the Arab al-qaṣr (castle, stronghold, see also alcázar). Along the walls there were few doors to access and exit the city, suggesting that trade even toward the inner part of the island occurred frequently. Moreover, according to some studies, it may be possible that there were some walls that divided the old city from the new one too. The colony developed around a central street (decumanus), cut perpendicularly by minor streets. This street today has become Corso Vittorio Emanuele.

Carthage was Palermo’s major trading partner under the Phoenicians and the city enjoyed a prolonged peace during this period. Palermo came into contact with the Ancient Greeks between the 6th and the 5th centuries BC which preceded the Sicilian Wars, a conflict fought between the Greeks of Syracuse and the Phoenicians of Carthage for control over the island of Sicily. During this war the Greeks named the settlement Pánormos (Πάνορμος), meaning "all port" due to its large anchorage, from which the present name of the city developed. The Phoenicians began using the Greek name on the city's coinage from the 5th century BC.[38] It was from Palermo that Hamilcar I's fleet (which was defeated at the Battle of Himera) was launched.[39] In 409 BC the city was looted by Hermocrates of Syracuse. The Sicilian Wars ended in 265 BC when Carthage and Syracuse stopped warring and united in order to stop the Romans from gaining full control of the island during the First Punic War. In 276 BC,[40] during the Pyrrhic War, Panormos briefly became a Greek colony after being conquered by Pyrrhus of Epirus, but returned to Phoenician Carthage in 275 BC. In 254 BC Panormos was besieged and conquered by the Romans in the first battle of Panormus (the Latin name). Carthage attempted to reconquer Panormus in 251 BC but failed.

Middle Ages

Palermo-San-Giovanni-bjs-2
San Giovanni degli Eremiti, a church showing elements of Byzantine, Arabic, and Norman architecture.

As the Roman Empire was falling apart, Palermo fell under the control of several Germanic tribes. The first were the Vandals in 440 AD under the rule of their king Geiseric. The Vandals had occupied all the Roman provinces in North Africa by 455 establishing themselves as a significant force.[41] They acquired Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily shortly afterwards. However, they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to the Ostrogoths. The Ostrogothic conquest under Theodoric the Great began in 488; Theodoric supported Roman culture and government unlike the Germanic Goths.[42] The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken under control of General Belisarius who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor. Justinian I solidified his rule in the following years.[43][44]

Chapelle Palatine
Cappella Palatina, decorated with Byzantine, Arabic and Norman elements.

The Arabs took control of the island in 904, and the Emirate of Sicily was established.[45] Muslim rule on the island lasted for about 120 years.[46] Palermo (Bal'harm during Arab rule) displaced Syracuse as the capital of Sicily. It was said to have then begun to compete with Córdoba and Cairo in terms of importance and splendor.[47] For more than a hundred years Palermo was the capital of a flourishing emirate.[48] The Arabs also introduced many agricultural crops which remain a mainstay of Sicilian cuisine.[41]

Muqarnas à lintérieur de la Cuba (Palerme) (7034575397)
Arabesque on a wall of the Cuba Palace.

After dynastic quarrels however, there was a Christian reconquest in 1072. The family who returned the city to Christianity were called the Hautevilles, including Robert Guiscard and his army, who is regarded as a hero by the natives.[45][49] It was under his nephew Roger II of Sicily that Norman holdings in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula were promoted from the County of Sicily into the Kingdom of Sicily. The kingdom's capital was Palermo, with the King's Court held at the Palazzo dei Normanni. Much construction was undertaken during this period, such as the building of Palermo Cathedral. The Kingdom of Sicily became one of the wealthiest states in Europe.[50]

Sicily fell under the control of the Holy Roman Empire in 1194. Palermo was the preferred city of the Emperor Frederick II. Muslims of Palermo emigrated or were expelled during Holy Roman rule. After an interval of Angevin rule (1266–1282), Sicily came under control of the Aragon and Barcelona dynasties. By 1330, Palermo's population had declined to 51,000.[51] From 1479 until 1713 Palermo was ruled by the Kingdom of Spain, and again between 1717 and 1718. Palermo was also under Savoy control between 1713 and 1717 and 1718–1720 as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht. It was also ruled by Austria between 1720 and 1734.

