Palawan (pron. /pəˈlɑːwɑːn/), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya isang Palasyo / Panaguan; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Palawan; Hiligaynon: Kapuoran sang Palawan; Cebuano: Lalawigan sa Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA. It is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. Its capital is the city of Puerto Princesa, but the city is governed independently from the province as a highly urbanized city.

The islands of Palawan stretch between Mindoro in the northeast and Borneo in the southwest. It lies between the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea. The province is named after its largest island, Palawan Island (09°30′N 118°30′E / 9.500°N 118.500°E), measuring 450 kilometres (280 mi) long, and 50 kilometres (31 mi) wide.[9][10]

On 5 April 2019 President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act 11259 (The Charter of the Provinces of Palawan del Norte, Palawan Oriental and Palawan del Sur) calling for the division of Palawan into three separate provinces. A plebiscite will be held in Palawan on May 2020 determining whether the law will be enacted.[11][12] (See 'Contemporary period' section)

Province of Palawan
Palawan Provincial Capitol
Palawan Provincial Capitol
Flag of Palawan

Official seal of Palawan

  • Philippines' Best Island[3]
  • Philippines' Last Frontier[4][5]
  • The (Spaniards') Land of Promise[6]
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°00′N 118°50′E / 10°N 118.83°ECoordinates: 10°00′N 118°50′E / 10°N 118.83°E
RegionMimaropa (Region IV-B) (in transition)[1][2]
CapitalPuerto Princesa
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorJose C. Alvarez (PDP-LABAN)
 • Vice GovernorVictorino Dennis M. Socrates (NUP)
 • Total14,649.73 km2 (5,656.29 sq mi)
Area rank1st out of 81
 (excludes Puerto Princesa)
Highest elevation2,085 m (6,841 ft)
 (2015 census)[8]
 • Total849,469
 • Rank31st out of 81
 • Density58/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • Density rank79th out of 81
 (excludes Puerto Princesa)
 • Independent cities
 • Component cities0
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays
 • Districts1st to 3rd districts of Palawan (shared with Puerto Princesa City)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP Code
IDD:area code+63 (0)48
ISO 3166 codePH
Spoken languages

History and prehistory

The early history of Palawan was determined by a team of researchers led by Dr. Robert B. Fox. They found evidence in the Tabon Caves that humans have lived in Palawan for more than 50,000 years. They also found human bone fragments, from an individual known as Tabon Man, in the municipality of Quezon, as well as tools and other artifacts. Although the origin of the cave dwellers is not yet established, anthropologists believe they came from Borneo. The Tabon Caves are now known as the Cradle of Philippine Civilization.[9]

Two articulated phalanx bones of a tiger were found amidst an assemblage of other animal bones and stone tools in Ille Cave near the village of New Ibajay. From the stone tools, besides the evidence for cuts on the bones, and the use of fire, it would appear that early humans had accumulated the bones.[13] Additionally, the condition of the tiger subfossils, dated to approximately 12,000 to 9,000 years ago, differed from other fossils in the assemblage, dated to the Upper Paleolithic. The tiger subfossils showed longitudinal fracture of the cortical bone due to weathering, which suggests that they had post-mortem been exposed to light and air. Tiger parts were commonly used as amulets in South and Southeast Asia, so it may be that the tiger parts were imported from elsewhere, as is the case with tiger canine teeth, which were found in Ambangan sites dating to the 10th to 12th centuries in Butuan, Mindanao. On the other hand, the proximity of Borneo and Palawan also makes it likely that the tiger had colonized Palawan from Borneo before the Early Holocene.[14][15]

Ancient times

Image of golden Garuda of Palawan
An image of a golden Garuda of Palawan, an Hindu artifact, found in the Tabon Caves
Battle of kedah
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah

The Palawano and Tagbanwa, are believed to be direct descendants of Palawan's earliest settlers. They developed an informal form of government, an alphabet, and a system of trading with seafaring merchants.[16]

Surviving ancient tribal artwork include reliefs of elephants, sharks, and fish found at Tabon Caves. Approximately 5,000 years ago, a culturally distinct period characterised by jar burials is evident. This era lasted till AD 500. Over 1500 jars and a mural depicting a burial procession were found.

A more recent wave of migrants arrived between AD 220 and 263. This was during a period known as the Three Kingdoms. "Little, dark people" living in Anwei province in South China were driven South by Han People. Some settled in Thailand, others went farther south to Indonesia, Sumatra, Borneo. They were known as Aetas and Negritos from whom Palawan's Batak tribe descended.[17]

Palawan, along with the rest of Philippines, was part of greater India and indosphere as evident by the discovery of a gold ornamental pendant from the Tabon caves in the island of Palawan. It is an image of Garuda, the eagle bird who is the mount of Hindu deity Vishnu.[18] The discovery of sophisticated Hindu imagery and gold artifacts in Tabon caves has been linked to those found from Óc Eo archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province of Vietnam in the Mekong River Delta.[19] These archaeological evidence suggests an active trade of many specialized goods and gold between India and Philippines and coastal regions of Vietnam and China. Between 8th to 12th centuries, Philippines was part of Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya kingdowm, which in turn was a vassal of the Indian Hindu kingdom of Chola dynasty.[20] Several places in Malaysia and Indonesia were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty.[21][22] The Chola invasion furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Manigramam, Ayyavole and Ainnurruvar into Southeast Asia.[23][24][25][26] The Chola invasion led to the fall of the Sailendra Dynasty of Srivijaya and the Chola invasion also coincides with return voyage of the great Buddhist scholar Atiśa from Sumatra to India and Tibet in 1025.[27] The expedition of Rajendra Chola I is mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle Sejarah Melaya, and Malay princes have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, such as Raja Chulan of Perak.[28][29][30][31][32] With the Maharaja Sangrama Vijayottunggavarman imprisoned and most of its cities destroyed, the leaderless Srivijaya mandala entered a period of chaos and confusion. The invasion marked the end of the Sailendra dynasty. According to the 15th-century Malay annals Sejarah Melayu, Rajendra Chola I after the successful naval raid in 1025 married Onang Kiu, the daughter of Vijayottunggavarman.[33][34]

In AD 982, ancient Chinese traders regularly visited the islands.[17] A Chinese author referred to these islands as Kla-ma-yan (Calamian), Palau-ye (Palawan), and Paki-nung (Busuanga). Pottery, china and other artifacts recovered from caves and waters of Palawan attest to trade relations that existed between Chinese and Malay merchants.[16]

Classical period

In the 12th century, Malay immigrants arrived. Most of their settlements were ruled by Malay chieftains. These people grew rice, ginger, coconuts, sweet potatoes, sugarcane and bananas. They also raised swine, goats and chickens. Most of their economic activities were fishing, farming, and hunting by the use of bamboo traps and blowguns. The local people had a dialect consisting of 18 syllables.[16] They were followed by the Indonesians of the Majapahit Empire in the 13th century, and they brought with them Buddhism and Hinduism.[35]

Surviving Buddhist images and sculptures are primarily in and near Tabon Cave.

