The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC; Urdu: ادارہ جوہری توانائی پاکستان) is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC has overseen the extensive development of nuclear infrastructure to support the economical uplift of Pakistan by founding institutions that focus on development on food irradiation and on nuclear medicine radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PAEC organizes conferences and directs research at the country's leading universities. Since the 1960s, the PAEC is also a scientific research partner and sponsor of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where Pakistani scientists have contributed to developing particle accelerators and research on high-energy physics. PAEC scientists regularly pay visits to CERN while taking part in projects led by CERN.
|Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission|
|ادارہ جوہری توانائی پاکستان|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Pakistan|
|Headquarters||Islamabad Capital Territory|
|Parent agency||Strategic Plans Division Force, Pakistan Armed Forces|
Following the partition of British Indian Empire by the United Kingdom in 1947, Pakistan emerged as a Muslim-dominated state. The turbulent nature of its emergence critically influenced the scientific development of the country.
The establishment of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) in 1951 began Pakistan's research on physical sciences. In 1953, U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower announced the Atoms for Peace program, and of which Pakistan became its earliest partner. Research at PAEC initially followed a strict non-weapon policy issued by then-Foreign Minister Sir Sir Zafar-ulla Khan. In 1955, the government established a committee of scientists to prepare nuclear energy plans and build an industrial nuclear infrastructure throughout the country. As the Energy Council Act went into full effect, Prime minister Huseyn Suhrawardy established the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in March 1956. Its first chair was Nazir Ahmad – an experimental physicist. Other members of the PAEC included Technical member Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, an organic chemist at the University of Karachi, and Raziuddin Siddiqui, a mathematical physicist at the same university. Together, they both took charge of the research and development directorates of the commission. In 1958, Abdus Salam of the University of the Punjab also joined the commission, along with Munir Ahmad Khan who initially lobbied for acquiring a pool-type reactor from the United States.
In 1958, PAEC Chairman Nazir Ahmad proposed to the Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation to build a heavy water production facility with production capacity of 50 kg of heavy water per day at Multan, but this proposal was not acted on. In 1960, I.H. Usmani was elevated as PAEC's second chair with the transfer of Nazir Ahmad at the Federal Bureau of Statistics. The reactor was built in 1962, financed by local fertilizer companies. In 1964, PAEC established its first research institute, the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), at Nilore, and began negotiation for country's first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in Karachi. In 1965, the PAEC reached an agreement with Canadian General Electric to build a CANDU reactor in Karachi. Financial investment for the nuclear power plant in Karachi was provided by the Economic Coordination Committee, and Edward Durell Stone was commissioned to oversee the architectural design of PINSTECH. From 1965–71, the PAEC sent 600 scientists abroad for training in nuclear sciences. in 1969, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, agreed to supply a small scale nuclear reprocessing plant, with the capacity to extract 360 grams of plutonium per year. In 1973, the PAEC announced the discovery of large uranium deposits in Punjab.
After India's decisive victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Pakistan retracted its non-weapon policy and the research and development of nuclear weapons began in 1972. PAEC's senior nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, who threw himself with full rigor for this task, was named as PAEC's third chair by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Work began on ingenious development of the nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure and nuclear weapons research in the 1970s. Key research took place at PINSTECH, where scientists worked on weapon designs and eventual nuclear weapons testing. The PAEC expanded the crash program with various laboratories, facilities, and directorates researching on developing and testing materials and components for bomb designs, whilst it engineered plants and funded facilities for production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. In 1976, the possible test sites were decided by the PAEC and construction on test sites were completed in 1979. In 1983, PAEC's efforts reached to a milestone when it had conducted a first subcritical test on a weapon design; such testing continued until the early 1990s under codename: Kirana-I.
Following nuclear tests by India earlier in the month, on 28 May 1998, PAEC led the final preparations and conducted Pakistan's first nuclear tests (Codename: Chagai-I), which was followed by Chagai-II in Kharan Desert on 30 May 1998. In 2001, the PAEC's research was focused back to civilian and peaceful research with the establishment of the National Command Authority and the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority.
Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC provided a conspicuous example of benefit of the atomic-age technologies for the advancement of agriculture, engineering, biology, and medicine. In 1960, the PAEC established its first nuclear medicines center for Cancer treatment at the Jinnah Medical College of the University of Karachi; the second Medical Isotope Institute was established at the Mayo Hospital of the King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Physicians and medical researchers were provided with facilities for cancer diagnose and treatment by the PAEC's funding.
In 1960, the PAEC established its regional atomic research center in Lahore, and a metallurgy center in Karachi in 1963. Another energy center was located in Dhaka where many scientists were educated. In 1967, the PAEC founded the Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences which became one of the primary technical universities of the country. Many of the PAEC's scientists and engineers served in its faculty. The PAEC supports its university-level physics program at the Government College University, Lahore where it awards fellowships to the students. The PAEC continues to promotes its program as "peaceful uses of atomic energy commenced for the benefit the scientific community as well as public."
About its promotion of education, senior scientist, Ishfaq Ahmad quoted: "the PAEC was responsible to send more than 600 scientists to the abroad. As of present, PAEC maintains its prestigious image, and is now noted as one of the largest science and technology institution of the country. The PAEC supports research activities and learning programs at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), of which PAEC is also its organizer. Since 1974, the PAEC has been a key organizer and sponsor of the International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs conference each and every year where scientists from all over the world are delegated to the country. The science conference in Nathiagali provides the dissemination of the knowledge advancement in physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, mathematics, computer science, logic, and philosophy.
As the emphasis shifted towards concerns for the national security interests, the PAEC's important projects were also initiated in this area. Many of the notable scientists with international prestige have worked and affiliated with the PAEC. With the establishment of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and National Command Authority, the PAEC focused has not shifted back to utilization of nuclear power on peaceful and industrial usage as well as continued the research in nuclear developments in terms of both peaceful and scientific use.
As of current, the PAEC is held responsible for design preparation and proper operational function of the commercial nuclear power plants. The PAEC provides lobby at the governmental level for the safe usage of the nuclear power sources; though the safety regulations and protections of the nuclear power facilities are managed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). Providing the policy guidance to the government, PAEC's studies envisions setting up power plants energy production with a capacity of ~8800MW by 2030.
Pakistan has a long history of participating in an experiments and research undertaking with CERN, and has a long tradition of wonderful physicists who are working around the world. Since the 1960s, Pakistan has been contributing and regularly participating in CERN's project, theoretical and nuclear experiments. A prime example would be Abdus Salam; Salam was the first man to be accredited with all the collaboration with CERN which continues till the present when he convinced CERN to give Pakistan stacks of nuclear emulsion exposed for further study of pions, kaons and antiprotons in the 1960s. Some theoretical physicists from Pakistan had the opportunity to work at CERN through short visits. During the 1980s, some of the experimental physicists from Pakistan, specialising in the technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), also benefited from CERN by exposing the stacks in the beam at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).
In 2005, CERN awarded PAEC with the ATLAS Supplier Award in 2005, in connection with manufacturing and fabrication of various equipment for CERN.
On 27 June 2011, PAEC and CERN reached an agreement for extending the technical cooperation with CERN's upcoming programmes. CERN's Director-General Rolf-Dieter Heuer personally paid a visit to Pakistan where he spoke for the need of importance of Science in Pakistan and importance of Germany's strategic alliance with Pakistan. The agreement was signed in order to extend an earlier agreement, which came into operation in 2003 between CERN and Pakistan for the supply of manufactured equipment for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN along with placement of scientists and engineers from Pakistan to assist in the scientific programme of CERN.
In 1997, Ishfaq Ahmad— chair of the PAEC— reached to CERN to sign a contract between PAEC and CERN after elaborate discussions an in-kind contribution worth one million Swiss francs for the construction of eight magnet supports for the CMS detector.
For CMS, the PAEC built magnet feet and installed 320 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), as well as contributing to CMS computing. Several other mechanical components for ATLAS and for the LHC were also built by the PAEC. It was PAEC's efforts that led the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) with CERN's direct cooperation in the area of radioprotection.