Two Sicilies

After the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Sicily was handed over to the House of Savoy, but by 1734 it was in Bourbon possession. Charles III chose Palermo for his coronation as King of Sicily. Charles had new houses built for the growing population, while trade and industry grew as well. However, by now Palermo was now just another provincial city as the Royal Court resided in Naples. Charles' son Ferdinand, though disliked by the population, took refuge in Palermo after the French Revolution in 1798. His son Alberto died on the way to Palermo and is buried in the city.

When the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was founded, the original capital city was Palermo (1816) but a year later moved to Naples.

Sanesi - La rivoluzione di Palermo-12 gennaio 1848 - ca. 1850
The revolution in Palermo (12 January 1848).

From 1820 to 1848 Sicily was shaken by upheavals, which culminated on 12 January 1848, with a popular insurrection, the first one in Europe that year, led by Giuseppe La Masa. A parliament and constitution were proclaimed. The first president was Ruggero Settimo. The Bourbons reconquered Palermo in 1849, and remained under their rule until the time of Giuseppe Garibaldi. The general entered Palermo with his troops (the “Thousands”) on 27 May 1860. After the plebiscite later that year Palermo, along with the rest of Sicily, became part of the new Kingdom of Italy (1861).

Italian unification and today

Giuseppe Garibaldi entering Palermo
Giuseppe Garibaldi entering Palermo on 27 May 1860

The majority of Sicilians preferred independence to the Savoy kingdom; in 1866, Palermo became the seat of a week-long popular rebellion, which was finally crushed after Martial law was declared.[52] The Italian government blamed anarchists and the Church, specifically the Archbishop of Palermo, for the rebellion and began enacting anti-Sicilian and anti-clerical policies.[52] A new cultural, economic and industrial growth was spurred by several families, like the Florio, the Ducrot, the Rutelli, the Sandron, the Whitaker, the Utveggio, and others. In the early twentieth century, Palermo expanded outside the old city walls, mostly to the north along the new boulevards Via Roma, Via Dante, Via Notarbartolo, and Viale della Libertà. These roads would soon boast a huge number of villas in the Art Nouveau style. Many of these were designed by the architect Ernesto Basile. The Grand Hotel Villa Igiea, designed by Ernesto Basile for the Florio family, is a good example of Palermitan Art Nouveau. The huge Teatro Massimo was designed in the same period by Giovan Battista Filippo Basile, and built by the Rutelli & Machì building firm of the industrial and old Rutelli Italian family in Palermo, and was opened in 1897.

During the Second World War, Palermo was heavily bombed by the Allied air forces in 1942 and 1943, until its capture during the Allied invasion of Sicily on 22 July 1943.[53][54] The harbour (main objective of the air attacks) and the surrounding quarters were effectively destroyed, as was a considerable part of the city, with heavy civilian casualties.[55] When American troops entered Palermo in 1943 they were greeted with "a thunderous welcome by what seemed the entire population demonstrating their feelings about Facsist rule." The two captured Italian generals claimed that they were happy because in their view "the Sicilians were not human beings but animals".[56] Anti-sicilian prejudice was part of the fascist regime's world view, being promoted by pro-fascist newspapers, particularly in the north of Italy.[57]

In 1946 the city was declared the seat of the Regional Parliament, as capital of a Special Status Region (1947) whose seat is in the Palazzo dei Normanni.

A theme in the city's modern age has been the struggle against the Mafia, Red Brigades and outlaws such as Salvatore Giuliano, who controlled the neighbouring area of Montelepre. The Italian state effectively has had to share control of the territory, economically and administratively, with the Mafia.

The so-called "Sack of Palermo" is one of the major visible faces of the problem. The term is used to indicate the speculative building practices that have filled the city with poor buildings, mainly during the 1950s to the 1980s. The reduced importance of agriculture in the Sicilian economy has led to a massive migration to the cities, especially Palermo, which swelled in size, leading to rapid expansion towards the north. The regulatory plans for expansion was largely ignored in the boom. New parts of town appeared almost out of nowhere, but without parks, schools, public buildings, proper roads and the other amenities that characterise a modern city.

Culture

Religion

Patron saints

GenioPalermoMarabitti
Genius of Palermo, the ancient patron of the city.

The patron saint of Palermo is Saint Rosalia, who is widely revered.

