Palatal hook

The palatal hook (  ̡) is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.[1] It is a small, leftwards-facing hook joined to the bottom-right side of a letter, and is distinguished from various other hooks indicating retroflexion, etc.

The IPA recommended that esh (ʃ) and ezh (ʒ) not use the palatal hook, but instead get special curled symbols: ʆ and ʓ. However, versions with the hook may have been used by some authors.

The palatal hook was withdrawn by the IPA in 1989, in favour of a superscript j following the consonant (i.e., ƫ becomes ).[1]

Palatal hooks are also used in Lithuanian dialectology by the Lithuanian Phonetic Transcription System (or Lithuanian Phonetic Alphabet).[2]

Nhooks
N with palatal hook, followed by eng, a palatal nasal and a retroflex n for comparison, in the Doulos SIL font.

Computer encoding

Unicode includes both a combining character for the palatal hook, as well as several precomposed characters, including superscript letters with palatal hooks.

While LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH PALATAL HOOK has been in Unicode since 1991, the rest were not added until 2005 or later. As such, font support for the latter characters is much less than for the former.

Appearance Code point Name
 ̡ U+0321 COMBINING PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW
U+1D80 LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+A794 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D81 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D82 LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D83 LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+A795 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D84 LATIN SMALL LETTER K WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D85 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1DAA MODIFIER LETTER L WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D86 LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D87 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D88 LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D89 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D8A LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D8B LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH WITH PALATAL HOOK
ƫ U+01AB LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1DB5 MODIFIER LETTER T WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D8C LATIN SMALL LETTER V WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D8D LATIN SMALL LETTER X WITH PALATAL HOOK
U+1D8E LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH PALATAL HOOK

References

  1. ^ a b Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. 1999.
  2. ^ Tumasonis, Vladas; Pentzlin, Karl (2011-05-24). "N4070: Second revised proposal to add characters used in Lithuanian dialectology to the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
Dakuten and handakuten

The dakuten (Japanese: 濁点, Japanese pronunciation: [dakɯ̥teɴ], lit. "voicing mark"), colloquially ten-ten (点々, "dots"), is a diacritic sign most often used in the Japanese kana syllabaries to indicate that the consonant of a syllable should be pronounced voiced, for instance, on sounds that have undergone rendaku (sequential voicing).

The handakuten (半濁点, Japanese pronunciation: [handakɯ̥teɴ], lit. "half voicing mark"), colloquially maru (丸, "circle"), is a diacritic used with the kana for syllables starting with h to indicate that they should instead be pronounced with [p].

Dotted circle

The dotted circle, in Unicode U+25CC ◌ DOTTED CIRCLE (HTML ◌), is a typographic character used to illustrate the effect of a combining mark, such as a diacritic mark. In Windows, it is possible to use the key combination Alt+9676 to produce the character.

Double acute accent

The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used primarily in written Hungarian, and consequently is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut. The signs formed with a regular umlaut are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet—for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation. Letters with the double acute, however, are considered variants of their equivalents with the umlaut, being thought of as having both an umlaut and an acute accent.

Double grave accent

The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages. It is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

In Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian, double grave accent is used to indicate a short falling tone, though in discussion of Slovenian, a single grave accent is also often used for this purpose. The double grave accent is found in both Latin and Cyrillic; however, it is not used in the everyday orthography of either language, only in discussions of the phonology of these languages.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the double grave accent is used to indicate extra-low tone.

The letters a e i o r u and their Cyrillic equivalents а е и о р у can all be found with the double grave accent. Unicode provides precomposed characters for the uppercase and the lowercase Latin letters but not the Cyrillic letters. The Cyrillic letters can be formed using the combining character for the double grave, which is located at U+030F. The combining character can also be used with IPA vowel symbols, if necessary.

Hook (diacritic)

In typesetting, the hook or tail is a diacritic mark attached to letters in many alphabets. In shape it looks like a hook and it can be attached below as a descender, on top as an ascender and sometimes to the side. The orientation of the hook can change its meaning: when it is below and curls to the left it can be interpreted as a palatal hook, and when it curls to the right is called hook tail or tail and can be interpreted as a retroflex hook. It should not be mistaken with the hook above, a diacritical mark used in Vietnamese, or the rhotic hook, used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Hook above

In typesetting, the hook above (Vietnamese: dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet. In shape it looks like a tiny question mark without the dot underneath. For example, a capital A with a hook is "Ả", and a lower case "u" with a hook is "ủ". The hook is usually written to the right of the circumflex in conventional Vietnamese orthography. If Vietnamese characters are unavailable, it is often replaced by a question mark after the vowel (VIQR encoding).

