Paleobiota of the Solnhofen Formation

The Solnhofen Plattenkalk, or Solnhofen Limestone Formation, is famous for its well preserved fossil flora and fauna.

Solnhofen Limestone Formation
Stratigraphic range: Tithonian[1][2]
Brittle star-fossil
A brittle star fossil from the Solnhofen Formation.
TypeGeological formation
UnderliesMornsheim Formation[1]
OverliesPainten Formation[1]
Lithology
PrimaryLithographic limestone[1]
Location
Country Germany

Chondrostei

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Coccolepis[3]

C. bucklandi[3]

Halecostomi

Semionotidae

Macrosemiidae

Pycnodontiformes

Pachycormidae

Others

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Heterostrophus[9]

H. latus[9]

Halecomorphi

Caturidae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Amblysemius[10]

A. bellicianus[10]

A. pachyurus[10]

Caturus[10]

C. furcatus[10]

C. giganteus[10]

Liodesmus[10]

L. gracilis[10]

L. sprattiformis[10]

Ionoscopidae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Ionoscopus[11]

I. cyprinoides[11]

I. esocinus[11]

I. münsteri[11]

I. striatissimus[11]

Furidae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Furo[12]

F. angustus[12]

F. latimanus[12]

F. longiserratus[12]

F. microlepidotes[12]

Other halecomorphs

Halecomorphi incertae sedis

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Brachyichthys[14]

B. radiato-punctatus[14]

B typicus[14]

Callopterus[14]

C. agassizzi[14]

Lophiurus[14]

L. minutus[14]

Teleostei

Pleuropholidae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Pleuropholis[15]

P. laevissima[15]

P. pompecki[15]

P. wagneri[15]

Aspidorhynchidae

Pholidophoridae

Allothrissopidae

Orthogonikleithridae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Leptolepides[19]

L. haerteisi[19]

L. sprattiformis[19]

Orthogonikleithrus[19]

O. hoelli[19]

O. leichi[19]

Anaethalionidae

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Anaethalion[20]

A. angustissimus[20]

A. angustus[20]

A. knorri[20]

A. subovatus[20]

Others

Ladyfish - NO Autoban Aquarium
Living Elops individual.

Reptiles

Lizards

Rhynchocephalians

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Homeosaurus

H. maximillioni

Eichstätt

Pleurosaurus

P. goldfussi

Eichstätt, Langenaltheim

Acrosaurus fischmanni is a synonym.[22]

Ichthyosaurs

Macropterygius posthumus
A. leptospondylus tail

Turtles

Name Species Presence Notes Images

Eurysternum

E. wagleri

Solnhofen, Kelheim[24]

Cyrtura

C. temnospondyla

Solnhofen

Helochelys

H. danubinus

Kelheim

Idiochelys

I. fitzingeri

Eichstätt

Palaeomedusa

P. testa

Kelheim, Eichstätt, Solnhofen

Eurysternum crassipes and Thalassemys marina are synonyms.

Platychelys

P. oberndorferi

Kelheim

Solnhofia

S. parsonsi

Eichstätt

Crocodylomorphs

Dinosaurs

Pterosaurs

Invertebrate paleofauna

Crinoids

Cephalopods

Xiphosura

Insects

Mesurupetala, dragonfly, Late Late Jurassic, Tithonian Age, Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone, Solnhofen, Bavaria, Germany - Houston Museum of Natural Science - DSC01817
Mesurupetala - Houston Museum of Natural Science