On 14 July, people in Palermo celebrate the annual Festino, the most important religious event of the year. The Festino is a procession which goes through the main street of Palermo to commemorate the miracle attributed to Saint Rosalia who, it is believed, freed the city from the Black Death in 1624. Her remains were discovered in a cave on Monte Pellegrino, and her remains were carried around the city three times, banishing the plague. There is a sanctuary marking the spot where her remains were found which can be reached via a scenic bus ride from the city.

Before 1624 Palermo had four patron saints, one for each of the four major parts of the city. They were Saint Agatha, Saint Christina, Saint Nympha and Saint Olivia.

Saint Lucy is also honoured with a peculiar celebration, during which the inhabitants of Palermo do not eat anything made with flour, but boil wheat in its natural state and use it to prepare a special dish called cuccìa. This commemorates the saving of the city from famine due to a miracle attributed to Saint Lucy; A ship full of grain mysteriously arrived in the city's harbour and the hungry population wasted no time in making flour but ate the grain as it arrived.

Saint Benedict the Moor is the heavenly protector of the city of Palermo.

The ancient patron of the city was the Genius of Palermo, genius loci and numen protector of the place, that became the laic patron of the modern Palermo.[58]

Sports

Palermo hosts a professional football team, U.S. Citta di Palermo, commonly referred to as simply Palermo, who compete in Serie B, having been relegated to Serie B after the 2016-2017 season.

The Targa Florio was an open road endurance car race held near Palermo. Founded in 1906, it used to be one of the oldest sports car racing events until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns but has since run as a rallying event. Palermo was home to the grand depart of the 2008 Giro d'Italia. The initial stage was a 28.5-kilometre-long (17.7 mi) TTT (Team Time Trial).

The Internazionali Femminili di Palermo is an annual ladies professional tennis event held in the city, which is part of the WTA Tour.

Economy and infrastructure

Mondello palermo2
The Mondello Beach, one of the main tourist destinations

Being Sicily's administrative capital, Palermo is a centre for much of the region's finance, tourism and commerce. The city currently hosts an international airport,[59] and Palermo's economic growth over the years has brought the opening of many new businesses. The economy mainly relies on tourism and services, but also has commerce, shipbuilding and agriculture.[60] The city, however, still has high unemployment levels, high corruption and a significant black market empire (Palermo being the home of the Sicilian Mafia).

Public transport

Palermo has a local railway called the Palermo metropolitan railway service.[61]

Punta Raisi staz ferr treni
Trains at Punta Raisi

Busses

Palermo's public bus system is operated by AMAT which covers a net area of 340 km (211 mi). About 90 different routes reach every part of the city.[62]

Trams

Palermo has a public tram system finalized in 2015 and operated by AMAT. There are 4 lines:

  1. Roccella — Central Station
  2. Borgo Nuovo — Notarbartolo Station
  3. CEP — Notarbartolo Station
  4. Corso Calatafimi — Notarbartolo Station

Coaches

The local coach company, AST, with its coaches totalling 35 lines, links Palermo to all of the main cities in Sicily.

Palermo Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Palermo, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 63 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 23 min, while 48% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.4 km, while 3% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[63]

Roads

Autostrada A20 Torregrotta
A20 that connects Palermo to Messina

Palermo is a key intersection on the Sicilian road network, being the junction between the eastern A19 motorway to Trapani, the southeastern A29 to airport and Mazara del Vallo and the southwestern A19 to Catania and A20 to Messina. Palermo is one of the main cities on European route E90. The three main national roads starting from Palermo are the SS113, SS121, SS186 and the SS624.

Airports

Palermo International Airport, known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport (formerly Punta Raisi Airport), is located 32 km (20 mi) west of Palermo. It is dedicated to Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, two anti-mafia judges killed by the mafia in the early 1990s.

The airport's rail facility, known as Punta Raisi railway station, can be reached from Palermo Centrale, Palermo Notarbartolo and Palermo Francia railway stations.

Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport is the second airport of the city.

Port

Palermo 0538

The port of Palermo, founded by the Phoenicians over 2,700 years ago, is, together with the port of Messina, the main port of Sicily. From here ferries link Palermo to Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Naples, Tunis and other cities and carry a total of almost 2 million passengers annually. It is also an important port for cruise ships. Traffic includes also almost 5 million tonnes (5.5 million short tons) of cargo and 80,000 TEUs yearly.[64] The port also has links to minor Sicilian islands such as Ustica and the Aeolian Islands (via Cefalù in summer). Inside the Port of Palermo there is a section known as "tourist marina" for sailing yachts and catamarans.