This diacritic functions as a tone marker, indicating a "mid falling" tone (hỏi): which is "dipping" (˨˩˥) in Southern Vietnamese or "falling" (˧˩) in Northern Vietnamese; see Vietnamese language § Regional variation: Tones. The Southern "dipping" tone is similar to the questioning intonation in English.

Horn (diacritic)

The horn (Vietnamese: dấu móc or dấu râu) is a diacritic mark attached to the top right corner of the letters o and u in the Vietnamese alphabet to give ơ and ư, unrounded variants of the vowel represented by the basic letter. In Vietnamese, it is rarely considered a separate diacritic; rather, the characters ơ and ư are considered separate from o and u.

Inverted breve

Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) versus Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve).

Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet, but only as a phonetic indicator though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.

List of Latin-script letters

This is a list of letters of the Latin script. The definition of a Latin-script letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode Standard that has a script property of 'Latin' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Latin-script letters in Unicode is given in Latin script in Unicode.

Macron below

Macron below, U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW, is a combining diacritical mark that is used in various orthographies.It is not to be confused with U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE and U+005F _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter results in an unbroken underline when it is run together: compare a̱ḇc̱ and a̲b̲c̲ (only the latter should look like abc).

Palatization mark

The palatization mark is one of the historic signs of Cyrillic that was used in Old Church Slavonic to indicate the palatalization of the base consonant. An example of use is in the word избавитєл҄ь (redeemer, palatalized л [lʲ]). It is not to be confused with the kamora, which resembles it, but indicates pitch accent.

Phonetic Extensions

Phonetic Extensions is a Unicode block containing phonetic characters used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Old Irish phonetic notation, the Oxford English dictionary and American dictionaries, and Americanist and Russianist phonetic notations. Its character set is continued in the following Unicode block, Phonetic Extensions Supplement.

Phonetic Extensions Supplement

Phonetic Extensions Supplement is a Unicode block containing characters for specialized and deprecated forms of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Pokrytie

Pokrytie (  ҇  ) is one of the historic signs of Cyrillic that was used in Old Church Slavonic.

Ring (diacritic)

A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters. It may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in various contexts.

Rough breathing

In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (Ancient Greek: δασὺ πνεῦμα, translit. dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; Greek: δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an /h/ sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho. It remained in the polytonic orthography even after the Hellenistic period, when the sound disappeared from the Greek language. In the monotonic orthography of Modern Greek phonology, in use since 1982, it is not used at all.

The absence of an /h/ sound is marked by the smooth breathing.

S-comma

S-comma (majuscule: Ș, minuscule: ș) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the sound /ʃ/, the voiceless postalveolar fricative (like sh in shoe).

T-comma

T-comma (majuscule: Ț, minuscule: ț) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian language sound /t͡s/, the voiceless alveolar affricate (like ts in bolts). It is written as the letter T with a small comma below and it has both the lower-case (U+021B) and the upper-case variants (U+021A).

The letter was proposed in the Buda Lexicon, a book published in 1825, which included two texts by Petru Maior, Orthographia romana sive Latino-valachica una cum clavi and Dialogu pentru inceputul linbei române, introducing ș for /ʃ/ and ț for /t͡s/.

Visarga

Visarga (IAST: visarga) (Sanskrit: विसर्गः) means "sending forth, discharge". In Sanskrit phonology (śikṣā), visarga (also called, equivalently, visarjanīya by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, [h], written as:

Visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/ in pausa (at the end of an utterance). Since /-s/ is a common inflectional suffix (of nominative singular, second person singular, etc.), visarga appears frequently in Sanskrit texts. In the traditional order of Sanskrit sounds, visarga and anusvāra appear between vowels and stop consonants.

The precise pronunciation of visarga in Vedic texts may vary between Śākhās. Some pronounce a slight echo of the preceding vowel after the aspiration: aḥ will be pronounced [ɐhᵄ], and iḥ will be pronounced [ihⁱ]. Visarga is not to be confused with colon.

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