Because of Palawan's proximity to Borneo, southern portions of the island were under the control of the Sultanate of Brunei for more than two centuries, and Islam was introduced. During the same period, trade relations flourished, and intermarriages among the natives and the Chinese, Japanese, Arab and Hindu. The inter-mixing of blood resulted to a distinct breed of Palaweños, both in physical stature and features.[16]

Spanish period

Taytay, the capital of Province of Calamianes in 1818 (Spanish Palawan)

After Ferdinand Magellan's death, remnants of his fleet landed in Palawan where the bounty of the land saved them from starvation. Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler named the place "Land of Promise."[17]

The northern Calamianes Islands were the first to come under Spanish authority, and were later declared a province separate from the Palawan mainland. In the early 17th century, Spanish friars sent out missions in Cuyo, Agutaya, Taytay and Cagayancillo but they met resistance from Moro communities. Before the 18th century, Spain began to build churches enclosed by garrisons for protection against Moro raids in the town of Cuyo, Taytay, Linapacan and Balabac. In 1749, the Sultanate of Brunei ceded southern Palawan to Spain.[16]

In 1818, the entire island of Palawan, or Paragua as it was called, was organized as a single province named Calamianes, with its capital in Taytay. By 1858, the province was divided into two provinces, namely, Castilla, covering the northern section with Taytay as capital and Asturias in the southern mainland with Puerto Princesa as capital. It was later divided into three districts, Calamianes, Paragua and Balabac, with Principe Alfonso town as its capital. and During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, Cuyo became the second capital of Palawan from 1873 to 1903.

American rule

In 1902, after the Philippine–American War, the Americans established civil rule in northern Palawan, calling it the province of Paragua. In 1903, pursuant to Philippine Commission Act No. 1363, the province was reorganized to include the southern portions and renamed Palawan, and Puerto Princesa declared as its capital.[16]

Many reforms and projects were later introduced in the province. Construction of school buildings, promotion of agriculture, and bringing people closer to the government were among the priority plans during this era.[16]

Japanese invasion

After the Japanese invasion, according to Stephen L. Moore, "Pro-Allied sentiment was strong, and it was later estimated that during the war as many as 1,154 Filipino guerrillas worked against the Japanese on the island. Those in the underground network would proudly refer to themselves as 'Palawan's Fighting One Thousand'." Early resistance leaders included Dr. Higinio Acosta Mendoza, his wife Triny, Thomas F. Loudon, and his son-in-law Nazario Mayor. Capt. Mayor organized Company D in Oct. 1943, and was responsible for the area encompassing Puerto Princesa south to Balabac Island. Capt. Mendoza covered the area north of Puerto Princesa to Caramay. Lt. Felipe Batul operated out of Danlig, while Capt. Carlos Amores operated out of Sibaltan. Overall command of the Palawan Special Battalion was under Maj. Pablo P. Muyco as part of the 6th Military District. The Palawan guerrillas helped any escaping American POWs, supported two coastwatcher groups sending regular radio broadcasts to General MacArthur on Japanese movements, helped rescue downed airmen, and survivors from the USS Flier submarine. Most importantly, they helped guide the 8th Army's troop landings.[36]

Palawan Massacre

U. S. Army personnel toiled to identify the charred remains of Americans captured at Bataan and burned alive on Palawan. 20 March 1945

During World War II, in order to prevent the rescue of prisoners of war by the advancing allies, on 14 December 1944, units of the Japanese Fourteenth Area Army (under the command of General Tomoyuki Yamashita) herded the remaining 150 prisoners of war at Puerto Princesa into three covered trenches which were then set on fire using barrels of gasoline. Prisoners who tried to escape the flames were shot down.[37] Only 11 men escaped the slaughter.[38]


During the first phase of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, just off the coast of Palawan, two United States Navy submarines, USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227) attacked a Japanese cruiser task force led by Admiral Takeo Kurita, sinking his flagship (in which he survived) Atago, and her sister ship Maya. Darter later ran aground that afternoon and was scuttled by USS Nautilus (SS-168).

The island was liberated from the Japanese Imperial Forces February 28 and April 22, 1945 during the Invasion of Palawan.

Contemporary period

In 2005, Palawan was briefly made politically part of Western Visayas or Region VI through Executive Order 429 signed by then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as a political move to control the province and a response to getting more loans from China[39] on May 23, 2005.[40] This decree was later deferred on August 18 within the same year reportedly due to the opposition of the province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Council).[41]

In April 2019, a bill dividing Palawan into three provinces sponsored by senator Sonny Angara[42] was passed into law after the bill was signed by President Rodrigo Duterte.[43] The three new provinces are Palawan del Norte, Palawan Oriental, and Palawan del Sur.[44][45] A plebiscite will be held on May 2020 to decide on whether Palawan will be divided into three provinces or not. Some civil society groups and Puerto Princesa residents opposed the proposed division, claiming that there was no extensive public consultation.[46][47][42]


A lagoon in El Nido (left). Coron Island (right).

El Nido Palawan Big Lagoon
View on the half way to Kayangan Lake - panoramio

The province is composed of the long and narrow Palawan Island, plus a number of other smaller islands surrounding it, totalling roughly 1,780 islands and islets. The Calamianes Group of Islands to the northeast consists of Busuanga, Coron, Culion, and Linapacan islands. Balabac Island is located off the southern tip, separated from Borneo by the Balabac Strait. In addition, Palawan covers the Cuyo Islands in the Sulu Sea. The disputed Spratly Islands, located a few hundred kilometres to the west, are considered part of Palawan by the Philippines, and is locally called the "Kalayaan Group of Islands".

Palawan's almost 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of irregular coastline is lined with rocky coves and sugar-white sandy beaches. It also harbors a vast stretch of virgin forests that carpet its chain of mountain ranges. The mountain heights average 3,500 feet (1,100 m) in altitude, with the highest peak rising to 6,843 feet (2,086 m)[10] at Mount Mantalingahan. The vast mountain areas are the source of valuable timber. The terrain is a mix of coastal plain, craggy foothills, valley deltas, and heavy forest interspersed with riverine arteries that serve as irrigation.[9]

The province has a total land area of 14,649.73 square kilometres (5,656.29 sq mi).[48] When Puerto Princesa City is included for geographical purposes, its land area is 17,030.75 square kilometres (6,575.61 square miles).[48] The land area is distributed to its mainland municipalities, comprising 12,239 square kilometres (4,726 square miles), and the island municipalities, which altogether measure 2,657 square kilometres (1,026 square miles). In terms of archipelagic internal waters, Palawan has the biggest marine resources that covers almost half of the Sulu Sea and a big chunk of the South China Sea that is within the municipal waters of Kalayaan Municipality which was official annexed to the Philippine jurisdiction by virtue of Presidential Decree 1596 dated June 11, 1978.


The province has two types of climate. The first, which occurs in the northern and southern extremities and the entire western coast, has two distinct seasons – six months dry and six months wet. The other, which prevails in the eastern coast, has a short dry season of one to three months and no pronounced rainy period during the rest of the year. The southern part of the province is virtually free from tropical depressions but northern Palawan experiences torrential rains during the months of July and August. Summer months serve as peak season for Palawan. Sea voyages are most favorable from March to early June when the seas are calm. The average maximum temperature is 31 °C (88 °F) with little variation all year.[9]

Administrative divisions

Ph fil palawan

Palawan comprises 433 barangays in 23 municipalities and the capital City of Puerto Princesa. As an archipelago, Palawan has 13 mainland municipalities and 10 island towns. There are three congressional districts, namely: the first district comprising five northern mainland municipalities and nine island towns; the second district composed of six southern mainland towns and the island municipality of Balabac; and the third district covering the capital City of Puerto Princesa and the town of Aborlan. Thirteen municipalities are considered as mainland municipalities, namely Aborlan, Narra, Quezon, Sofronio Española, Brooke's Point, Rizal, and Bataraza (located south); San Vicente, Roxas, Dumaran, El Nido, and Taytay (found in the north). The remaining island municipalities are: Busuanga, Coron, Linapacan and Culion (forming the Calamianes group of islands), Cuyo, Agutaya and Magsaysay (the Cuyo group of islands), Araceli, Cagayancillo, Balabac and Kalayaan (Spratly Islands). The capital, Puerto Princesa is a highly urbanized city that governs itself independently from the province, but it usually grouped with the province for statistical and geographic purposes.

