Pale rockfinch

The pale rockfinch or pale rock sparrow (Carpospiza brachydactyla) is a small sparrow found in the Middle East and Central Asia. It is the only member of the genus Carpospiza. Some authorities include it in the genus Petronia.[2] Others have placed it in the finch family due to some similarities in behaviour and form, but the anatomy of its tongue exhibits characteristic sparrow features.[2][3]

The range of pale rockfinch extends from eastern Turkey to Afghanistan, and south into the Arabian Peninsula and northern Africa as far as Ethiopia.[1] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and temperate grassland.[2]

Pale rockfinch
Carpospiza brachydactyla
Pale rockfinch in south-eastern Turkey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Passeridae
Genus: Carpospiza
von Müller, 1854
Species:
C. brachydactyla
Binomial name
Carpospiza brachydactyla
(Bonaparte, 1850)
Synonyms
  • Petronia brachydactyla

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Petronia brachydactyla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Summers-Smith, J. Denis (2009). "Family Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-50-7.
  3. ^ Bock, W. (2004). "Affinities of Carpospiza brachydactyla (Passeriformes; Passeridae)". Journal of Ornithology. 145 (3). doi:10.1007/s10336-004-0034-9.

External links

Assyrian homeland

The Assyrian homeland or Assyria (Syriac: ܐܬܘܪ‎) refers to a geographic and cultural region situated in Northern Mesopotamia that has been traditionally inhabited by Assyrian people. The areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and, more recently, northeastern Syria. Moreover, the area that had the greatest concentration of Assyrians in the world until recently is located in the Assyrian Triangle, a region which comprises the Nineveh plains, southern Hakkari and Barwari regions. This is where some Assyrian groups seek to create an independent nation state.The Assyrian homeland roughly mirrors the boundaries of ancient Assyria proper, and the later Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid provinces of Assyria (Athura/Assuristan) that was extant between the 25th century BC and 7th century AD. The region was dissolved as a geo-political entity following the Arab Islamic conquest of Iraq in the late 7th century AD. Since the fall of the Iraqi Baath Party in 2003, and in the face of violence against the indigenous Assyrian Christian community, there has been a growing movement for Assyrian independence or autonomy.Assyrian-populated cities in Iraq include those in the Nineveh Governorate region in northern Iraq such as Alqosh, Tel Keppe, Batnaya, Bartella, Tesqopa, Karemlash, Bakhdida and, up until 2014, Mosul. There is an Assyrian minority in the Dohuk Governorate cities of Zakho and Duhok in Iraqi Kurdistan, which are also located within the Assyrian triangle. In Turkey, the Tur Abdin region is the traditional cultural heartland for Assyrians and is the only remaining rural region in Turkey with a major Christian presence. However, today the majority of Assyrians in Turkey live in Istanbul. Northeastern Syria has in the latest century become a center for Assyrians, with much of the Assyrian population descending from refugees from Turkey that fled during the Assyrian Genocide and during later pogroms in Iraq. Major Assyrian population centras are Qamishli, al-Hasakah, Ras al-Ayn, Al-Malikiyah, Al-Qahtaniyah and the villages along the Khabur River in the Tell Tamer area.

The Assyrians, an indigenous pre-Arab, pre-Kurdish and pre-Turkic people of upper Mesopotamia, are predominantly Christian, adherents of the Church of the East, an East Syrian rite sect as well as; the Chaldean Catholic Church and Ancient Church of the East, or the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church. They speak Neo-Aramaic languages, most common being; Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo.

Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Kurdish: هه‌رێمی کوردستان‎, romanized: Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq. It is also referred to as Southern Kurdistan (Kurdish: باشووری کوردستان‎, romanized: Başûrê Kurdistanê), as Kurds generally consider it to be one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Rojava or Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan).The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), with the capital being Erbil. Kurdistan is a parliamentary democracy with its own regional Parliament that consists of 111 seats. Masoud Barzani, who was initially elected as president in 2005, was re-elected in 2009. In August 2013 the parliament extended his presidency for another two years. His presidency concluded on 19 August 2015 after the political parties failed to reach an agreement over extending his term.

The new Constitution of Iraq defines the Kurdistan Region as a federal entity of Iraq, and establishes Kurdish and Arabic as Iraq's joint official languages. The four governorates of Duhok, Erbil, Silemani, and Halabja comprise around 46,861 square kilometres (18,093 sq mi) and have a population of 5.9 million (2018 estimate). In 2014, during the 2014 Iraq Crisis, Iraqi Kurdistan's forces also took over much of the disputed territories of Northern Iraq; the total area under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government contains some 8 million inhabitants.

The establishment of the Kurdistan Region dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting. However, that agreement failed to be implemented and by 1974 Northern Iraq plunged into the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War, another part of the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict between the Kurds and the Arab-dominated government of Iraq. Further, the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, especially the Iraqi Army's Al-Anfal Campaign, devastated the population and environment of Iraqi Kurdistan. Following the 1991 uprising of Kurds in the north and Shia Arabs in the south against Saddam Hussein, Iraqi Kurdistan's military forces, the Peshmerga, succeeded in pushing out the main Iraqi forces from the north.