Palermo 0421 2013
Palermo 0436 2013

National rail

The main railway station of Palermo is Palermo Centrale which links to the other cities of Sicily, including Agrigento, Trapani and Catania, and through Messina and the strait to the rest of Italy. The railways also connect to the Palermo airport with departures every thirty minutes.

Education

The local university is the University of Palermo, the island's second oldest university. It was officially founded in 1806, although historical records indicate that medicine and law have been taught there since the late 15th century. The Orto botanico di Palermo (Palermo botanical gardens) is home to the university's Department of Botany and is also open to visitors.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Palermo is twinned with:

Twin City Trivia

In Robert Roswell Palmer and Joel Colton's majestic text-book for University education in the subject of history, A History of the Modern World Palermo is used to exemplify the south of Europe in context of the 1848 Revolutions, and Copenhagen for the opposite cardinal direction: "...from Copenhagen to Palermo and from Paris to Budapest."[79] In this manner, Palermo is twinned to Copenhagen and reversed.

Notable people

Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Palermo are:

Date Name Notes
21 August 2018 Albert II, Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco[80] [81]

See also

References

Citations

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Sources

See also: Bibliography of Palermo

External links

Angelo Italia

Angelo Italia (8 May 1628 – 5 May 1700) was an Italian Jesuit and Baroque architect, who was born in Licata and died in Palermo.

Falcone Borsellino Airport

Falcone Borsellino Airport (IATA: PMO, ICAO: LICJ) (Italian: Aeroporto Falcone Borsellino) or simply Palermo Airport, formerly Punta Raisi Airport is located at Punta Raisi, 19 NM (35 km; 22 mi) west northwest of Palermo, the capital city of the Italian island of Sicily. It is the second airport of Sicily in terms of passengers after Catania-Fontanarossa Airport, with 5,325,559 passengers handled in 2016.

Grand Hotel des Palmes Mafia meeting 1957

Over four days, between October 12–16, 1957, the American gangster Joseph Bonanno allegedly attended a series of meetings between some high-level Sicilian and American mafiosi in the Grand Hotel et des Palmes in Palermo, Sicily – the most splendid in town at the time. The so-called 1957 Palermo Mafia summit has become a legendary landmark in the international illegal heroin trade in popular Mafia non-fiction. The question is if it ever took place. The details of it are still shrouded in mystery. According to some, one of the main topics on the agenda was the organisation of the heroin trade on an international basis. The FBI believed it was this meeting that established the Bonanno crime family in the heroin trade.

List of Serie B champions and promotions

This article is a list of Serie B champions and promotions since its establishment – including the competition under previous names.

List of foreign Serie A players

This is a list of foreign players (i.e. non-Italian players) in Serie A. The following players:

have played at least one Serie A game for the respective club (seasons in which and teams for, a player, did not collected any caps in Serie A , have NOT to be listed).

have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on 14 November 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents (so called 'Oriundi').

have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.Players are sorted by the State:

they played for in a national team on any level. For footballers that played for two or more national teams it prevails:

the one he played for on A level.

the national team of birth.

If they never played for any national team on any level, it prevails the state of birth. For footballers born in dissolved states prevails the actual state of birth (e.g.: Yugoslavia -> Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, etc.).These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :

Alessandria, Ancona, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Como, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Genoa, Inter, Juventus, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Livorno, Lucchese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Reggiana, Reggina, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Torino, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza.

These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player :

Casale, Pro Vercelli, Ternana

In bold: players still active in Serie A and their respective teams in current season.

List of railway stations in Sicily

This is the list of the railway stations in Sicily owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Martín Palermo

Martín Palermo (Spanish pronunciation: [maɾˈtim paˈleɾmo]; born 7 November 1973) is an Argentine former footballer who played as a striker.

Palermo played for Boca Juniors of Argentina, and the Argentina national team. A prolific goalscorer, he is Boca's all-time top scorer with 236 goals. Palermo also played in Argentina for Estudiantes de La Plata and in Spain for Villarreal, Real Betis, and Alavés. During his playing career, he was nicknamed Loco (pronounced [ˈloko], English: crazy) and Titán (pronounced [tiˈtan], English: titan).