If approved in the May 2020 plebiscite, Palawan will be divided into three provinces.[49][50] The three provinces are Palawan del Norte (includes El Nido, Taytay, Coron, Linapacan, Culion, and Busuanga), Palawan Oriental (includes San Vicente, Roxas, Dumaran, Cuyo, Agutaya, Magsaysay, and Cagayancillo), and Palawan del Sur (includes Kalayaan, Aborlan, Narra, Sofronio Española, Brooke's Point, Rizal, Quezon, Bataraza and Balabac).[44][45]

  •  †  Provincial capital and highly urbanized city
  •      Municipality
City or municipality Location District[48] Population ±% p.a. Area[48] Density Brgy. Coordinates[A]
(2015)[8] (2010)[51] km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Aborlan Mainland 3rd 4.1% 35,091 32,209 1.65% 807.33 311.71 43 110 19 9°26′14″N 118°32′54″E / 9.4371°N 118.5484°E
Agutaya Island 1st 1.5% 12,545 11,906 1.00% 37.31 14.41 340 880 10 11°09′04″N 120°56′22″E / 11.1511°N 120.9394°E
Araceli Island 1st 1.8% 14,909 14,113 1.05% 204.30 78.88 73 190 13 10°33′13″N 119°59′21″E / 10.5535°N 119.9891°E
Balabac Island 2nd 4.7% 40,142 35,758 2.23% 581.60 224.56 69 180 20 7°59′12″N 117°03′49″E / 7.9866°N 117.0635°E
Bataraza Mainland 2nd 8.9% 75,468 63,644 3.30% 726.20 280.39 100 260 22 8°40′20″N 117°37′41″E / 8.6722°N 117.6281°E
Brooke's Point Mainland 2nd 7.8% 66,374 61,301 1.53% 1,303.40 503.25 51 130 18 8°46′25″N 117°50′10″E / 8.7737°N 117.8361°E
Busuanga Island 1st 2.6% 22,046 21,358 0.61% 392.90 151.70 56 150 14 12°08′00″N 119°56′10″E / 12.1332°N 119.9361°E
Cagayancillo Island 1st 0.7% 6,285 7,116 −2.34% 26.39 10.19 240 620 12 9°34′37″N 121°11′50″E / 9.5769°N 121.1971°E
Coron Island 1st 6.1% 51,803 42,941 3.64% 689.10 266.06 75 190 23 11°59′56″N 120°12′22″E / 11.9988°N 120.2060°E
Culion Island 1st 2.4% 20,139 19,543 0.57% 499.59 192.89 40 100 14 11°53′26″N 120°01′19″E / 11.8905°N 120.0220°E
Cuyo Island 1st 2.6% 22,360 21,847 0.44% 84.95 32.80 260 670 17 10°50′55″N 121°00′49″E / 10.8486°N 121.0137°E
Dumaran Mainland 1st 2.8% 23,734 21,397 1.99% 435.00 167.95 55 140 16 10°31′35″N 119°46′13″E / 10.5265°N 119.7703°E
El Nido Mainland 1st 4.9% 41,606 36,191 2.69% 923.26 356.47 45 120 18 11°10′46″N 119°23′29″E / 11.1795°N 119.3913°E
Kalayaan Island 1st 0.0% 184 222 −3.51% 290.00 111.97 0.63 1.6 1 11°03′12″N 114°17′09″E / 11.0534°N 114.2857°E
Linapacan Island 1st 1.8% 15,668 14,180 1.92% 195.44 75.46 80 210 10 11°29′28″N 119°52′06″E / 11.4910°N 119.8682°E
Magsaysay Island 1st 1.4% 12,196 11,965 0.36% 49.48 19.10 250 650 11 10°51′52″N 121°03′01″E / 10.8645°N 121.0504°E
Narra Mainland 2nd 8.6% 73,212 65,264 2.21% 831.73 321.13 88 230 23 9°16′10″N 118°24′14″E / 9.2694°N 118.4039°E
Puerto Princesa Mainland 3rd 255,116 222,673 2.62% 2,381.02 919.32 110 280 66 9°44′24″N 118°44′24″E / 9.7400°N 118.7400°E
Quezon Mainland 2nd 7.2% 60,980 55,142 1.93% 943.19 364.17 65 170 14 9°14′12″N 117°59′29″E / 9.2368°N 117.9914°E
Rizal Mainland 2nd 5.9% 50,096 42,759 3.06% 1,256.47 485.13 40 100 11 9°01′49″N 117°38′29″E / 9.0302°N 117.6413°E
Roxas Mainland 1st 7.7% 65,358 61,058 1.30% 1,177.56 454.66 56 150 31 10°19′11″N 119°20′35″E / 10.3196°N 119.3430°E
San Vicente Mainland 1st 3.7% 31,232 30,919 0.19% 1,462.94 564.84 21 54 10 10°31′44″N 119°15′17″E / 10.5289°N 119.2547°E
Sofronio Española Mainland 2nd 3.9% 32,876 29,997 1.76% 473.91 182.98 69 180 9 8°58′01″N 117°59′41″E / 8.9669°N 117.9947°E
Taytay Mainland 1st 8.8% 75,165 70,837 1.14% 1,257.68 485.59 60 160 31 10°49′32″N 119°31′00″E / 10.8256°N 119.5166°E
Total[B] 849,469 771,667 1.85% 14,649.73 5,656.29 58 150 433 (see GeoGroup box)
  1. ^ Coordinates mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.
  2. ^ Total figures exclude the highly urbanized city of Puerto Princesa.


In 2001, the residents of Palawan voted in a plebiscite to reject inclusion into an expanded Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[52]

On 17 May 2002, Executive Order No. 103 divided Region IV into Region IV-A (Calabarzon) and Region IV-B (Mimaropa), placing the province of Palawan into Mimaropa.[53]

On 23 May 2005, Executive Order No. 429 directed that Palawan be transferred from Region IV-B to Region VI.[1] However, Palaweños criticized the move, citing a lack of consultation, with most residents in Puerto Princesa City and all municipalities but one preferring to stay with Region IV-B. Consequently, Administrative Order No. 129 was issued on 19 August 2005 that the implementation of EO 429 be held in abeyance pending approval by the President of its implementation Plan.[2] The Philippine Commission on Elections reported the 2010 Philippine general election results for Palawan as a part of the Region IV-B results.[54] As of 30 June 2011, the abeyance was still in effect and Palawan remained a part of Mimaropa.[7]


Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park geologic marker
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park geologic marker
Ulugan Bay, Palawan
Ulugan Bay, Palawan

The geology of Palawan is, in many ways, unlike other parts of the Philippines. The crust of northeast Palawan was derived from the southeast edge of the continental crust of China, part of the Eurasian Plate. It is the exposed portion of a microcontinent that drifted southward with the opening of the South China Sea. This microcontinent also forms the shallow water north of Palawan in the Reed Bank-Dangerous Ground area of the southern South China Sea. Some of the oldest rocks of the Philippines are found in northeast Palawan (Permian-Carboniferous age). Southwest Palawan exposes primarily ophiolitic material (rocks derived from uplifted oceanic crust and mantle). This 34 Myr old (latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene) ophiolite[55] appears to have been thrust upon the continental crust as well as the older, Cretaceous ophiolitic and sedimentary units. The transition from "oceanic" ophiolite in the southwest to "continental"-type rocks in the northeast occurs in the area of central Palawan around Ulugan Bay and the Sabang area. In the southern coasts of Ulugan Bay and Sabang Beach, are several exposures showing that the Palawan ophiolite has been thrust on to the continent-derived clastic rocks ("Sabang thrust").[56]

The Palawan Trough is an area of deeper water adjacent to the north coast of Palawan in the South China Sea.[57] The Palawan trough is thought to be due to downbending of the continental crust due to the weight of the ophiolite thrust sheet.

