Paja Formation

The Paja Formation is a Mesozoic geologic formation from the Aptian epochs of the Early Cretaceous of central Colombia, extending on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes in the departments of Cundinamarca, Santander and Boyacá. It mainly composed of mudrocks with nodules of sandstones and limestones, that are interpreted as part of a marginal marine deposit,[2] with anoxic zones, in the warm and shallow sea that covered most of the Colombian territory during the Cretaceous.[3] Plesiosaur, ichthyosaur, sea turtles, teleostean fishes and ammonites[4] remains are among the main fossils that have been recovered from its strata, mainly near to the modern town of Villa de Leiva in Boyacá.[5]

Paja Formation
Stratigraphic range: Barremian-Aptian
~130–112 Ma
TypeGeological formation
Sub-unitsLutitas Negras Inferiores Mb.

Arcillolitas Abigarradas Mb.

Arcillolitas con Nódulos Huecos Mb.
UnderliesSimití Fm., Tablazo Fm.
OverliesRitoque Fm., Rosablanca Fm.
Lithology
PrimaryShale
OtherMudstone
Location
Coordinates5°30′N 73°30′W / 5.5°N 73.5°WCoordinates: 5°30′N 73°30′W / 5.5°N 73.5°W
Approximate paleocoordinates3°42′N 42°12′W / 3.7°N 42.2°W
RegionAltiplano Cundiboyacense
Eastern Ranges, Andes
Middle Magdalena Valley
Country Colombia
Type section
Named byMorales et al.[1]
Year defined1958
Blakey 120Ma - COL

Paleogeography of northern South America
120 Ma, by Ron Blakey

Fossil content

Reptiles

Reptiles of the Paja Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Description Notes Images
Acostasaurus A. pavachoquensis Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A pliosaurid with short snout, likely not a brachauchenine
Callawayasaurus C. colombiensis An elasmosaurid plesiosaur, originally classified in Alzadasaurus
Callawayasaurus colombiensis
Desmatochelys D. padillai Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A species of the genus Desmatochelys, sea turtles that belongs to the extinct family Protostegidae. Is the oldest known sea turtle
Kronosaurus K. boyacensis A large pliosaurid, and a relative of the Australian species K. queenslandicus
Kronosaurus bojacens1DB
Leyvachelys L. cipadi Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A durophagous turtle member of the Sandownidae; is the first record for this group in South America. This species occurs too in the Glen Rose Formation in USA
Leivanectes L. bernadoi An elasmosaurid plesiosaur
Muiscasaurus M. catheti Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. An ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur, that it seems have occupied a different ecological niche respect to P. sachicarum
Padillasaurus P. leivaensis Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A brachiosaurid dinosaur, that makes the first record of a terrestrial animal in the area, and the first Cretaceous brachiosaurid known outside from North America
FICHA 4 VERTEBRAS
Platypterygius P. sachicarum Sáchica Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A platypterygiine ichthyosaur, relative of P. americanum
Platypterygius sachicarum
Sachicasaurus S. vitae Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A huge pliosaurid, possibly a close relative of "K". boyacensis [23]
Stenorhynchosaurus S. munozi Arcillolitas abigarradas Mb. A small pliosaurid, over 3 meters in length. Formerly considered as a close relative of Brachauchenius lucasi from North America

Crustaceans and molluscs

Crustaceans and molluscs of the Paja Formation
Species Notes
Bellcarcinus aptiensis, Cenomanocarcinus vanstraeleni, Colombicarcinus laevis, Joeranina colombiana, J. kerri, Notopocorystes kerri, Planocarcinus johnjagti, Rathbunassa gen. et sp. nov., Telamonocarcinus antiquus
Acanthoptychoceras triumphyi, Acrioceras julivertii, Ancyloceras vandenheckii velezianum, Buergliceras buerglii, Colchidites apolinari, C. breistrofferi, Crioceratites leivaensis, C. tener, C. aff. emerici, Frenelopsis cf. ramosissima, Karsteniceras beyrichi, K. multicostatum sp. nov., Macroscaphites yvani disjuncticostatus, Monsalveiceras monsalvense, Nicklesia pulchella, Pedioceras asymmetricum, Pedioceras ubaquense, Protanisoceras creutzbergi, Pseudoaustraliceras columbiae, Pseudocrioceras simitiense, Pseudohaploceras incertum, Ptychoceras aff. puzosianum, Teredolites clavatus, Gerhardtia sp., Heinzia sp., Phylloceras sp., Prodesheyesites sp., Pseudofrenelopsis sp., Pulchellia sp., Toxancycloceras sp., Valdedorsella sp.
Hamiticeras chipatai

