Pale ale

Pale ale is an ale made with predominantly pale malt.[1]

The highest proportion of pale malts results in a lighter colour.[2][3] The term 'pale ale' first appeared around 1703 for beers made from malts dried with high-carbon coke, which resulted in a lighter colour than other beers popular at that time. Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of different tastes and strengths within the pale ale family.

Pale Ale
A glass of an English bitter, a form of pale ale


Coke had been first used for dry roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term "pale ale" was first applied to beers made from such malt. By 1784, advertisements appeared in the Calcutta Gazette for "light and excellent" pale ale. By 1830, the expressions "bitter" and "pale ale" were synonymous. Breweries tended to designate beers as "pale ales", though customers would commonly refer to the same beers as "bitters." It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porters and milds. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labeling bottled beers as pale ales, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitters, except those from Burton on Trent, which tend to be referred to as pale ales.


Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of taste and strength within the pale ale family.[4]

Amber ale

An Amber Ale

Amber ale is an emerging term used in Australia, France and North America for pale ales brewed with a proportion of amber malt and sometimes crystal malt to produce an amber colour generally ranging from light copper to light brown.[5] A small amount of crystal or other coloured malt is added to the basic pale ale base to produce a slightly darker colour, as in some Irish and British pale ales.[6] In France the term "ambrée" is used to signify a beer, either cold or warm fermented, which is amber in colour; the beer, as in Pelforth Ambrée and Fischer Amber, may be a Vienna lager, or it may be a Bière de Garde as in Jenlain Ambrée.[7] In North America, American-variety hops are used in varying degrees of bitterness, although very few examples are particularly hoppy.[8] Diacetyl is barely perceived or absent in an amber ale[9].

American pale ale

American pale ale (APA) was developed around 1980.[10] The brewery thought to be the first to successfully use significant quantities of American hops in the style of APA and use the name "pale ale", was the Sierra Nevada Brewing Company,[11] which brewed the first experimental batch of Sierra Nevada Pale Ale in November 1980,[12] distributing the finished version in March 1981.[13] Anchor Liberty Ale, a 6% abv ale originally brewed by the Anchor Brewing Company as a special in 1975 to commemorate Paul Revere's midnight ride in 1775, which marked the start of the American War of Independence, was seen by Michael Jackson, a writer on beverages, as the first modern American ale.[14] Fritz Maytag, the owner of Anchor, visited British breweries in London, Yorkshire and Burton upon Trent, picking up information about robust pale ales, which he applied when he made his American version, using just malt rather than the malt and sugar combination common in brewing at that time, and making prominent use of the American hop, Cascade.[14] The beer was popular, and became a regular in 1983.[14] Other pioneers of a hoppy American pale ale are Jack McAuliffe of the New Albion Brewing Company and Bert Grant of Yakima Brewing.[15][16]

American pale ales are generally around 5% abv, with significant quantities of American hops, typically Cascade.[17] Although American brewed beers tend to use a cleaner yeast, and American two row malt,[18] it is particularly the American hops that distinguish an APA from a British or European pale ale.[19] The style is close to the American India pale ale (IPA), and boundaries blur,[20] though IPAs are stronger and more assertively hopped.[21] The style is also close to Amber ale, though these are darker and maltier due to the use of crystal malts.[22]

Bière de Garde

A Bière de Garde

Bière de Garde, or "keeping beer", is a pale ale traditionally brewed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. These beers were usually brewed by farmhouses in the winter and spring, to avoid unpredictable problems with the yeast during the summertime.

The origin of the name lies in the tradition that it was matured or cellared for a period of time once bottled (most were sealed with a cork), to be consumed later in the year, akin to a Saison.

There are a number of beers named "Bière de Garde" in France, some of the better known brands include: Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre, Trois Monts (8.5% abv); Brasseurs Duyck, Jenlain (6.5% abv); and Brasserie La Choulette, Ambrée (7.5% abv).