Further north, around the Malampaya Sound area and up to the El Nido area, one finds older (Triassic-Jurassic) deep marine chert and limestone. The limestone forms spectacular karst terrain. These units are part of the microcontinent ("North Palawan Block") although they are deep marine rocks marginal to the continental crust. They were accreted to the Chinese continental crust in the Mesozoic at a time when an Andean-type subduction zone existed in southeast China.

Intruding these rocks in central Palawan (Cleopatra's Needle area) and northern Palawan (Mount Capoas or Kapoas area) are young granite bodies (true granite to granodiorite). The Kapoas intrusion is of Miocene age (13-15 million years old based on zircon and monazite U-Pb dating).[58] In the Taytay area of northern Palawan, a young basaltic cinder cone is another manifestation of young magmatic activity. The granitic magmatism and basaltic magmatism are both expressions of what has been identified as a widespread post-South China Sea spreading magmatism that has affected many areas around the South China Sea.[59]

Tectonically, Palawan with the Calamian Islands, is considered to be a north-east extension of the Sunda Plate, in collision with the Philippine Mobile Belt at Mindoro.


Population census of Palawan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 34,488—    
1918 62,626+4.06%
1939 82,786+1.34%
1948 91,092+1.07%
1960 139,544+3.62%
1970 198,861+3.60%
1975 254,356+5.06%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 311,548+4.14%
1990 436,140+3.42%
1995 510,909+3.01%
2000 593,500+3.26%
2007 682,152+1.94%
2010 771,667+4.59%
2015 849,469+1.85%
(excluding Puerto Princesa City)
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[8][51][60][61]

The population of Palawan in the 2015 census was 849,469 people,[8] with a density of 58 inhabitants per square kilometre or 150 inhabitants per square mile. When Puerto Princesa City is included for geographical purposes, the population is 1,104,585 people, with a density of 65/km2 (168/sq mi).

The province is a melting pot of 87 different cultural groups and races. Basically, its culture bears a strong influence from China, India and the Middle East. Influx of migrants from other parts of the Philippines, particularly from Muslim Mindanao, accounts for the high population growth rate of 3.98% annually. The native-born Palaweños still predominate the populace. Eighteen percent is composed of cultural minority groups such as the Tagbanwa, Palawano, Batak, and Molbog.



The Members Church of God International popularly called Ang Dating Daan establishes three church districts namely Coron, Northern Palawan and Southern Palawan which signifies strong membership in the province.

Roman Catholicism

Palawan Catholic Church
Immaculate Conception Cathedral in Puerto Princesa, Palawan

The predominant religion in Palawan is Roman Catholicism. In 2014, the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Puerto Prinsesa had a 68% adherence while the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Taytay (Northern Palawan) had an 88% adherence. One of the religious orders that had a significant mission in the islands is the Order of Augustinian Recollects.

The island of Palawan is divided into two Apostolic Vicariates: the Apostolic Vicariate of Puerto Princesa in Southern Palawan and the Apostolic Vicariate of Taytay in Northern Palawan.

Protestantism and other groups

Several Baptist and other Protestant denominations have a strong presence in Palawan as do the Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the Philippines, and the Seventh-day Adventists. Charismatic groups such as Jesus is Lord (JIL), Jesus Touch Fellowship (JTF) and the Life Church (formerly known at the Life Renewal Center).

Other Christian denominations including the indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has many local congregations in the province. The United Church of Christ in the Philippines or (UCCP), the Jesus Miracle Crusade, the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ or PMCC as well as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Church or Aglipayan Church) which is standing as one diocese (The Diocese of Palawan). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a growing membership in the island province. Jehovah's Witnesses have an active membership of 181,236 in the Philippines as of 2012. Special pioneers from the Witnesses have been preaching to prisoners at the Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm in Palawan, and were permitted to build a small Kingdom Hall right on the premises.[62]


While the formerly Muslim majority population in Mindanao was reduced to 40% as a result of the influx of Christian Filipino settlers in the 20th century, as of 2015 Muslims were reported by the Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Democratization as forming an "overwhelming majority" in Palawan, as well as the Sulu Archipelago.[63] However, other sources had earlier reported a 50-50 split between Muslims and Christians—with Muslims concentrated mostly in the south of Palawan.[64][65]


Most of the ethnic minorities such as Batak and Tagbanwa are animists. Many of which have continued to preserve their ancient traditions passed on by their ancestors and onto the next generations. However, Christian missionaries have interfered in some communities, to an extent where traditional ways have been obliterated by foreign and foreign-inspired religions.

Other religions

There are Buddhists - mainly Vietnamese refugees who settled in Palawan, as well as some ethnic Chinese Buddhists. One notable Vietnamese Buddhist Temple in Palawan is Chùa Vạn Pháp.[66]


There are 52 languages and dialects in the province, with Tagalog being spoken by more than 50 percent of the people. Languages native to the islands are Cuyonon (26.27 percent), and Palawano (4.0 percent). Kinaray-a is also present at 19 percent. Before mass immigration to Palawan by various groups of people from Southern Tagalog, Illocandia, and Central Luzon, and Panay, Cuyonon was an established lingua franca amongst many of its native peoples, i.e. the Agutaynen, Cagayanen, Tagbanua, Palawan, and others. The usage of Cuyonon significantly dropped during the approach of the new millennium being replaced by the now majority Tagalog. In the south of Palawan during the occupation of the Sulu Sultanate, Tausug was a lingua franca amongst the minority Islamfied ethnic groups i.e. Molbog, Tausug (non native), Muslim Palaw’an, and the migratory Sama. By the 19th Century, Cuyonon had replaced Tausug as lingua franca, coinciding with Spain's efforts to stake control of the island.


Palawan's economy is basically agricultural. The three major crops are palay, corn and coconut. Mineral resources include nickel, copper, manganese, and chromite. Logging is also a major industry. Palawan has one of the richest fishing grounds in the country. About 45% of Manila's supply of fish comes from here. Having natural gas reserves of approximately 30,000 trillion cubic feet, the province is the only oil-producing province in the country.[67][68] In addition, tourism is also a thriving sector.

Pearl diving used to be a significant economic activity for Palawan until the advent of plastics. The world's largest pearl, the 240 millimetres (9.4 in) diameter Pearl of Lao Tzu, was found off Palawan in 1934.

The economic and agricultural business growth of province is at 20% per annum.[68] Coconut, sugar, rice, lumber, and livestock are produced here.[10]

Flora and fauna

Unlike most of the Philippines, Palawan is biogeographically part of Sundaland, with a fauna and flora related to that found in Borneo.[69]

Among the many endemic species are the Palawan peacock-pheasant, Philippine mouse-deer, Philippine pangolin, Palawan bearded pig, and Palawan birdwing. In the forests and grasslands, the air resonates with the songs of more than 200 kinds of birds. Over 600 species of butterflies flutter around the mountains and fields of Palawan, attracted to some 1500 hosts plants found here. Endangered sea turtles nest on white sand beaches.[70] Dugong numbers have fallen seriously, although Palawan still has a larger population than any other part of the country,[71] and organizations such as Community Centred Conservation (C3) are working to end the unsustainable use of marine resources in Palawan and in Philippines.[72]

In 2007, a "shrew-eating pitcher plant", named Nepenthes attenboroughii was discovered in Mount Victoria. There were many species of pitcher plants discovered in this wild mountain paradise, the most recent is named Nepenthes leonardoi.