Oakville, Ontario

Oakville is a suburban town in southern Ontario, located in Halton Region on Lake Ontario halfway between Toronto and Hamilton, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area, one of the most densely populated areas of Canada. The 2016 census reported a population of 193,832.

Palermo, Buenos Aires

Palermo is a neighborhood, or barrio of the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. It is located in the northeast of the city, bordering the barrios of Belgrano to the north, Almagro and Recoleta to the south, Villa Crespo and Colegiales to the west and the Río de la Plata river to the east. With a total area of 17.4 km2 (7 sq mi), Palermo is the largest neighborhood in Buenos Aires. As of 1991 it had a population of 256,927 inhabitants (1991 census [INDEC]). It is the only barrio within the administrative division of Comuna 14.

Palermo Air Force Station

Palermo Air Force Station (ADC ID: P-54, NORAD ID: Z-54) is a closed United States Air Force (USAF) General Surveillance Radar station. It was located in Palermo, New Jersey, 4.8 miles (7.7 km) north of Sea Isle City, in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. It was closed in 1970.

Palermo–Boccadifalco Airport

Palermo–Boccadifalco Airport (ICAO: LICP), also known as Giuseppe and Francesco Notarbartolo Airport, is the elder of two facilities which serve the Sicilian capital Palermo, in Italy. Located on the outskirts of the city, just before Monte Cuccio, it is one of the oldest airports in the country. Today it houses a Botanical garden and an ancient villa. The latter is used as the Officers' Club by the Italian Aeronautica Militare (Airforce).

Paulo Dybala

Paulo Bruno Exequiel Dybala (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpaulo ðiˈβala]; born 15 November 1993) is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Italian club Juventus and the Argentina national team. Considered Europe's top five leagues' sixth most expensive player from a transfer value perspective by the CIES, he is commonly referred to as "La Joya" ("The Jewel") due to his creative style of play, pace, talent, technique and eye for goal.After beginning his career in Argentina with Instituto de Córdoba in 2011, he moved to Italian club Palermo in 2012. He played three seasons for Palermo, two in Serie A and won Serie B in 2013–14. In 2015, he joined Juventus for an initial fee of €32 million and has since made over 100 appearances for the club, winning the double of Serie A and Coppa Italia in each of his three seasons. He has thrice been named in the Serie A Team of the Year. Dybala made his senior international debut for Argentina in 2015 and was chosen for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Province of Palermo

The Province of Palermo (Italian: provincia di Palermo; Sicilian: pruvincia di Palermu) was a province in the autonomous region of Sicily, a major island in Southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Palermo. On August 4, 2015, it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

Serie B

Serie B (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈbi]), currently named Serie BKT for sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie B was created for the 2010–11 season. Common nicknames for the league are campionato cadetto and cadetteria, as cadetto is the Italian for junior or cadet.

Sicily

Sicily (Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja]; Sicilian: Sicilia [sɪˈʃiːlja]) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, and the Emirate of Sicily. The Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou, Spain, and the House of Habsburg. It was finally unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, and a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied, especially financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee (50% Italian State, 50% Regione Siciliana), since 1946.

Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, and architecture. It is also home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Erice and Selinunte.

Stadio Renzo Barbera

Stadio Renzo Barbera (previously and still commonly known as Stadio La Favorita) is a football stadium in Palermo, Italy. It is currently home of U.S. Città di Palermo football team. The stadium was inaugurated on 24 January 1932, and was named Stadio Littorio in homage to the Fascism. The opening match was Palermo vs Atalanta, with Palermo winning 5–1. A track surrounded the pitch and there were no stands behind either goal. In 1936, the stadium was renamed Stadio Michele Marrone, in memory of a soldier killed during the Spanish Civil War. The name was changed again at the end of World War II to Stadio La Favorita, from the name of the nearby ancient game preserve of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in the 13th century.

In 1948, the track was removed and stands behind each goal were built.

In 1984, the second main redevelopment took place, involving the addition of a second tier to the stadium which increased capacity to 50,000 spectators. This higher capacity was, however, completely covered in only twice, respectively in a Serie C1 league match against Messina and a friendly match against Juventus. A third redevelopment ended in 1990, the last main one to which the venue was subjected and was undertaken due to city of Palermo having been chosen to host a number of the 1990 FIFA World Cup First Round matches. Due to this redevelopment, the capacity of the stadium was lowered to its current 37,619 seats.