Blonde ales are very pale in colour. The term "blonde" for pale beers is common in Europe and South America – particularly in France, Belgium, the UK, and Brazil – though the beers may not have much in common, other than colour. Blondes tend to be clear, crisp, and dry, with low-to-medium bitterness and aroma from hops, and some sweetness from malt. Fruitiness from esters may be perceived. A lighter body from higher carbonation may be noticed. In the United Kingdom, golden or summer ales were developed in the late 20th century by breweries to compete with the pale lager market. A typical golden ale has an appearance and profile similar to that of a pale lager. Malt character is subdued and the hop profile ranges from spicy to citrus; common hops include Styrian Golding and Cascade. Alcohol is in the 4% to 5% abv range. The UK style is attributed to John Gilbert, owner of Hop Back Brewery, who developed "Summer Lightning" in 1989, which won several awards and inspired numerous imitators.[23] Belgian blondes are often made with pilsner malt.[24] Some beer writers regard blonde and golden ales as distinct styles, while others do not. Duvel is a typical Belgian blonde ale, and one of the most popular bottled beers in the country[25] as well as being well-known internationally.[26]

Burton pale ale

Later in the second half of the nineteenth century, the recipe for pale ale was put into use by the Burton upon Trent brewers, notably Bass; ales from Burton were considered of a particularly high quality due to synergy between the malt and hops in use and local water chemistry, especially the presence of gypsum. Burton retained absolute dominance in pale ale brewing[27] until a chemist, C. W. Vincent, discovered the process of Burtonization to reproduce the chemical composition of the water from Burton-upon-Trent, thus giving any brewery the capability to brew pale ale.

English bitter

Page 24 Pale Ale beer
Pale ale, English style

The expression English bitter first appeared in the early 19th century as part of the development and spread of pale ale. Breweries tended to designate beers as "pale ales", though customers would commonly refer to the same beers as "bitters". It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers. Drinkers tend to loosely group modern bitters into "session" or "ordinary" bitters (up to 4.1% abv), "best" or "special" bitters (between 4.2% and 4.7% abv) and "strong" bitters (4.8% abv and over).

India pale ale (IPA)

India pale ale (IPA) is a style of pale ale developed in England for export to India. The first known use of the expression "India pale ale" is in an advertisement in the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser on 27 August 1829.[28]

Worthington White Shield, originating in Burton-upon-Trent, is a beer considered to be part of the development of India pale ale.

The colour of an IPA can vary from a light gold to a reddish amber.

Irish red ale

Irish red ale, red ale, or Irish ale (Irish: leann dearg[29]) is a name used by brewers in Ireland; Smithwick's is a typical example of a commercial Irish red ale. There are many other examples being produced by Ireland's expanding craft beer industry. O'Hara's, 8 Degrees and Franciscan Well all brew examples of Irish red ale.

There is some dispute as to whether Irish red ale is a genuine style or the same as English keg bitter.[30]

In the United States, the name can describe a darker amber ale or a "red" beer that is a lager with caramel colouring.

Scotch ale

Younger's No.3 Scotch Ale label
Younger's Scotch Ale label

"Scotch ale" was first used as a designation for strong ales exported from Edinburgh in the 18th century.[31] The term has become popular in the US, where strong ales which may be available in Scotland under a different name are sold in America as "Scotch ales", for example, Caledonian's Edinburgh Strong Ale or Edinburgh Tattoo, is sold in the US as "Edinburgh Scotch Ale".[32] As with other examples of strong ales, such as Barley wine, these beers tend toward sweetness from residual sugars, malty notes, and a full body.[33] Examples from the Caledonian brewery have toffee notes from the caramelizing of the malt from the direct-fired copper.[34] This caramelizing of Caledonian's beers is popular in America and has led many American brewers to produce strong toffee sweet beers which they label as "Scotch ales".[35] Scotch ales are an accepted style in Belgium: Gordon's Highland Scotch Ale, with its thistle-shaped glass is a well-known example, produced by the British-connected John Martin Brewery.

"Scotch ale" or "whisky ale" is a designation used by brewers in France for peat-smoked malt flavoured beers.[36] This style is distinct from the Scotch ales, having a translucent amber, rather than opaque brown, appearance, and a smoky rather than sweet taste. Even though the malt used by brewers in Scotland is not generally or traditionally dried by peat burning, some Scottish whisky distilleries have used low nitrogen barley dried by peat burning. The distinctive flavour of these smoked malts is reminiscent of whisky, and some peat smoke flavour is added during malting by an additional process.[37] The most popular French example is Fischer's Adelscott.[38] The brewer Douglas Ross of the Bridge of Allan brewery made the first Scottish whisky ale for the Tullibardine Distillery in 2006;[39] the beer is made with unpeated malt and aged in whisky barrels that had not contained a peated malt whisky so has a vanilla and nutty profile.[40]