Mountain creek, Taranaban River tributary, Palawan.jpeg
Taranaban River

Total forest cover is about 56 percent of the total land area of the province while mangrove forest accounts for 3.35 percent based on the 1998 Landsat imagery. Grasslands dwindled from 19 percent in 1992 to 12.40 percent in 1998. This is an indication of improving soil condition as deteriorating soil is normally invaded by grass species. Brushlands increased to 25 percent of the total land area. Sprawled beneath the seas are nearly 11,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, representing more than 35% of the country's coral reefs.[70]

Palawan, the only Philippine island cited, is rated by the Condé Nast Traveler Readers as the most beautiful island in the world and is also rated by the National Geographic Traveler magazine as the best island destination in East and Southeast Asia region in 2007, and the equal 27th best island in the world having "incredibly beautiful natural seascapes and landscapes. One of the most biodiverse (terrestrial and marine) islands in the Philippines. The island has had a Biosphere Reserve status since the early 1990s, showing local interest for conservation and sustainable development".[73][74]

The province was also categorized as "doing well" in the 4th Destination Scorecard survey conducted by the National Geographic Center for Sustainable Destinations, and Conde Nast Traveler magazine voted its beaches, coves and islets as the tourist destination with the best beaches in Asia.[75] Renowned underwater explorer Jacques Cousteau has described the province as having one of the most beautiful seascapes in the world.[70] and Caril Ridley, founder of Palawan Environmental and Marine Studies Center (PEMS) says the Islands of northern Palawan are destined to become a future destination for Asia's growing economic and environmental conferencing.

In 2012, the purple crab was discovered here along with four other species.


Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary

A game reserve and wildlife sanctuary of exotic African animals and endangered endemic animals of Palawan. The reserve was established on August 31, 1976 by virtue of the Presidential Decree No.1578, this was initiated in response to the appeal of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature to help save African wildlife when former President Ferdinand Marcos attended the 3rd World Conference in Kenya. By virtue of the Republic Act 7611 (SEP), administrative jurisdiction of DENR was given to the local government of Palawan, effective December 31, 1993. Management of the area is the responsibility of the Office of the Palawan Council of Sustainable Development (PCSD). It is located in Calauit Island in Busuanga.

Coron Reefs, Coron Bay, Busuanga

Seven lakes surrounded by craggy limestone cliffs attract hundreds of nature lovers to Coron Reefs in Northern Palawan, near the town of Coron. Busuanga Island, whose main town is Coron, is the jump-off point for numerous dive operators. The principal dive sites are 12 World War II Japanese shipwrecks sunk on September 24, 1944 by US Navy action. They range in depth from the surface to 40 meters. This large variety offers exciting wreck exploration for enthusiasts, from novice divers and snorkelers and recreational divers to experienced TEC divers.

The aquatic views from the sunken Japanese warships off Coron Island are listed in Forbes Traveler Magazine's top 10 best scuba sites in the world.[75]

El Nido Marine Reserve Park

Tubbataha Shark
Whitetip reef shark at the Tubbataha Reef

The January 2008 issue of international magazine Travel + Leisure, published by the American Express Co. (which partnered with Conservation International) listed El Nido's sister hotel resorts El Nido Lagen Island and El Nido Miniloc Island in Miniloc and Lagen Islands as "conservation-minded places on a mission to protect the local environment". Travel + Leisure's 20 Favorite Green Hotels scored El Nido Resort's protection of Palawan's giant clam gardens and the re-introduction of endangered Philippine cockatoos: "8. El Nido Resorts, Philippines: Guest cottages on stilts are set above the crystalline ocean. The resorts are active in both reef and island conservation."[76]

Malampaya Sound Land and Seascape Protected Area

Located in the Municipality of Taytay, this important ecological and economic zone is a watershed and fishing ground, and the habitat of Bottle-nosed and Irrawaddy dolphins.[77]

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

This park features a large limestone karst landscape with an underground river. One of the river's distinguishing features is that it emerges directly into the sea, and its lower portion is subject to tidal influences. The area also represents a significant habitat for biodiversity conservation. The site contains a full 'mountain-to-sea' ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.

The Tubbataha Reef Marine Park covers 332 km2, including the North and South Reefs. It is a unique example of an atoll reef with a very high density of marine species; the North Islet serving as a nesting site for birds and marine turtles. The site is an excellent example of a pristine coral reef with a spectacular 100 m perpendicular wall, extensive lagoons and two coral islands.

Ursula Island

This game refuge and bird sanctuary is situated near the Municipality of Bataraza in southern Palawan. The islet is a migratory and wintering ground for shorebirds and seabirds.[77]

Rasa Island Wildlife Sanctuary

This 1,983-hectare (4,900-acre) protected area located in the municipality of Narra is a nesting ground of the endemic Philippine cockatoo or katala. It also harbors other rare bird species and marine turtles.


The Armed Forces of the Philippines–Western Command in Canigaran and the Philippine National Police-Palawan Command with headquarters in Tiniguiban, Puerto Princesa, are responsible for maintenance of the peace and order. Military units in the province under the Western Command are the Naval Forces Northwest (Task Force 41 and 42), Philippine Air Force 4th Naval District IV, Delta Company and 10th Marine Battalion Landing Team located in Tiniguiban, Puerto Princesa. There has been discussion about dredging Ulugan Bay in order to build a larger naval base on Palawan, allowing the Philippines to project naval power into the South China Sea.[78][79]

The U.S. Department of State issued a travel warning in May 2015, advising foreigners against travel to the southern part of Palawan.[80] The warning continues to be in effect as of May 2017.[81]



Four telecommunication companies provide local and international direct distance dialing and fax services. Inter island communications is available through the government's telegraph network and the Provincial Radio Communication System. In addition, there are 19 post offices, a number of cargo forwarders provide air parcel and freight services.[82]

The province has access to two satellite-linked television stations. Cable television in the City of Puerto Princesa offers dozens of foreign channels while smaller firms provide cable services in selected towns. Individual cable facility (Dream Cable) is available locally. Seven radio stations are based in Puerto Princesa, four on the AM and three on the FM bands. Community-based radio stations operate in some of the municipalities in the north and south of the province. Additional stations are expected to set up local affiliates in the capital city of Puerto Princesa.[82]

Two mobile phone companies, Smart Communications and Globe Telecom, are operating in the province. Sun Cellular is expected to start operations in the province soon.[82]

Health facilities

DOH Dental Buses in Palawan
Dental Buses provided by the Department of Health for use of provincial government of Palawan.

There are nine provincial government hospitals, two national government hospitals, one military hospital and nine private hospitals in the province. The Culion Sanitarium and General Hospital, Ospital ng Palawan, managed and administered by the Department of Health (DOH), MMG-PPC Cooperative Hospital, and the Palawan Adventist Hospital are located in Puerto Princesa.[82]


The National Power Corporation has 14 electric facilities all over Palawan. It operates with a total of 51.363 megawatts of electricity.

Water facilities in Palawan are classified as Level I (deepwell, handpump), Level II (communal faucet), or Level III (house connection). Among all of these types, Level I has the most number of units, accounting to 17,438; this is followed by Level III, with 1,688 units; and Level II, with only 94 units.[82]

Puerto Princesa International Airport Outside 1
Puerto Princesa International Airport, the main gateway to the province of Palawan



The Puerto Princesa International Airport is the only international airport in Palawan, serving as the main gateway to the province. Other airports include:


The literacy rate in Palawan is increasing by 2% annually because of expanding access to education. Among these programs are the establishment of schools in remote barangays, non-formal education, multi-grade mobile teaching and the drop-out intervention program.[82]

Public schools in the province consist of 623 elementary schools, 126 secondary schools and two universities. Private schools are as follows: 26 elementary, 19 secondary, 4 private colleges, and 10 vocational schools.