Fish

  • Protolamna ricaurtei[35]

Regional correlations

Cretaceous stratigraphy of the central Colombian Eastern Ranges
Age Paleomap VMM Guaduas-Vélez W Emerald Belt Villeta anticlinal Chiquinquirá-
Arcabuco
Tunja-
Duitama
Altiplano Cundiboyacense El Cocuy
Maastrichtian Blakey 065Ma - COL Umir Fm. Córdoba Fm. Seca Fm. eroded Guadalupe Gp. Colón-Mito Juan Fm.
Umir Fm.
Campanian Córdoba Fm.
Oliní Gp.
Santonian La Luna Fm. Cimarrona Fm. - La Tabla Fm. La Luna Fm.
Coniacian Oliní Gp. Conejo Fm. Chipaque Fm.
Güagüaquí Gp
Loma Gorda Fm. undefined La Frontera Fm.
Turonian Blakey 090Ma - COL Hondita Fm. La Frontera Fm. Otanche Fm.
Cenomanian Simití Fm. hiatus La Corona Gb. Simijaca Fm. Capacho Fm.
Pacho Fm. Hiló Fm. - Pacho Fm. Churuvita Fm. Une Fm. Aguardiente Fm.
Albian Blakey 105Ma - COL Hiló Fm. Chiquinquirá Sst. Tibasosa Fm. Une Fm.
Tablazo Fm. Tablazo Fm. Capotes Fm. - La Palma Fm. - Simití Fm. Simití Fm. Tibú-Mercedes Fm.
Aptian Capotes Fm. Socotá Fm. - El Peñón Fm. Paja Fm. Fómeque Fm.
Paja Fm. Paja Fm. El Peñón Fm. Trincheras Fm. Río Negro Fm.
La Naveta Fm.
Barremian Blakey 120Ma - COL
Hauterivian Muzo Fm.
Cáqueza Gp
Las Juntas Fm.
Rosablanca Fm. Ritoque Fm.
Valanginian Ritoque Fm. Furatena Fm. Útica Fm. - Murca Fm. Rosablanca Fm. Girón Fm. Macanal Fm.
Rosablanca Fm.
Berriasian Blakey 150Ma - COL Cumbre Fm. Cumbre Fm. Los Medios Fm. Guavio Fm.
Tambor Fm. Arcabuco Fm. Cumbre Fm.
Sources