While the full range of ales are produced, and consumed, in Scotland, the classic names used within Scotland for beer of the type described abroad as "Scotch ale", are "light", "heavy", and "export", also referred to in "shilling categories" as "60/-", "70/-" and "80/-" respectively, dating back to a 19th century method of invoicing beers according to their strengths.[41] The "/-" was the symbol used for "shillings exactly", that is, shillings and zero pence, in the pre-decimal £sd British currency, so the names are read as "60 (or 70 or 80) shilling (or bob) ale". (Although it was normal to express values over £1 in terms of pounds, shillings and pence, which would give, in this example, £3, £3-10-0 (spoken as "three pound ten"), or £4, the use of values in shillings and pence only was somewhat more common than saying 300p, 350p and 400p in decimal £p currency.)

Scotch ale is sometimes conflated with the term "wee heavy", as both are used to describe a strong beer.[42] Examples of beers brewed in the US under the name "wee heavy" tend to be 7% abv and higher, while Scottish-brewed examples, such as Belhaven's Wee Heavy, are between 5.5% and 6.5% abv. McEwan's Scotch Ale is also 8% abv.[43]

In North East England, "best Scotch" refers to a beer similar to mild ale but with a drier, more burnt palate.[44]

Strong pale ale

Strong pale ales are ales made predominantly with pale malts and have an alcohol strength that may start around 5%, though typically start at 7 or 8% by volume and may go up to 12%, though brewers have been pushing the alcohol strength higher. In 1994, the Hair of the Dog Brewing Company produced a strong pale ale with an alcohol by volume of 29%. In 2010, Brewdog released "Sink the Bismarck!", a 41% abv pale ale,[45] which is stronger than typical distilled spirits (40% abv). Orval typifies the Belgian pale ale style, and is fermented with some brettanomyces in addition to saccharomyces yeast.


Earl Grey Pale Ale can - Andy Mabbett
A 330ml can of Marks & Spencer 'Earl Grey Pale Ale' (5% ABV), made using bread, flavoured with Earl Grey tea, brewed by Adnams
  1. ^ "Roger Protz on India Pale ale". Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  2. ^ Paige Williams (May 2003). "Atlanta, Vol. 43, No. 1". Emmis Communications: 104. ISSN 0004-6701. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  3. ^ D. E. Briggs; J. S. Hough; R. Stevens; Tom W. Young (1982). Malting and Brewing Science. Springer. p. 810. ISBN 978-0-8342-1684-6. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  4. ^ India Pale Ale, Roger Protz,
  5. ^ James Squire Amber Ale - Michael Jackson 1 October 2001: "The designation Amber Ale is to be taken seriously".
  6. ^ " - American Ales". 29 July 2012. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Duyck Jenlain Ambrée". 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011. Jenlain Ambrée
  8. ^ "Amber Ale". 23 October 2009.
  9. ^ "Ale Styles Guide - IPA & Ale Beer Styles | Beer of the Month Club". The Microbrewed Beer of the Month Club. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
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  11. ^ Sam Calagione (19 January 2011). Brewing Up a Business. John Wiley and Sons, 2011. ISBN 9781118061879. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  12. ^ "Sierra Nevada Our Story". 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  13. ^ Maureen Ogle (2006). Ambitious Brew. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 305. ISBN 9780156033596. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  14. ^ a b c Michael Jackson (1997). Michael Jackson's beer companion. Running Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN 9780762402014. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  15. ^ John Holl (2011). " | Featured Brewery: New Albion Brewing". Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  16. ^ Michael Jackson (2011). "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - How Bert Grant Saved The World". Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  17. ^ " | American Ales". 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  18. ^ Chris Wright (2007). The Beer Journal. p. 38. ISBN 9781430312468. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  19. ^ Eric Asimov (28 June 2010). "Sampling American Pale Ales -". The New York Times. New York: NYTC. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  20. ^ Andy Crouch (2010). Great American Craft Beer. Running Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780762441600. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  21. ^ Chris Wright (2007). The Beer Journal. p. 56. ISBN 9781430312468. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  22. ^ Marty Nachel (2008). Homebrewing For Dummies. For Dummies. p. 128. ISBN 9780470374160. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  23. ^ "Hop Back Summer Lightning « Beer Culture with Des de Moor". Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  24. ^ Tim Webb. Good Beer Guide to Belgium, 6th edition, p 81.
  25. ^ The Complete Handbook of Beers and Brewing Brian Glover
  26. ^ Wall Street Journal. Belgian Brewer Finds Crafty Success
  27. ^ Simmonds, Peter Lund (1858). The dictionary of trade products ... - Google Books. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  28. ^ "Classified Advertising". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842). NSW: National Library of Australia. 27 August 1829. p. 3. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  29. ^ " Recipe Library - Leann Dearg".
  30. ^ "The Irish Red Paradox". Beoir. 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  31. ^ The Younger Centuries, by David Keir, 1951, page 22
  32. ^ "Caledonian Edinburgh Scotch Ale from Caledonian (S&N, Heineken), an English Strong Ale style beer". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  33. ^ "Ale Styles Guide - IPA & Ale Beer Styles | Beer of the Month Club". The Microbrewed Beer of the Month Club. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  34. ^ Timothy Harper, Garrett Oliver (1 March 1997). The Good Beer Book. Berkley Books. p. 151.
  35. ^ Noonan, Gregory J. (25 January 1993). Scotch Ale. Brewers Publications. p. 92.
  36. ^ The Prague Post Online Archived 6 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Russell, Inge (2003). Whisky: technology, production and marketing. Academic Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780080474854. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  38. ^ Michael Jackson's Beer Companion, Michael Jackson, page 236, Running Press, 19 June 1997
  39. ^ "All you need to know about beer". Retrieved 25 April 2008.
  40. ^ "Tullibardine Distillery". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  41. ^ "Scottish Beers". 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  42. ^ Gilmour, Alaistair (2011). The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199912100. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  43. ^ "McEwan's Scotch Ale". BeerAdvocate. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  44. ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - A Mild to Snap Your Braces At". Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  45. ^ "Hair of the Dog Dave from Hair of the Dog Brewing Company, a Barley Wine style beer: An unofficial page for Hair of the Dog Dave from Hair of the Dog Brewing Company in Portland, Oregon , United States of America". 26 September 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2014.