Among the public institutions of higher education are the Western Philippines University with campuses in Aborlan and Puerto Princesa City, Coron College of Fisheries, Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trade and the Palawan College of Arts and Trade in Cuyo, Palawan. Also Palawan State University located at Puerto Princesa.

Some of the private institutions are the Holy Trinity University run by the Dominican Sisters of Saint Catherine of Siena, Fullbright College, Palawan Polytechnical College Inc., in Roxas, San Vicente and Puerto Princesa City, Systems Technology Institute (STI), AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC) in Puerto Princesa City, San Francisco Javier College run by the Augustinian Recollect Sisters in Narra, Loyola College in Culion run by the Jesuits, St. Joseph Academy in Cuyo, St. Augustine Academy in Coron, Coron Technical School, Sacred Heart of Jesus High School in Brooke's Point; Northern Palawan Christian Institute (owned and manage by the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Palawan Diocese) and the unique educational institution called the St. Ezekiel Moreno Dormitory located in barangay Macarascas, Puerto Princesa City founded by Bishop Broderick Pabillo, the present auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Manila. The Palawanologist, Andrei Ustares Acosta of El Nido, Palawan, founded the new discipline on the studies of Palawan called the Palawanology.[82]

See also


  1. ^ a b President of the Philippines (May 23, 2005). "Executive Order No. 429 s. 2005". Official Gazette (Philippines). Philippine Government. Text "Official Gazette]] " ignored (help)
  2. ^ a b President of the Philippines (August 19, 2005). "Administrative Order No. 129 s. 2005". Official Gazette. Philippine Government.
  3. ^ "World's Best Islands 2013".Travel + Leisure. 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016
  4. ^ "Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands: The points man in the Philippines' last frontier" (Extract from UNESCO Sources (131) published on February, 2001, page 14). UNESCO. February 2001. Retrieved 12 February 2015. The Island Province of Palawan, often called the Philippines’ last frontier, has a unique concentration of UNESCO coastal and small island initiatives.
  5. ^ "Palawan Biodiversity Corridor The Philippines' last biodiversity frontier". Conservation International Philippines. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  6. ^ "The Mysterious Paradise of Palawan". Private Islands Magazine. Retrieved 12 February 2015. A naturally rich region with abundant forests and fishing, there’s little wonder that early Spanish explorers referred to Palawan as the ‘Land of Promise’.
  7. ^ a b "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d WowPhilippines:Palawan - the Philippines' Last Frontier. Accessed August 27, 2008. Archived June 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b c MSN Encarta: Palawan Archived 2008-07-25 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed September 05, 2008.
  11. ^ EJ Roque (13 April 2019). "PRRD signs law dividing Palawan into 3 provinces". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Republic Act No. 11259". Official Gazette (Philippines). 13 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019. (full text)
  13. ^ Piper, P. J.; Ochoa, J.; Lewis, H.; Paz, V.; Ronquillo, W. P. (2008). "The first evidence for the past presence of the tiger Panthera tigris (L.) on the island of Palawan, Philippines: extinction in an island population". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 264: 123–127. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.003.
  14. ^ Van der Geer, A.; Lyras, G.; De Vos, J.; Dermitzakis, M. (2011). "15 (The Philippines); 26 (Carnivores)". Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 220–347.
  15. ^ Ochoa, J.; Piper, P. J. (2017). "Tiger". In Monks, G. (ed.). Climate Change and Human Responses: A Zooarchaeological Perspective. Springer. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9-4024-1106-2.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g "Palawan Tourism Council: History of Palawan". Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Accessed August 27, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c Puerto Princesa website: History of Palawan. Accessed August 28, 2008.
  18. ^ "The Provincial Profile of Palawan".
  19. ^ Anna T. N. Bennett (2009), "Gold in early Southeast Asia", ArcheoSciences, Volume 33, pp 99-107
  20. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
  21. ^ Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia by Hermann Kulke,K Kesavapany,Vijay Sakhuja p.170
  22. ^ Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India by Moti Chandra p.214
  23. ^ Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations 600-1400 by Tansen Sen p.159
  24. ^ Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium by Ronald Findlay,Kevin H. O'Rourke p.69
  25. ^ Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. I, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam: 7th-11th centuries, p.325, ISBN 978-0391041738
  26. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.564
  27. ^ Atisa and Tibet: Life and Works of Dipamkara Srijnana by Alaka Chattopadhyaya p.91
  28. ^ Gunn, Geoffrey C. History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800 p. 43
  29. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Kesavapany, K.; Sakhuja, Vijay. Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia p. 71
  30. ^ Sen, Tansen. Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations p. 226
  31. ^ Kalyanaraman, A. Aryatarangini, the Saga of the Indo-Aryans p.158
  32. ^ Singam, S. Durai Raja. India and Malaya Through the Ages
  33. ^ Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p.226
  34. ^ Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to by Hermann Kulke,K Kesavapany,Vijay Sakhuja p.71
  35. ^ Camperspoint: History of Palawan Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed August 27, 2008.
  36. ^ Moore, Stephen (2016). As Good As Dead: The Daring Escape of American POWs From A Japanese Death Camp. New York: Caliber. pp. 61–62, 115–116, 123–128, 144, 260–261, 335. ISBN 9780399583551.
  37. ^ Gevinson, Alan. "American POWs in Japanese Captivity.", accessed 10 September 2011.
  38. ^ Wilbanks, Bob (2004). Last Man Out. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 154–156. ISBN 9780786418220.
  39. ^ Felipe, Cecille Suerte (4 June 2005). "Palawan now with Region 6". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  40. ^ "Executive Order No. 429, s. 2005". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 23 May 2005. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  41. ^ Espina, Rolly (9 August 2005). "Palawan transfer to Region VI may never materialize". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  42. ^ a b Rosario, Ben (25 October 2018). "Move to divide Palawan into 3 provinces assailed". Manila Bulletin News. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  43. ^ Mendoza, Victoria (14 April 2019). "PRRD signs law that divides Palawan". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  44. ^ a b Salaverria, Leila B. (14 April 2019). "Plebiscite on splitting Palawan into 3 provinces set for 2020". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  45. ^ a b "Paghahati ng Palawan sa 3 probinsiya batas na | Pilipino Star Ngayon". Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  46. ^ "Dividing Palawan: Residents look to challenge Palawan split into 3 provinces". ABS-CBN News. 15 April 2019. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  47. ^ Colcol, Erwin (16 April 2019). "Splitting Palawan into 3 won't solve poverty in the province —group". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  48. ^ a b c d "Province: Palawan". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  49. ^ Salaverria, Leila B. "Plebiscite on splitting Palawan into 3 provinces set for 2020".
  50. ^ "Paghahati ng Palawan sa 3 probinsiya batas na - Pilipino Star Ngayon".
  51. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  52. ^ "Philippines 'rejects' Muslim self-rule". BBC. 15 August 2001. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  53. ^ President of the Philippines (17 May 2002). "Executive Order No. 103". Archived from the original on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  54. ^ Philippine 2010 Election Results: Region IV-B, Philippine Commission on Elections.
  55. ^ Keenan, Timothy E.; Encarnación, John; Buchwaldt, Robert; Fernandez, Dan; Mattinson, James; Rasoazanamparany, Christine; Luetkemeyer, P. Benjamin (2016-11-07). "Rapid conversion of an oceanic spreading center to a subduction zone inferred from high-precision geochronology". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (47): E7359–E7366. doi:10.1073/pnas.1609999113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5127376. PMID 27821756.
  56. ^ Encarnación, J.P., Essene, E.J., Mukasa, S.B., Hall, C. (1995) High pressure and temperature subophiolitic kyanite garnet amphibolites generated during initiation of mid-Tertiary subduction, Palawan, Philippines: Journal of Petrology, 36, 1481-1503.
  57. ^ C.Michael Hogan (2011) South China Sea Topic ed. P.Saundry. Ed.-in-chief C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  58. ^ Encarnación, J.P., and Mukasa, S.B. (1997). Age and geochemistry of an 'anorogenic' crustal melt and implications for the origin of I-type granites. Lithos, 42(1-2), 1-13.
  59. ^ Barr, S.M.; MacDonald, A.S. (1981). "Geochemistry and geochronology of late Cenozoic basalts of southeast Asia". Geol. Soc. Am. Bull.
  60. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-B (Mimaropa)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  61. ^ "Fact Sheet; Region IV-B; MIMAROPA' 2007 Census of Population" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority - Region IV-B. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  62. ^ 2003 & 2013 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses published by Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, INC
  63. ^ Case, William (2015). Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Democratization. Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-317-38006-1.
  64. ^ Burns, P.; Novelli, Marina, eds. (2008). Tourism Development: Growth, Myths, and Inequalities. CABI. p. 61. ISBN 9781845934262.
  65. ^ James Eder (8 Apr 2008). Migrants to the Coasts: Livelihood, Resource Management, and Global Change in the Philippines. Cengage Learning. p. 33. ISBN 9781111799373.
  66. ^ "Chùa Vạn Pháp Trại Tỵ Nạn Palawan Philippines Hình Chụp Tháng !2 Năn 2013".
  67. ^ Palawan Profile at Archived 2009-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed August 28, 2008.
  68. ^ a b Puerto Princesa website: Quick facts Archived 2008-10-20 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed August 28, 2008.
  69. ^ What is Sundaland?, retrieved 11 June 2010
  70. ^ a b c The Official Website of the Province of Palawan: Environment, archived from the original on 2009-05-10, retrieved August 28, 2008
  71. ^ Dugong Page: Philippines, retrieved 11 June 2010
  72. ^ Local Causes, Global Effects, Community Centred Conservation (C3), archived from the original on 2011-11-17
  73. ^ "Destinations Rated: Islands".
  74. ^ "4th Annual Places Rated: 111 Islands" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2008.
  75. ^ a b "Lagen, Miniloc resorts win world's green vote". Retrieved 2012-07-15.
  76. ^ Times, Victoria (2008-01-17). "The world's greenest hotels, from Switzerland to Sri Lanka". Retrieved 2012-07-15.
  77. ^ a b Palawan Tourism Council: Palawan Environment. Accessed August 28, 2008.
  78. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (2014). Asia's Cauldron: The South China Sea and the End of a Stable Pacific. Random House. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8129-9432-2.
  79. ^ "Philippines turning Ulugan Bay, Palawan, from sleepy village to military base". South China Morning Post. June 17, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. As fears grow that China is on an aggressive South China Sea territorial grab, a sleepy Philippine village is being transformed into a major naval base that may host US warships. [...] A small pier stands at the bay’s most prized asset, a deep inlet called Oyster Bay with rich fishing grounds that help sustain the 1,700 residents of the nearby village of Macarascas. As part of the upgrade, a much bigger pier, harbour and support facilities are being built to serve as a base for the navy’s largest vessels, including two ex-US frigates acquired since 2011.
  80. ^ U.S. Department of State "Philippines Travel Advisory". May 20, 2015. Accessed May 18, 2017.
  81. ^ U.S. Department of State "Philippines Travel Advisory". December 20, 2016. Accessed May 18, 2017.
  82. ^ a b c d e f g Official Website of the Province of Palawan. Accessed August 28, 2008. (archived from the original on 2007-10-11)