In 2000, CERN signed another agreement which doubled the Pakistani contribution from one to two million Swiss francs. And with this new agreement Pakistan started construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. While more recently, a protocol has been signed enhancing Pakistan’s total contribution to the LHC programme to $10 million. Pakistan with all these efforts is already hoping to become an observer state at CERN. In 2006 PAEC and CERN agreed on expanded cooperation, including contributions by PAEC valued at 5 million Swiss francs.
The PAEC, partnered with country's leading universities, send a large team of scientists and engineers to CERN to participate in Large Hadron Collider on 10 September 2008. According to the news sources, the team of Pakistani scientists were keenly involved in the development of the Large Hadron Collider— the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator.
The data of the experiment was available for the Pakistani scientists who would examine the data and results would be accumulated afterwards by the Pakistan physicists.
The PAEC is chaired by the appointed chairperson by the Government of Pakistan as the governmental notification is released. The PAEC's corporate management is organized by the Government who awarded contracts to the potential candidates. Its full-time members are consisted of the appointed Chair; a finance member; and two technical members. Its part-time members are composed of the senior scientists and a chief scientific adviser to the government.
The PAEC's corporate team are constitutionally bound to meet not less than four times every year for the execution of development projects involving nuclear power stations and the generation of electric power. As of current, Muhammad Naeem is the current chairman of the PAEC, appointed at the office since 2015. The PAEC retains its autonomous corporate management and comes under the structure of the National Command Authority. The amendments carried out in 2010, the National Command Authority is now placed again under the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Chairman directly reports to the Prime Minister's Secretariat for its policy making and confirmation issues.
Ansar Pervaiz, also spelled as (Ansar Parvez), HI, is a Pakistani scientist and a nuclear engineer who was the former chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and former chairman of the Board of Governors of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Pervaiz is widely given credit for establishing the nuclear engineering, nuclear physics and nuclear technology institutes within Pakistan.
Pervaiz is a strong supporter for peaceful civilian-used nuclear technology in Pakistan whereas he is also supervising the construction of second atomic power plant, Karachi nuclear power plant-II, in Karachi. Pervaiz also established Nuclear medicines centres and cancer research centres in PAEC.Anwar Ali (physicist)
Anwar Ali, born: 1943 in Hoshiarpur now in Indian Punjab, British Punjab State, British Indian Empire, (Ph.D, HI, PP), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist who served as the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 2006 till 2009.
Anwar Ali is widely known for his role in the Nuclear deterrent programme, where he was the pioneering member of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD). Throughout his career, Ali is known to worked with both well-known Pakistani nuclear scientists Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan and Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan in nuclear weapons programme throughout the 1970s and 1980s.Atomic Energy Commission
Many countries have or have had an Atomic Energy Commission. These include:
Australian Atomic Energy Commission (1952–1987)
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (1973–present)
Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France (1945–present)
Atomic Energy Commission of India (1948–present)
Japanese Atomic Energy Commission (原子力委員会) (1955–present)
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (1956–present)
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (1946–1948)
United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946–1974)Chashma Nuclear Power Plant
The Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP) or Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, near Chashma Colony and Kundian town, Mianwali District, Punjab, Pakistan, is a commercial nuclear power plant consisting of four operating units (CHASHNUPP-I, CHASHNUPP-II, CHASHNUPP-III and CHASHNUPP-IV) and one planned unit (CHASHNUPP-V). Chashma Nuclear Power Plant reactors and other facilities are being built and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) with Chinese support under the approval and guidelines of International Atomic Energy Agency.
The IAEA as well as the United States Department of Energy recognised the urgency of Pakistan's energy needs, which is expected to grow seven to eight times by 2030.
In November 2006, The International Atomic Energy Agency approved an agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission for new nuclear power plants to be built in the country with Chinese assistance. The 35-member Board of Governors of the IAEA unanimously approved the safeguards agreement for any future Nuclear Power Plants that Pakistan will be constructing.Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy
The Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy (Urdu: جوہری طبی رسولی اور شعاعي علاج کا ادارہ, or INOR) is located at Ayub Medical College in Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The facility is one of 18 cancer hospitals operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission or PAEC. The PAEC has made a priority to apply nuclear technology in order to improve Pakistan's health sector. INOR patients receive state-of-the-art diagnostic and treatment either free of charge or at subsidized rates and is also involved in the "National Cancer Awareness & Prevention Program"International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics
The International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC), was founded by Nobel laureate in Physics Dr. Abdus Salam (then-Science Advisor to the Prime minister) to promote physics and scientific research activities in Pakistan. Having suggested by Professor Abdus Salam to the Government of Pakistan, it was established by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's chairman Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan.