Despite significant casualties and the crisis of Kurdish refugees in bordering regions of Iran and Turkey, the Peshmerga success and the Western establishment of the northern Iraqi no-fly zone following the First Gulf War in 1991 created the basis for Kurdish self-rule and facilitated the return of refugees. As Kurds continued to fight government troops, Iraqi forces finally left Kurdistan in October 1991, leaving the region with de facto autonomy. In 1992, the major political parties in the region, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, established the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent political changes led to the ratification of a new constitution in 2005.

Jabal Aja Protected Area

Jabal Aja Protected Area is a protected area in northern Saudi Arabia. It consists of a red granite mountain range projecting from a flatter area and is of importance for both plant and animal life. It lies at 27°30'N and 41°30'E close to the town of Ha'il and has a total area of around 200,000 hectares (490,000 acres). Jabal Aja has been designated an Important Plant Area and an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Armenia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Armenia. The avifauna of Armenia include a total of 359 species, of which 14 are rare or accidental in Armenia and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Armenia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Armenia

(?) Non-confirmed record - a species that was mentioned in some older literature or reported in oral communication, but the fact of its occurrence in Armenia is not yet confirmed.

List of birds of Azerbaijan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Azerbaijan. The avifauna of Azerbaijan include a total of 371 species, of which 9 are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Azerbaijan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Azerbaijan

List of birds of Bahrain

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bahrain. The avifauna of Bahrain include a total of 333 species, of which four have been introduced by humans, and seventy-six are rare or accidental. Two species listed are extirpated in Bahrain and are not included in the species count. Six species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Bahrain.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bahrain

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bahrain as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Bahrain although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Cyprus

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Cyprus. The avifauna of Cyprus include a total of over 400 species.

Key: PM = passage migrant, RB = resident breeder, MB = migrant breeder, OB = occasional breeder, FB = former breeder, WV = winter visitor, AV = accidental vagrant, IN = introduced, EX = extirpated, S = Scarce

List of birds of Egypt

This is a list of the species of birds found in Egypt, a country in north-east Africa. The avifauna of Egypt include a total of 498 species of birds, of which thirteen are classified as globally threatened and five have been identified as having been introduced to Egypt. None of the species are endemic to Egypt.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. All of the birds below are included in the total bird count for Egypt.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Egypt

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Egypt as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Egypt although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists.

(NB) Non-breeding - a species or subspecies that does not breed in Egypt

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Iraq

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iraq. The avifauna of Iraq include a total of 415 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and thirteen are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Iraq and is not included in the species count. Fourteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Iraq.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iraq

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iraq as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Iraq although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species that no longer exists

List of birds of Kuwait

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kuwait. The avifauna of Kuwait include a total of 363 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and 101 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Kuwait and is not included in the species count. Eight species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Kuwait.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kuwait

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Kuwait as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Kuwait although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Lebanon

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Lebanon. The avifauna of Lebanon include a total of 384 species.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Lebanon.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Lebanon

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Lebanon

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Lebanon as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species once naturally occurring in Lebanon but no longer so

List of birds of Pakistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Pakistan. The avifauna of Pakistan include a total of 786 species, of which 39 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Pakistan and is not included in the species count. The chukar (Alectoris chukar) is the official national bird of Pakistan, and the shaheen falcon is the symbolic icon of the Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Avicultural Foundation.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Pakistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Pakistan

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Pakistan but exists in other places

List of birds of Qatar

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Qatar. The avifauna of Qatar include a total of 211 species, of which five have been introduced by humans and eleven are rare or accidental. Two species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Qatar.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental – a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Qatar

(I) Introduced – a species introduced to Qatar as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex Extirpated – a species that no longer occurs in Qatar although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct – a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Syria

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Syria. The avifauna of Syria include a total of 391 species, of which 11 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Syria and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Syria.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Syria

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Syria although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Turkey

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Turkey. The avifauna of Turkey include a total of 482 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and 78 species are rare/accidental. Fourteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Turkey.

The latest addition to this list was the black-throated accentor (Prunella atrogularis).

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Turkey

(E) Endangered - a species that is endangered in Turkey

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Turkey as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Turkey although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Turkmenistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Turkmenistan. The avifauna of Turkmenistan include a total of 409 species, of which one is rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Turkmenistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Turkmenistan

Sparrow

Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds. They are also known as true sparrows, or Old World sparrows, names also used for a particular genus of the family, Passer. They are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Passerellidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings and the house and Eurasian tree sparrows, in particular, inhabit cities in large numbers, so sparrows are among the most familiar of all wild birds. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities.

Sparrows (family: Passeridae)
Genus
Hypocryptadius
Passer
Carpospiza
Petronia
Gymnoris
Montifringilla
Onychostruthus
Pyrgilauda

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