External links

Battle of Leyte Gulf

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino: Labanan sa Look ng Leyte) is considered to have been the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved. It was fought in waters near the Philippine islands of Leyte, Samar, and Luzon, from 23–26 October 1944, between combined American and Australian forces and the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), as part of the invasion of Leyte, which aimed to isolate Japan from the countries it had occupied in Southeast Asia which were a vital source of industrial and oil supplies.

By the time of the battle, Japan had fewer capital ships (aircraft carriers and battleships) left than the Allied forces had total aircraft carriers, underscoring the disparity in force strength at this point in the war. Regardless, the IJN mobilized nearly all of its remaining major naval vessels in an attempt to defeat the Allied invasion, but it was repulsed by the U.S. Navy's Third and Seventh fleets.

The battle consisted of four main separate engagements: the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, the Battle of Surigao Strait, the Battle of Cape Engaño and the Battle off Samar, as well as lesser actions.This was the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks, and the last naval battle between battleships in history. The IJN suffered heavy losses and never sailed in comparable force thereafter, stranded for lack of fuel in their bases for the rest of the war, and were unable to affect the successful Allied invasion of Leyte.

El Nido, Palawan

El Nido, officially the Municipality of El Nido, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Palawan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 41,606 people.It is about 420 kilometres (260 mi) south-west of Manila, and about 238 kilometres (148 mi) north-east of Puerto Princesa, Palawan’s capital. A managed resource protected area, it is known for its white-sand beaches, coral reefs, limestone cliffs and as the gateway to the Bacuit archipelago.

El Nido is currently ranked #4 in Condé Nast Traveler's list of "20 Most Beautiful Beaches in the World." CNNGo has called it the Best Beach and Island destination in the Philippines for its "extraordinary natural splendor and ecosystem."

Kagayanen language

The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines. It belongs to the Manobo subgroup of the Austronesian language family, and is the only member of this subgroup that is not spoken on Mindanao or nearby islands.

Legislative districts of Palawan

The Legislative Districts of Palawan are the representations of the province of Palawan and the independent city of Puerto Princesa in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The province and Puerto Princesa are currently represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through the first, second and third congressional districts of Palawan.


The Southwestern Tagalog Region, officially designated as MIMAROPA Region, is an administrative region in the Philippines. It was also formerly designated as Region IV-B until 2016. It is one of two regions in the country having no land border with another region (the other being Eastern Visayas). The name is an acronym combination of its constituent provinces: Mindoro (divided into Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro), Marinduque, Romblon and Palawan.

The region was part of the now-defunct Southern Tagalog region until 17 May 2002. On 23 May 2005, Palawan and the highly urbanized city of Puerto Princesa were moved to the region of Western Visayas by Executive Order No. 429. However, on 19 August 2005, then-President Arroyo issued Administrative Order No. 129 to put in abeyance Executive Order No. 429 pending a review. On 17 July 2016, Republic Act No. 10879 formally established the Southwestern Tagalog Region to be known as the MIMAROPA Region discontinuing the "Region IV-B" designation, however no boundary changes were involved.Calapan is Mimaropa's regional center. However, most regional government offices such as the Department of Public Works and Highways and the Department of Budget and Management are in Quezon City, Metro Manila.

Molbog language

Molbog is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines and Sabah, Malaysia. Majority of speakers are concentrated at the southernmost tip of the Philippine province of Palawan, specifically the municipalities of Bataraza and Balabac. Both municipalities are considered as bastions for environmental conservation in the province. The majority of Molbog speakers are Muslims.

The classification of Molbog is controversial. Thiessen (1981) groups Molbog with the Palawan languages, based on shared phonological and lexical innovations. This classification is supported by Smith (2017). An alternative view is taken by Lobel (2013), who puts Molbog together with Bonggi in a Molbog-Bonggi subgroup.