An annual college based summer camp, it is organised by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and National Center For Physics while it is sponsored by International Center for Theoretical Physics and the Minister of Science and Technology of Pakistan. A Physics research centre, it is located in Nathiagali city of Pakistan, and its current director is dr. Riazuddin, a pupil student of professor Salam.Ishrat Hussain Usmani
Ishrat Hussain Usmani, NI (Urdu: ڈاکٹر عشرت حسین عثمانی 15 April 1917 – 17 June 1992), best known as I. H. Usmani, was a Pakistani bureaucrat and an atomic physicist who was the second chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1960 to 1972; as well as the associate director of the Space Research Commission.During his career, he was also the Chairman of the Board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from 1962 to 1963, and played a vital role there in country's peaceful development of nuclear technology to acquire the facilities. To his peer, he is remembered as one of chief architect of country's nuclear power expansion and also given co-credited to established country's first nuclear power plant in Karachi in co-operation with Canada, with Abdus Salam.As a bureaucrat, he lobbied for science and development to become part of national politics and his efforts were also involved sending hundreds of young Pakistan's students abroad to pursue higher education in the field of nuclear technology. Due to his long tenure as chairman of the atomic energy commission, Usmani is colloquially known as father of the "atomic energy commission", a title given to his peers.Karachi Institute of Power Engineering
The Karachi Institute of Power Engineering, commonly refers to KINPOE, formerly known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, is a post-graduate and engineering university that offers programme to the field of nuclear and power engineering, and the physical sciences. It also offers Post-diploma Program. The engineering university located near at the Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KANUPP-II) near at Paradise Point in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. The Institute is known for its research and training in nuclear power engineering and sciences.
KINPOE has been established by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) by dr. Ishfaq Ahmad in 1993, to develop qualified manpower for its nuclear power program. The Institute is affiliated with the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) (earlier it was affiliated with NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, for the award of Master of Engineering degree in Nuclear Engineering and Power engineering.Karachi Nuclear Power Complex
The Karachi Nuclear Power Complex or KNPC is located in Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It consists of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's Control & Instrumentation Analysis Lab (CIAL KARACHI). Two new nuclear power plants, KANUPP-2 and KANUPP-3, are also under construction at the site. When complete, the complex of civilian nuclear power plants will produce over 2000 MW of electricity. The International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and inspects the complex. The plant is under construction by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and is financed by the IAEA, the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, the China National Nuclear Corporation, and the China Atomic Energy Authority.Metallurgical Laboratory (Wah)
The Metallurgical Laboratory (also known as "Metallurgical Lab"), is an accredited multi-program national testing institute, established in 1972 to take participation in developing physio-metallurgical aspects of the clandestine atomic bomb projects. It is located in the vicinity of Wah Military District and jointly runs its research program in conjuncture with Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF) and the University of Punjab.The Metallurgical Lab was established by its chief physical chemist dr. Khalil Qureshi of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) to study the effects and containment of nuclear fission for the civil purposes. Throughout the 1970s, the academic programs at Metallurgical Lab was purely directed by the armed forces engineers and scientists dispatched at the Pakistan Ordnance Factory for defence and security purposes. As of current, the Metallurgical Lab is currently working on civilian programs and is under the control of Pakistan National Accreditation Council of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Government of Pakistan.National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering or NIBGE is one of the main biotechnology institutes operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission(PAEC). It was planned under the auspices of PAEC in 1987 and was formally inaugurated in 1994. It is affiliated to Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences (PIEAS) Islamabad, for awarding MPhil & PhD degrees. NIBGE is also the home institution of National Biology Talent Contest. The institute is located on Jhang Road, Faisalabad,Nazir Ahmed (physicist)
Nazir Ahmed (or Nazir Ahmad), OBE (1 May 1898, Lahore – 30 September 1973, Karachi) was a Pakistani experimental physicist and a chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1956 to 1960.Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
The Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, also known as NIAB, is an agriculture and food irradiation national research institute managed by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Along with Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), the NIAB reports directly to the PAEC Biological Science Directorate whose current member is Abdul Rashid. The current director is Dr.Muhammad Hamed, and it is located in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture
The Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture, known as NIFA, is one of four agriculture and food irradiation research institute managed by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The institute is tasked to carry out research in Crop production and protection, soil fertility, water management and conservation and value addition of food resources, employing nuclear and other contemporary techniques.