  • Farmhouse Ales: Culture and Craftsmanship in the European Tradition, Phil Markowski, ISBN 0-937381-84-5
  • Great Beer Guide: 500 Classic Brews, Michael Jackson, ISBN 0-7513-0813-7
  • Dictionary of Beer, Ed: A. Webb, ISBN 1-85249-158-2

External links


Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops.As with most beers, ale typically has a bittering agent to balance the malt and act as a preservative. Ale was originally bittered with gruit, a mixture of herbs or spices boiled in the wort before fermentation. Later, hops replaced gruit as the bittering agent.

Alexander Keith's Brewery

Founded in 1820, Alexander Keith's is a brewery in Halifax, Canada. It is among the oldest commercial breweries in North America. (The oldest surviving brewing enterprise in Canada was established by John Molson in Montreal in 1786 while the oldest in the US, Yuengling, originally called Eagle Brewing, was founded in 1829 in Pottsville, PA.)Keith's was founded by Alexander Keith who emigrated from Scotland in 1817. Keith moved the facility to its final location, a three-storey building on Hollis Street at Lower Water in the downtown area, in 1820. Keith had trained as a brewer in Edinburgh and London. His early product included ale, porter, ginger wine, table and spruce beers. Alexander Keith was mayor in 1843 and in 1853-54 and president of the Legislative Council from 1867 to his death in 1873.

Keith's was sold to Oland Breweries in 1928 and to Labatt in 1971. Today, the brewery is under the control of this subsidiary of Anheuser–Busch InBev which took the brand national in 1990's. Keith's also produces Oland Brewery beers, distributed in Eastern Canada.In April 2011, Anheuser–Busch InBev began selling Alexander Keith's beer in the United States after nearly two centuries of being available only in Canada.AB InBev produces Keith's India Pale Ale, currently the most popular product in this line, as well as Keith's Red Amber Ale, Keith's Premium White, and Keith's Light Ale. Products sold in the United States are labelled Keith's Nova Scotia Style Pale Ale, Keith's Nova Scotia Style Lager, and Keith's Nova Scotia Style Brown Ale. Seasonal products have included Keith's Ambrosia Blonde, Keith's Harvest Ale, and Keith's Tartan Ale.

Although Alexander Keith products were originally produced in the Halifax brewery only for sale in the Maritimes, they are now national products, mass produced at AB InBev plants across Canada and in Baldwinsville, New York

American pale ale

American pale ale (APA) is a style of pale ale developed in the United States around 1980.American pale ales are generally around 5% abv with significant quantities of American hops, typically Cascade. Although American brewed beers tend to use a cleaner yeast, and American two row malt, it is particularly the American hops that distinguish an APA from British or European pale ales. The style is close to the American India Pale Ale (IPA), and boundaries blur, though IPAs are stronger and more assertively hopped. The style is also close to amber ale, though ambers are darker and maltier due to use of crystal malts.