Palawan (island)

Palawan is the largest island of the province of Palawan in the Philippines and the fifth largest island of the country. The north west coast of the island is along the South China Sea, while the south east coast forms part of the northern limit of the Sulu Sea. Much of the island remains traditional and is considered by some as under-developed. Abundant wildlife, jungle mountains, and some white sandy beaches attract many tourists, as well as international companies looking for development opportunities.As of 2016, the main island of Palawan was rated the "Most Beautiful Island in the World" as voted by respective readers of rival travel publications Conde Nast Traveller and Travel + Leisure. It is the second year running that Palawan has won the Conde Nast Traveller award, as well as the second time in four years that it has occupied Travel + Leisure's top spot (2013). El Nido, located at the northern tip of the island, is also currently rated the "Most Beautiful Beach in the World" by Conde Nast Traveller readers. In 2007, National Geographic Traveler magazine rated Palawan the best island destination in East and Southeast Asia region, having "incredibly beautiful natural seascapes and landscapes. One of the most biodiverse (terrestrial and marine) islands in the Philippines. The island has had a Biosphere Reserve status since early 1990s, showing local interest for conservation and sustainable development".1 city and 12 out of the 23 municipalities of the Province of Palawan are on this island. Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm, one of seven operating units of the Bureau of Corrections, is located on the island.

Palawan Batak language

Batak is a Negrito language spoken on Palawan Island in the Philippines. It is sometimes disambiguated from the Batak languages as Palawan Batak.

Batak is spoken in the communities of Babuyan, Maoyon, Tanabag, Langogan, Tagnipa, Caramay, and Buayan (Lobel 2013:87). Surrounding languages including Southern Tagbanwa, Central Tagbanwa, Kuyonon, and Agutaynen.

Palawan Broadcasting Corporation

Palawan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), also known by its call sign DYPR, was the first local radio station to serve the island of Palawan, the Philippines. It was established in 1965, in the capital Puerto Princesa City, by Ramon Oliveros (Ray Oliver) Decolongon.

The station faced many difficulties in its early years. Although Palawan could receive some broadcasts from Manila and neighbouring Visayan islands, radio ownership among the 20,000-strong population was not high. The Tinio Electric Plant provided electricity only from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and to less than half the population. Then, in 1966, Decolongon was killed in a plane crash: his father, Emilio Decolongon, took over as company president.

In September 1972 martial law was declared throughout the Philippines and all broadcasting stations were shut down, but DYPR was able to reopen fairly quickly after making its case as a provider of essential services. The station had become a part of the communications of the island, broadcasting urgent personal messages—known as Panawagans—as a free service to the community. As of 2006, radio broadcast languages include Tagalog and Ilocano, and DYPR is affiliated to Radio Mindanao Network, Inc. (RMN).

In 1986, PBC began television broadcasts. It is now also affiliated to ABS-CBN, which provides some television content.

Palawan bearded pig

The Palawan bearded pig (Sus ahoenobarbus) is a species of in the pig genus (Sus) endemic to the Philippines, where it can only be found on the archipelago of islands formed by Balabac, Palawan, and the Calamian Islands. They are 1 to 1.6 metres (3.3 to 5.2 ft) in length, about 1 metre (3.3 ft) tall and weigh up to 150 kilograms (330 lb).

Until recently, it was considered a subspecies of the Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus), but at least under the phylogenetic species concept, it must be classified as a separate species. For its treatment under other (and more widely used) species concepts, more study is required, but the presently available information seems to argue for full species status in any case.

Palawan fruit bat

The Palawan fruit bat (Acerodon leucotis), also known as the Palawan flying fox, is a species of megabat found in forests of Palawan, Balabac and Busuanga in the Philippines. It is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN and is declining due to hunting and habitat loss.

Palawan languages

The Palawan languages are the languages of the island of Palawan and nearby islets in the Philippines.The Palawan languages are:

Palawano (a dialect cluster)

Aborlan Tagbanwa

Central Tagbanwa (not to be confused with Kalamian Tagbanwa)

Palawan Batak (not to be confused with Toba Batak)

Tau't BatuMolbog may also be in this group, closest to Palawano.

Proto-Palawan has been reconstructed by Thiessen (1980).

Palawan shrew

The Palawan shrew (Crocidura palawanensis) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae. It is endemic to the Philippines and known from Palawan and Balabac Islands, from sea level to 1,300 m (4,300 ft) asl. It occurs in old growth and scrubby secondary forest. Habitat loss (deforestation) is a potential threat to this little known species, although it seems to tolerate habitat loss and modification.

Palawan stink badger

The Palawan stink badger (Mydaus marchei), or pantot, is a carnivoran of the western Philippines named for its resemblance to badgers, its powerful smell, and the largest island to which it is native, Palawan. Like all stink badgers, the Palawan stink badger was once thought to share a more recent common ancestor with badgers than with skunks. Recent genetic evidence, however, has led to their re-classification as one of the Mephitidae, the skunk family of mammals. It is the size of a large skunk or small badger, and uses its badger-like body to dig by night for invertebrates in open areas near patches of brush. While it lacks the whitish dorsal patches typical of its closest relatives, predators and hunters generally avoid the powerful noxious chemicals it can spray from the specialized anal glands characteristic of mephitids.

Palawano language

The Palawano languages are spoken on the province of Palawan in the Philippines.

There are three related, but not mutually intelligible, languages, each with a number of dialects, which called themselves "Palawano" (Spanish, from the endonym Palawan).The three Palawano languages share the island with several other languages which are not part of the Palawan language cluster, though they share a fair amount of vocabulary. These languages are the Kalamian languages and Molbog.

Puerto Princesa

Puerto Princesa, officially the City of Puerto Princesa, (Cuyonon: Siyudad i'ang Puerto Princesa; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Puerto Princesa; Spanish: Ciudad de Puerto Princesa), and often referred to as Puerto Princesa City, is a 1st class Highly Urbanized City in the Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 255,116 people.It is a city located in the western province of Palawan, and westernmost city in the Philippines. Though the seat of government and capital for the province, the city itself is one of 38 independent cities within the Philippines not controlled by the province in which it is geographically located and is therefore an independent area located within Palawan.

It is the least densely populated city in the Philippines. In terms of land area, the city is the second largest geographically after Davao City with an area of 2,381.02 square kilometres (919.32 sq mi). Puerto Princesa is the location of the Philippines' Western Command headquarters.Today, Puerto Princesa is a tourist city with many beach resorts and seafood restaurants. It has been acclaimed several times as the cleanest and greenest city in the Philippines.

Radyo Bandera

Radyo Bandera Network is the brand name of an FM radio network owned by Bandera News Philippines. Its main headquarters is located in Macasaet Business Complex, Roxas St., Palawan.

Tabon Caves

The Tabon Caves, dubbed as the Philippines' Cradle of Civilization, are a group of caves located on Lipuun Point, north of Quezon municipality, in the south western part of the province of Palawan on Palawan Island, in the Philippines. They are part of the Lipuun Point Reservation, which has been protected by the government of the Philippines as a museum reservation to protect the caves and immediate vicinity from deforestation and to preserve the cultural artifacts present there.The caves are named after the Tabon scrubfowl. It is bordered on the south by the town proper of Quezon, Bgy. Panitian on the west, and the West Philippine Sea on the north and east. Out of 215 known caves, 29 have been explored and seven of these are open to the public. The seven include Tabon, Diwata, Igang and Liyang Caves. One of the oldest human bones found in the Philippines, the Tabon Man, was found here in 1962. Other excavated, unexamined remains are stored onsite. In 2006, the Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun was added to the tentative list of the Philippines for future UNESCO World Heritage Site nomination.

The complex is managed by the National Museum and was declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the same institution in February 2011.

Taytay, Palawan

Taytay, officially the Municipality of Taytay, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Palawan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 75,165 people.Since 2002, its Cathedral of St. Joseph the Worker is the episcopal see of the pre-diocesan missionary Apostolic Vicariate of Taytay.

Places adjacent to Palawan
Province of Palawan
Highly urbanized city


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.