See also

References

  1. ^ Morales, J., et al (1958): General Geology and Oil Occurrences of Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. AAPG habitat of oil symposium, p. 641-695
  2. ^ Forero, H. & Sarmiento, L. 1985. La facies evaporítica de la Formación Paja en la región de Villa de Leiva. In Etayo-Serna, F. & Montaño, F. L. (eds.): Proyecto Cretácico. – Publicaciones geológicas especiales del INGEOMINAS 16 (17): 1–16.
  3. ^ Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Florentin, J. M. M.; Etayo-Serna, F. (2013). "Geochemistry, palaeoenvironments and timing of Aptian organic-rich beds of the Paja Formation (Curití, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia)". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 382 (1): 31–48. doi:10.1144/sp382.6.
  4. ^ a b Patarroyo, 2009
  5. ^ a b Hampe, 2005
  6. ^ Gómez Pérez & Noè, 2017
  7. ^ Welles, S. P. (1962). "A new species of elasmosaur from the Aptian of Colombia and a review of the Cretaceous plesiosaurs". University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. 44 (1): 1–96.
  8. ^ Carpenter, K (1999). "Revision of North American elasmosaurs from the Cretaceous of the Western Interior". Paludicola. 2 (2): 148–173.
  9. ^ Callawayasaurus colombiensis at Fossilworks.org
  10. ^ a b Cadena et al., 2015a
  11. ^ Desmatochelys at Fossilworks.org
  12. ^ Acosta, C. E., Huertas, G. & Ruiz, P. M. 1979. Noticia preliminar sobre el hallazgo de un presunto Kronosaurus (Reptilia: Dolichorhynchopidae) en el Aptiano superior de Villa de Leiva, Colombia. – Lozania (Acta Zoologica Colombiana) 28: 1–7.
  13. ^ Hampe, O (1992). "Ein großwüchsiger Pliosauride (Reptilia:Plesiosauria) aus der Unterkreide (oberes Aptium) von Kolumbien. –". Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 145: 1–32.
  14. ^ Kronosaurus boyacensis at Fossilworks.org
  15. ^ Cadena, 2015b
  16. ^ Páramo Fonseca et al., 2019
  17. ^ Maxwell et al., 2015
  18. ^ Muiscasaurus at Fossilworks.org
  19. ^ Carballido et al., 2015
  20. ^ Padillasaurus leivaensis at Fossilworks.org
  21. ^ Páramo, M. E. (1997). "Platypterygius sachicarum (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) nueva especie del Cretácico de Colombia". Revista INGEOMINAS. 6: 1–12.
  22. ^ Platypterygius sachicarum at Fossilworks.org
  23. ^ Páramo Fonseca, María Eurídice; Cristian David Benavides Cabra, and Ingry Esmirna Gutiérrez. 2018. A new large pliosaurid from the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of Sáchica, Boyacá, Colombia. Earth Sciences Research Journal 22. 223–238. Accessed 2019-03-09.
  24. ^ Páramo et al., 2016
  25. ^ a b Brachauchenius sp., Gerhardtia sp., Heinzia sp., Karsteniceras sp., Prodesheyesites sp., Pulchellia sp., Toxancycloceras sp. at Fossilworks.org
  26. ^ Luque, 2014
  27. ^ Karasawa et al., 2014
  28. ^ Luque, 2015
  29. ^ Bermúdez et al., 2013
  30. ^ Luque et al., 2012
  31. ^ Monsalveiceras monsalvense at Fossilworks.org
  32. ^ a b Kabakadze & Hoedemaeker, 1997, pp.58-59
  33. ^ Chaparro et al., 2015
  34. ^ Moreno et al., 2007
  35. ^ Carrillo Briceño et al., 2019

Bibliography

Maps

Acanthoptychoceras

Acanthoptychoceras is an extinct genus of ammonites belonging to the family Ancyloceratidae.

Acostasaurus

Acostasaurus (meaning "Acosta's lizard") is an extinct genus of possibly Thalassophonean pliosaurid known from the Barremian of the Paja Formation, Colombia. The type specimen, UNDG R-1000, is known from a near complete skull, and postcranial elements including a complete hindlimb and various vertebrae. The specimen has an estimated size of around 4 to 5 metres (13 to 16 ft) long.

Acrioceras

Acrioceras is an extinct genus of cephalopods belonging to the ammonite subclass.

Ancyloceras

Ancyloceras is an extinct genus of heteromorph ammonites found throughout the world during the Lower Cretaceous, from the Lower Barremian epoch until the genus extinction during the Lower Aptian.

Callawayasaurus

Callawayasaurus is a genus of plesiosaur from the family Elasmosauridae. When the first Callawayasaurus fossil was first discovered by Samuel Paul Welles in 1962, it was described as Alzadasaurus colombiensis before being moved into its current genus by Kenneth Carpenter in 1999.

Crioceratites

Crioceratites is an ammonite genus from the Early Cretaceous belonging to the Ancyloceratoidea.

Crioceratites was formerly included in the Ancyloceratidae, in the subfamily Crioceratinae which was subsequently elevated in rank to the family Crioceratidae. Crioceras and Toxoceras d'Orbigny and possibly Emericiceras Sarka 1954 are junior synonyms.

Desmatochelys padillai

Desmatochelys padillai is an extinct species of sea turtle described in 2015 and belongs to the family Protostegidae. Estimated to be more than 120 millions years old, it became the oldest known sea turtle, superseding a record earlier held by Santanachelys gaffneyi, which was described in 1998. The fossil, including bones and shells, was discovered from Villa de Leyva in Colombia in 2007. The specimen is larger than an average-sized human, measuring 2 m in length, and exhibits the key features of modern sea turtles. The specific name is given in honour of Carlos Bernardo Padilla, a renowned supporter of the palaeontology of the region.

Heinzia

Heinzia is an extinct ammonoid cephalopod genus belonging to the family Pulchelliidae. They lived during the Cretaceous, in the Barremian age.