On 18 September 2002, the stadium was renamed as Renzo Barbera, past chairman of Palermo in the club's last Serie A tenure, as well as the two Coppa Italia finals throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, who had died that same year on 19 May. In the Serie A 2004-05 campaign, which marked the first Palermo appearance in the top division in over 30 years, all seats in the stadium were already assigned in the summer to season-ticket holders. However, this was not repeated in the next years.

Totonero 1986

Totonero 1986 or totonero bis was a scandal of football match fixing in Italy between 1984 and 1986 in Serie A, Serie B, Serie C1 and Serie C2.

It was uncovered in May 1986 by Italian Police and Armando Carbone, a friend of Italo Allodi (manager of Napoli) and in this scandal there were manager and football-player that sold the football-matches for money.

U.S. Città di Palermo

Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo, commonly referred to as Palermo (Italian pronunciation: [tʃit'ta di paˈlɛrmo]), is an Italian football club based in Palermo, Sicily, playing in Serie B. Formed in 1900 as Anglo Palermitan Athletic and Football Club, the club had various names before assuming its current form in 1987, and is the top-ranked football club from the island of Sicily. During its history, Palermo has played in all the professional ranks of Italy, and took part in several Serie A seasons during the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, also finishing as Coppa Italia runners-up twice during that period.

Following its return to Serie A in 2004, the club became one of the most prominent in Italy, providing four players to the Italian team that won the 2006 FIFA World Cup. It gained a UEFA Cup place for three consecutive seasons, narrowly missing UEFA Champions League qualification in 2007 and 2010, and losing its third Coppa Italia final in 2011.

The official team colours are pink and black. The colours give rise to the team's nickname rosanero; another less common nickname is aquile, referring to the eagle on both the official club logo and the city of Palermo's coat of arms.

US Città di Palermo plays its home games at Stadio Renzo Barbera (formerly known as La Favorita), which has had a capacity of 36,349 people since 2007. It was originally built in 1932, and was renovated in the late 1980s.

University of Palermo

For the University of Palermo in Buenos Aires, Argentina, see University of Palermo (Buenos Aires).The University of Palermo (Italian: Università degli Studi di Palermo) is a university located in Palermo, Italy, and founded in 1806. It is organized in 12 Faculties.

Climate data for Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport on the outskirts of the city (altitude: 117 m, satellite view), Extremes 1973-2016
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
29.0
(84.2)
35.0
(95.0)
34.6
(94.3)
39.0
(102.2)
44.0
(111.2)
43.1
(109.6)
42.4
(108.3)
42.0
(107.6)
35.2
(95.4)
30.6
(87.1)
29.2
(84.6)
44.0
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
14.5
(58.1)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
23.3
(73.9)
27.2
(81.0)
29.8
(85.6)
30.5
(86.9)
27.5
(81.5)
23.5
(74.3)
19.0
(66.2)
15.8
(60.4)
21.8
(71.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
11.5
(52.7)
13.0
(55.4)
15.1
(59.2)
19.3
(66.7)
23.2
(73.8)
25.8
(78.4)
26.6
(79.9)
23.8
(74.8)
20.1
(68.2)
16.0
(60.8)
13.0
(55.4)
18.3
(64.9)
Average low °C (°F) 8.9
(48.0)
8.5
(47.3)
9.6
(49.3)
11.4
(52.5)
15.3
(59.5)
19.2
(66.6)
21.7
(71.1)
22.7
(72.9)
20.1
(68.2)
16.7
(62.1)
12.9
(55.2)
10.2
(50.4)
14.8
(58.6)
Record low °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.2
(37.8)
6.2
(43.2)
12.1
(53.8)
13.9
(57.0)
15.0
(59.0)
8.0
(46.4)
8.0
(46.4)
3.0
(37.4)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 97.5
(3.84)
109.9
(4.33)
78.2
(3.08)
65.1
(2.56)
36.2
(1.43)
17.9
(0.70)
6.7
(0.26)
31.8
(1.25)
65.3
(2.57)
105.6
(4.16)
117.5
(4.63)
123.7
(4.87)
855.4
(33.68)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 9.0 9.6 8.7 8.6 4.1 1.9 1.2 2.4 5.4 8.2 10.4 12.0 81.5
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico[14]
Source #2: Il Meteo[15] Extreme temperatures.
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