References

  1. ^ a b c d Rauhut, O. W., Heyng, A. M., López-Arbarello, A., & Hecker, A. (2012). A new rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. PLoS ONE, 7(10): e46839.
  2. ^ Schweigert, G. 2007. Ammonite biostratigraphy as a tool for dating Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones from South Germany – first results and open questions." Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, 245(1): 117-125. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2007/0245-0117
  3. ^ a b "Table 1; Chondrostei; Coccolepidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecostomi; Semionotidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Table 1; Halecostomi; Macrosemiidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pycnodontiformes" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  8. ^ a b Note: Lambers abbreviated Pseudoasthenocormus as "Pseudoasth.," "Table 1; Halecostomi; Pachycormidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  9. ^ a b "Table 1; Halecostomi; 'Halecostomi inc. sed.'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Caturidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Ionoscopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Furidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Table 1; Halecomorphi; 'Amiidae' and 'Ophiopsidae'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Table 1; Halecomorphi; Halecomorphi incertae cedis" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  15. ^ a b c d "Table 1; Teleostei; Pleuropholidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Aspidorhynchidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; Pholidophoridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Table 1; Teleostei; Allothrissopidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Table 1; Teleostei; Orthogonikleithridae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Table 1; Teleostei; Anaethalionidae" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Table 1; Teleostei; 'Elopidae,' 'Ostariophysi,' 'Clupeocephala inc. sed.,' 'Elopocephala inc. sed.,' and 'Teleostei inc. sed'" in Lambers (1999) pg. 216.
  22. ^ Dupret, V. (2004). The pleurosaurs: anatomy and phylogeny. Revue de Paléobiologie, Vol spéc, 9, 61-80.
  23. ^ Bardet, N., & Fernández, M. (2000). A new ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria. Journal Information, 74(3).
  24. ^ JOYCE, W. G. (2003). A new Late Jurassic turtle specimen and the taxonomy of Palaeomedusa testa and edusa testa Eurysternum wagleri.
  25. ^ Schwarz‐Wings, D., Klein, N., Neumann, C., & Resch, U. (2011). A new partial skeleton of Alligatorellus (Crocodyliformes) associated with echinoids from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) lithographic limestone of Kelheim, S‐Germany. Fossil Record, 14(2), 195-205.
  26. ^ a b c d e De Andrade, M. B., Young, M. T., Desojo, J. B., & Brusatte, S. L. (2010). The evolution of extreme hypercarnivory in Metriorhynchidae (Mesoeucrocodylia: Thalattosuchia) based on evidence from microscopic denticle morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(5), 1451-1465.
  27. ^ Young MT, Brusatte SL, de Andrade MB, Desojo JB, Beatty BL, et al. (2012) The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe. PLoS ONE 7(9): e44985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044985
  28. ^ a b c Young, Mark T., and Marco Brandalise de Andrade, 2009. "What is Geosaurus? Redescription of Geosaurus giganteus (Thalattosuchia: Metriorhynchidae) from the Upper Jurassic of Bayern, Germany." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157: 551-585.
  29. ^ a b c d Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 545–549. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  30. ^ Mayr, G.; Phol, B.; Hartman, S.; Peters, D. S. (2007). "The tenth skeletal specimen of Archaeopteryx". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149: 97–116. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00245.x.
  31. ^ Vidovic SU, Martill DM (2014) Pterodactylus scolopaciceps Meyer, 1860 (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Upper Jurassic of Bavaria, Germany: The Problem of Cryptic Pterosaur Taxa in Early Ontogeny. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110646. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110646
  32. ^ Bennett, S.C. (2002). "Soft tissue preservation of the cranial crest of the pterosaur Germanodactylus from Solnhofen." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1): 43-48.
  33. ^ Jouve, S. (2004). "Description of the skull of a Ctenochasma (Pterosauria) from the latest Jurassic of eastern France, with a taxonomic revision of European Tithonian Pterodactyloidea." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(3): 542-554.
  34. ^ Bennett, S. C. (1995). "A statistical study of Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestone of Germany: Year-classes of a single large species." Journal of Paleontology, 69: 569-580.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g "Scaphognathus." In: Cranfield, Ingrid (ed.). The Illustrated Directory of Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Creatures. London: Salamander Books, Ltd. Pp. 308-309.
  36. ^ a b c Clare V. Milsom. (1994) Saccacoma, a benthic crinoid from the Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone, Germany Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine. Palaeontology 37 (1) 121-129.
  37. ^ Lomax, Dean R. (2010). "Am Ichthyosaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) with gastric contents from Charmouth, England: First report of the genus from the Pliensbachian" (PDF). Paludicola. Rochester Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology. 8 (1): 22–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2011.

General

  • Lambers, P. H. (1999). The actinopterygian fish fauna of the Late Kimmeridgian and Early Tithonian 'Plattenkalke' near Solnhofen (Bavaria, Germany): state of the art. Geologie en Mijnbouw 78:215-229.

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