Kronosaurus

Kronosaurus ( KRON-o-SAWR-əs; meaning "lizard of Kronos") is an extinct genus of short-necked pliosaur. With an estimated length of 9 to 10.9 metres (30 to 36 ft), it was among the largest pliosaurs, and is named after the leader of the Greek Titans, Cronus. It lived in the Early Cretaceous period (Aptian to Late Albian). Fossil material has been recovered from the Toolebuc Formation (middle to late Albian) and Wallumbilla Formations (Aptian) of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, and from the upper Paja Formation (late Aptian) in Boyacá, Colombia, and assigned to two species.

Leivanectes

Leivanectes is a genus of plesiosaurs of the family Elasmosauridae known from Late Aptian marine deposits in central Colombia. It contains a single species, L. bernadoi, which was described in 2019.

Leyvachelys

Leyvachelys is an extinct genus of turtles in the family Sandownidae from the Early Cretaceous (Late Barremian to Early Aptian) of the present-day Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Eastern Ranges, Colombian Andes. The genus is known only from its type species, Leyvachelys cipadi, described in 2015 by Colombian paleontologist Edwin Cadena. Fossils of Leyvachelys have been found in the fossiliferous Paja Formation, close to Villa de Leyva, Boyacá, after which the genus is named. The holotype specimen is the oldest and most complete sandownid turtle found to date.

Fossils of a turtle found in the dinosaur-rich Glen Rose Formation of Texas, informally named Glenrosechelys brooksi, have been assigned to the same genus and type species.

Macroscaphites

Macroscaphites is an extinct cephalopod genus included in the Ammonoidea that lived during the Barremian and Aptian stages of the Early Cretaceous (118 - 110 million years ago). Its fossils have been found throughout most of Europe and North Africa.

Macroscaphites is known to have reached a length of about 20–30 centimetres (7.9–11.8 in). The shell is in two basic parts, an early planispirally coiled evolute section followed by a more or less straight section that turns back on itself in a hook.

On the basis of studies conducted on the shape of the shell (which take into account the specific weight of the live animal and respective position of the centers of gravity and buoyancy) paleontologists have concluded that this animal lived with the aperture directed toward the surface of the water; the coiled portion upward and the U-shaped-hook directed towards the ocean floor.

Muiscasaurus

Muiscasaurus is an extinct genus of ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaur that lived in modern Colombia during the Early Cretaceous. The only known species is the type Muiscasaurus catheti.

Padillasaurus

Padillasaurus is an extinct genus of titanosauriform sauropod known from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian stage) Paja Formation in Colombia. It contains a single species, Padillasaurus leivaensis, known only from a single partial axial skeleton. Initially described as a brachiosaurid, it was considered to be the first South American brachiosaurid ever discovered and named. Before its discovery, the only known brachiosaurid material on the continent was very fragmentary and from the Jurassic period. However, a more recent study finds it to be a basal somphospondylan.

Phylloceras

Phylloceras is an extinct genus of ammonoid cephalopods belonging to the family Phylloceratidae. These nektonic carnivores lived from Early Jurassic (Hettangian age) to Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age) (from 201.30 to 66.043 Ma).

Platypterygius

Platypterygius is an ichthyosaur of the family Ophthalmosauridae. It is most closely related to the genera Caypullisaurus and Brachypterygius. The ichthyosaur lived from the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) to the earliest Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) and had a cosmopolitan distribution.

Sachicasaurus

Sachicasaurus is an extinct genus of brachauchenine pliosaurid known from the Barremian of the Paja Formation, Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Colombian Eastern Ranges of the Andes. The type species is S. vitae.

Stenorhynchosaurus

Stenorhynchosaurus is an extinct genus of pliosaurid plesiosaurs which lived in South America during the Early Cretaceous. The type species and only known is Stenorhynchosaurus munozi.

Teredolites

Teredolites is an ichnogenus of trace fossil, characterized by borings in wood.

Clavate (club-shaped) structures rimming mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber from Myanmar,

previously misdiagnosed as fungal sporocarps, have recently been shown to be domichnia (crypts) of

martesiine bivalves (Pholadidae: Martesiinae), comparable with Teredolites

clavatus Leymerie, 1842 and Gastrochaenolites lapidicus Kelly & Bromley, 1984. The substrate was not wood, but amber, hence the term Amberground was coined.

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