Bass Brewery

The Bass Brewery was founded in 1777 by William Bass in Burton-upon-Trent, England. The main brand was Bass Pale Ale, once the highest-selling beer in the UK. By 1877, Bass had become the largest brewery in the world, with an annual output of one million barrels. Its pale ale was exported throughout the British Empire, and the company's distinctive red triangle became the UK's first registered trade mark.Bass took control of a number of other large breweries in the early 20th century, and in the 1960s merged with Charrington United Breweries to become the largest UK brewing company, Bass Charrington. The brewing operations of the company were bought by Interbrew (now Anheuser-Busch InBev) in 2000, while the retail side (hotel and pub holdings) were renamed Six Continents plc. The UK government's Competition Commission was concerned about the monopoly implications arising from the deal, and instructed Interbrew to dispose of the brewery and certain brands (Carling and Worthington) to Coors (now Molson Coors Brewing Company), but allowed Interbrew to retain the rights to the Bass Pale Ale brand. In 2010, it was widely reported that AB-InBev are attempting to sell the rights to the Bass brand in the UK for around £10 million to £15 million.Draught Bass (4.4% ABV) has been brewed under contract in Burton by Marston's for AB-InBev since 2005. Bottled and keg products are brewed at AB-InBev's own brewery in Samlesbury for export, except in the United States and Belgium, where Bass is brewed locally. Bass Ale is a top ten premium canned ale in the UK, with 16,080 hectolitres sold in 2010.

Beer in Belgium

Beer in Belgium varies from pale lager to amber ales, lambic beers, Flemish red ales, sour brown ales, strong ales and stouts. In 2016, there were approximately 224 active breweries in Belgium, including international companies, such as AB InBev, and traditional breweries including Trappist monasteries. On average, Belgians drink 84 liters of beer each year, down from around 200 each year in 1900. Most beers are bought or served in bottles, rather than cans, and almost every beer has its own branded, sometimes uniquely shaped, glass. In 2016, UNESCO inscribed Belgian beer culture on their list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity.

Beers of Panama

Panama produces three brands of rum and a similar liquor known as Seco Herrerano, but beer is also quite popular. There are multiple brands produced by six companies.

Bitter (beer)

Bitter is a British style of pale ale that varies in colour from gold to dark amber, and in strength typically from 3% to 5.5% alcohol by volume.

Black and Tan

Black and Tan is a beer cocktail made by layering a pale beer (usually pale ale) and a dark beer (usually stout).

Founders Brewing Company

Canal Street Brewing Co., L.L.C., doing business as Founders Brewing Company, is a brewery in Grand Rapids, Michigan, known for producing several highly rated craft-style ales. Since its founding in the mid 1990s, it has grown to become the 15th largest brewery in the United States, and a prominent member of the West Michigan brewing industry.

India pale ale

India pale ale (IPA) is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale.The term 'pale ale' originally denoted an ale brewed from pale malt. Among the first brewers known to export beer to India was Englishman George Hodgson's Bow Brewery on the Middlesex-Essex border. Bow Brewery beers became popular among East India Company traders in the late 18th century because of the brewery's location near the East India Docks in Blackwall. The export style of pale ale, which had become known as 'India pale ale', developed in England around 1840, and it later became a popular product there.On the other hand, IPAs have a long history in Canada and the United States, and many breweries there produce a version of the style.

List of beer styles

Beer style is a term used to differentiate and categorize beers by various factors, including appearance, flavour, ingredients, production method, history, or origin. The term beer style and the structuring of world beers into defined categories is largely based on work done by writer Michael James Jackson in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer. Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work, publishing The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989.

There is no universally agreed list of beer styles, as different countries and organisations have different sets of criteria. Organisers of beer competitions such as the Campaign for Real Ale's (CAMRA) Champion Beer of Britain, the Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) local homebrewing competitions, the Brewers Association's World Beer Cup, and the Brewing Industry International Awards have categories in which beers are judged. The categories are varied and include processes or ingredients not usually regarded as defining beer styles in themselves, such as "Cask Conditioned Ale" (cask ale) for the Brewing Industry International Awards, "Gluten Free Beer" (gluten-free beer) for the World Beer Cup, and "Spice, Herb, or Vegetable Beer" (adjuncts) for the BJCP homebrewing competitions.Beer terms such as ale or lager cover a wide variety of beer styles, and are better thought of as broad categories of beer styles. A number of ethnic beers, such as chhaang and cauim, are generally not included on beer style groupings.

