The pale cicadabird (Edolisoma ceramense) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family. It is endemic to the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
Buru (formerly spelled Boeroe, Boro, or Bouru) is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon and Seram islands. The island belongs to Maluku province (Indonesian: Provinsi Maluku) and includes the Buru (Indonesian: Kabupaten Buru) and South Buru (Indonesian: Kabupaten Buru Selatan) regencies. Their administrative centers, Namlea and Namrole, respectively, have ports and the largest towns of the island. There is a military airport at Namlea which supports civilian cargo transportation.
About a third of the population is indigenous, mostly Buru, but also Lisela, Ambelau and Kayeli people. The rest of population are immigrants from Java and nearby Maluku Islands. Religious affiliation is evenly split between Christianity and Sunni Islam, with some remnants of traditional beliefs. While local languages and dialects are spoken within individual communities, the national Indonesian language is used among the communities and by the administration. Most of the island is covered with forests rich in tropical flora and fauna. From the present 179 bird and 25 mammal species, about 14 are found either on Buru only or also on a few nearby islands, the most notable being the wild pig Buru babirusa. There is little industry on the island, and most population is engaged in growing rice, maize, sweet potato, beans, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, clove and nutmeg. Other significant activities are animal farming and fishing.
The island was first mentioned around 1365. Between 1658 and 1942, it was colonised by the Dutch East India Company and then by the Crown of the Netherlands. The Dutch administration relocated many local villages to the newly built island capital at Kayeli Bay for working at clove plantations. It also promoted the hierarchy among the indigenous people with selected loyal rajas placed above the heads of the local clans. The island was occupied by the Japanese forces between 1942 and 1945 and in 1950 became part of independent Indonesia. During former president Suharto's New Order administration in the 1960s–1970s, Buru was the site of a prison used to hold thousands of political prisoners. While held at Buru, writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote most of his novels, including Buru Quartet.Cuckooshrike
The cuckooshrikes and allies in the family Campephagidae are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. The roughly 86 species are found in eight (or nine) genera which comprise five distinct groups, the 'true' cuckooshrikes (Campephaga, Coracina, Celebesica, Ceblepyris, Edolisoma, Lobotos, Pteropodocys and Campochaera) the trillers (Lalage), the minivets (Pericrocotus), the flycatcher-shrikes (Hemipus) comprise a total of 316 taxa. The woodshrikes (Tephrodornis) were often considered to be in this family but are probably better placed in their own family, Tephrodornithidae, along with the philentomas and the flycatcher-shrikes. Another genus, Chlamydochaera, which has one species, the black-breasted fruithunter, was often placed in this family but has now been shown to be a thrush (Turdidae).Edolisoma
Edolisoma is a genus of birds in the Campephagidae family. These species were previously placed in the genus Coracina.
It contains the following species:
Admiralty cicadabird (Edolisoma admiralitatis)
New Caledonian cuckooshrike (Edolisoma anale)
Pale cicadabird (Edolisoma ceramense)
Blackish cuckooshrike (Edolisoma coerulescens)
Kai cicadabird (Edolisoma dispar)
Pale-shouldered cicadabird (Edolisoma dohertyi)
Solomons cuckooshrike (Edolisoma holopolium)
Black-shouldered cicadabird (Edolisoma incertum)
Pohnpei cicadabird (Edolisoma insperatum)
Black cicadabird (Edolisoma melas)
Black-bibbed cicadabird (Edolisoma mindanense)
Palau cicadabird (Edolisoma monacha)
Black-bellied cuckooshrike (Edolisoma montanum)
Sulawesi cicadabird (Edolisoma morio)
Yap cicadabird (Edolisoma nesiotis)
White-winged cuckooshrike (Edolisoma ostentum)
Halmahera cuckooshrike (Edolisoma parvulum)
Grey-capped cicadabird (Edolisoma remotum)
Makira cicadabird (Edolisoma salomonis)
Grey-headed cuckooshrike (Edolisoma schisticeps)
Sula cicadabird (Edolisoma sula)
Common cicadabird (Edolisoma tenuirostre)List of birds of Indonesia
Indonesia, with its vast islands, tropical weather and rainforests is one of the world's richest and most important country in term of biodiversity. In addition to the many resident birds, of which the most important are the 380 endemics, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.
The list will be growing, since many new species are discovered every year in many unexplored areas of Indonesia. In December 2005, a honeyeater Melipotes carolae was discovered in Foja Mountains among other new animal and plant species.
In June 2011 there are 123 Indonesian bird species threatened, 18 were categorized as endangered while 31 others endangered and 74 vulnerable.List of endemic birds of Indonesia
Indonesia has more endemic birds than any other country. Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil).Most endemic birds are in the Wallacea region of eastern Indonesia. Sulawesi supports twelve endemic bird genera. Of all Indonesian endemic birds, about sixty-one species are threatened: thirty-seven species are listed as vulnerable, twenty-three are endangered and eleven species are listed as critical on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.List of least concern birds
As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.
No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.
This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.