NIFA was the brainchild of Ishrat Hussain Usmani, bureaucrat and chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, however due to economic difficulties, the plans were not carried out until the 1980s. In 1982, Munir Ahmad Khan led the establishment of the institute and its first director was Abdul Rashid who revolutionized the institute.
The NIFA administers cobalt-60 radiation source, Laser absorption spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Near-infrared spectrometer and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy.
A library was opened in 1990, and recently, the institute has acquired 75 acres of land at CHASNUPP-I site.Nuclear medicine in Pakistan
The history of pursuing nuclear medicine goes back to 1956, when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established under the executive order of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. The PAEC, the scientific body who is responsible for establishing the nuclear power plants in the country, has sat up a Nuclear Medicines laboratory. The PAEC also sat up the nuclear medicines lab and facilities throughout the country to fight against Cancer. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission had provided the facilities of diagnosis and treatment of cancer and allied diseases to the patients from all over the country employing Nuclear Techniques at its Medical Centres. PAEC also sponsored the research program in the field of radiochemistry and biochemistry. PAEC also sat up the research institutes all over the country, some of them are below:
Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC)
Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (MINAR)
Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Oncology (INMOL)
Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicines (PINUM)
Institute of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM)
Centre for Nuclear Medicines (CENUM)
Nuclear Institute of Medicine & Radiotherapy (NIMRA)
Centre for Nuclear Medicine & Radiotherapy (CENAR)
Bahawalpur Institute for Nuclear Oncology (BINO)
Larkana Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (LINAR)
Nuclear Medicine Oncology & Radiotherapy Institute (NORI)
Institute Of Nuclear Medicine Oncology & Radiotherapy (INOR)
Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and RadiotherapyNuclear power in Pakistan
As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants. Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants.
As of 2012, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~3.6% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to ~62% from fossil fuel, ~33% from hydroelectric power and ~0.3% from coal electricity. Pakistan is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor
The Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor or (PARR) are two nuclear research reactors and two other experimental neutron sources located in the PINSTECH Laboratory, Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.
In addition a reprocessing facility referred to as New Labs also exists for nuclear weapons research and production.
The first nuclear reactor was supplied and financially constructed by the Government of United States of America in the mid 1960s. The other reactor and reprocessing facility are built and supplied by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively. Supervised by the United States and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the first two reactors are subject to IAEA safeguards and its inspections.Pakistan Institute of Physics
Pakistan Institute of Physics (PIP) of the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore is a national research institute in Pakistan. It is a scientific charity devoted to increase the practice and understanding of physics. PIP is controlled by the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.It is the main and the professional body for the physicists in Pakistan and grant research licenses to the physicists to carry out their professional research in the different institutes of Pakistan. Its functions are to regulate physical research in the institution.The PIP was established in 1976 by the eminent physicists of Pakistan after the successful establishment of International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC). The main objective of PIP is to promote the advancement and dissemination of the knowledge of physics, pure and applied and the elevation of the profession of physics. In this way PIP is playing its role for the improvement of physics education and research in Pakistan.Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex
The Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex (PNPFC), also known as Chemical Reprocessing Plant (CrP), is a nuclear energy and reprocessing industrial complex for the PWR-type reactors. The NPFC-I is a dual purpose nuclear power plant, with a net capacity of 1000MWe, located 175 km south of Islamabad. The reactor is designed for converting U3O8 to natural UF6, and enriched UF6 into UO2 powder, then converted depleted UF6 into depleted uranium metal and produced Zircon Ingot. The PNPFC is ingeniously constructed by the PAEC under the IAEA terms as IAEA is funding this megaproject.
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