List of breweries in Montana

Breweries in Montana produce a wide range of beers in different styles that are marketed locally, regionally, and nationally. Brewing companies vary widely in the volume and variety of beer produced, from small nanobreweries and microbreweries to massive multinational conglomerate macrobreweries.

In 2012 Montana's 38 brewing establishments (including breweries, brewpubs, importers, and company-owned packagers and wholesalers) employed 220 people directly, and more than 4,700 others in related jobs such as wholesaling and retailing. As of August 2016, there are 68 breweries in operation in the state of Montana.Including people directly employed in brewing, as well as those who supply Montana's breweries with everything from ingredients to machinery, the total business and personal tax revenue generated by Montana's breweries and related industries was more than $98 million. Consumer purchases of Montana's brewery products generated more than $21 million extra in tax revenue. In 2012, according to the Brewers Association, Montana ranked 3rd in the number of craft breweries per capita, with 36.For context, at the end of 2013 there were 2,822 breweries in the United States, including 2,768 craft breweries subdivided into 1,237 brewpubs, 1,412 microbreweries and 119 regional craft breweries. In that same year, according to the Beer Institute, the brewing industry employed around 43,000 Americans in brewing and distribution and had a combined economic impact of more than $246 billion.

Matilda Bay Brewing Company

The Matilda Bay Brewing Company was an Australian brewery. It was the first new brewery opened in Australia since World War II and Australia's first craft brewery. Originating from small batches brewed for the Sail and Anchor Hotel in 1984, their main brewery opened in 1989 in a prominent building on the Stirling Highway occupied by Ford Motor Company. The company was purchased by Carlton & United Breweries in the early 1990s (now part of Anheuser-Busch InBev).

Oskar Blues Brewery

Oskar Blues Brewery is a craft brewery with locations in Longmont, Colorado, Brevard, North Carolina, and Austin, Texas. The company began as a brewpub in Lyons in 1997 and began brewing beer in the basement in 1999. In 2002, they became one of the first to put their own craft beer in cans. In 2012, they began marketing some of their craft beer in resealable aluminum containers, and in 2012, they expanded and established another brewery in Brevard, North Carolina. Unlike many craft breweries, Oskar Blues only packages their beer in cans and kegs, not bottles.

Pale lager

Pale lager is a very pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well-attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness.

The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid-19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied them to existing lagering methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll of Bavaria, who produced Pilsner Urquell in the city of Pilsen, Austria-Hungary (now Plzeň in the Czech Republic). The resulting Pilsner beers—pale-colored, lean and stable— gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today.


Saison (French, "season," French pronunciation: ​[sɛ.zɔ̃]) is a pale ale that is highly carbonated, fruity, spicy, and often bottle conditioned. It was historically brewed with low alcohol levels, but modern productions of the style have moderate to high levels of alcohol.

Sierra Nevada Brewing Company

Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. was established in 1979 by homebrewers Ken Grossman and Paul Camusi in Chico, California, United States. The brewery produced 786,000 US bbl (922,000 hl) in 2010, and as of 2016, Sierra Nevada Brewing is the seventh-largest brewing company in the United States.The brewery was named "Green Business of the Year" by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2010 for its practices in sustainability.


Tripel is a term used by brewers or people mainly in the Low Countries, some other European countries, and the U.S. to describe a strong pale ale, loosely in the style of Westmalle Tripel. The origin of the term is unknown, though the main theory is that it indicates strength in some way. It was used in 1956 by the Trappist brewery, Westmalle, to rename the strongest beer in their range, though both the term Tripel and the style of beer associated with the name (strong pale ale), were in existence before 1956. The style of Westmalle's Tripel and the name was widely copied by the breweries of Belgium, and in 1987 another Trappist brewery, the Koningshoeven in the Netherlands, expanded their range with a beer called La Trappe Tripel, though they also produced a stronger beer they termed La Trappe Quadrupel. The term spread to the U.S. and other countries, and is applied by a range of secular brewers to a strong pale ale in the style of Westmalle Tripel.

Beer in Belgium
Beer in Germany
Beer in the UK
Beer in the US
See also

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