Paintball is a competitive team shooting sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with spherical dye-filled gelatin capsules ("paintballs") that break upon impact. Paintballs are usually shot using a low-energy air weapon called a paintball marker that is powered by compressed air (nitrogen) or carbon dioxide and was originally designed for remotely marking trees and cattle.
The game was initially developed in May 1981 for recreation, but now is frequently played at a formal sporting level with organized competition that involves major tournaments, professional teams, and players. Paintball technology is also used by military forces, law enforcement, paramilitary and security organizations to supplement military or other training. Paintball markers can play a role in riot response and nonlethal suppression of dangerous suspects.
Games can be played on indoor or outdoor fields of varying sizes. A game field is scattered with natural or artificial terrain, which players use for tactical cover. Game types and goals vary, but may include capture the flag, elimination, defending or attacking a particular point or area, or capturing objects of interest hidden in the playing area. Depending on the variant played, games can last from minutes to hours, or even days in "scenario play".
The legality of paintball varies among countries and regions. In most areas where regulated play is offered, players are required to wear protective masks, use barrel blocking safety equipment, and safe game rules are strictly enforced.
A player taking part in a popular style of paintball known as "woodsball"
|First played||June 27, 1981, Henniker, New Hampshire, United States|
|Clubs||Teams range from Pro Divisions to local and low division teams|
|Contact||No physical contact between players (contact can result in fouls)|
|Team members||Varies depending on game format and level of play, recreational or competition (usually between 3- & 10-man teams)|
|Type||Extreme, team sport, winter sport, indoor, outdoor|
|Equipment||Paintball mask, paint grenades, compressed air or CO2 canister, paintballs, hopper|
|Venue||Varies, often fields or woods and indoor|
The paintball equipment used may depend on the game type, for example: woodsball, speedball, or scenario; on how much money one is willing to spend on equipment; and personal preference. However, almost every player will utilize three basic pieces of equipment:
Additional equipment, commonly seen among frequent players, tournament participants, and professional players include:
Paintball is played with a potentially limitless variety of rules and variations, which are specified before the game begins. The most basic game rule is that players must attempt to accomplish a goal without being shot and marked with a paintball. A variety of different rules govern the legality of a hit, ranging from "anything counts" (hits cause elimination whether the paintball broke and left a mark or not) to the most common variation: the paintball must break and leave a mark the size of a US quarter or larger. Eliminated players are expected to leave the field of play; eliminations may also earn the opposing team points. Depending on the agreed upon game rules, the player may return to the field and continue playing, or is eliminated from the game completely.
The particular goal of the game is determined before play begins; examples include capture the flag or Elimination. Paintball has spawned popular variants, including woodsball, which is played in the natural environment and spans across a large area. Conversely, the variant of speedball is played on a smaller field and has a very fast pace with games as brief as two minutes fifteen seconds in the (NSL) or lasting up to twenty minutes in the PSP (Paintball Sports Promotions). Another variant is scenario paintball, in which players attempt to recreate historical, or fictional settings; the largest being Oklahoma D-Day's World War II re-enactment.
Woodsball or "Bushball", is a term developed late in the history of the game to refer to what was the original form of the game: teams competing in a wooded or natural environment, in which varying amounts of stealth and concealment tactics can offer an advantage. The term is commonly used as a synonym for specialized scenario-based play, but it technically refers to virtually any form of paintball played in fields primarily composed of natural terrain and cover such as trees and berms, instead of manmade obstacles.
Woodsball may feature large or small teams, in competition to obtain various goals and objectives. Large-scale Woodsball games are commonly referred to as "Big Games" or "Scenario Games". Popular examples of the scenario format are Cousin's Big Game in Coram, New York (on Long Island), Hell Survivor's Monster Game (just outside Pinckney, Michigan), Invasion of Normandy at Skirmish U.S.A in Pennsylvania, and Oklahoma D-Day (in Wyandotte, Oklahoma), events which draws in 2,000 to 4,500 players and last for two days, up to a week. Another variant of the Big Game is the "Attack and Defend" format where large numbers of attackers try to overrun a fixed, but a well-defended objective, such as a compound or large building.
MilSim ("Military Simulation") is a mode of play designed to create an experience closer to military reality, where the attainment of specific objectives is the most important aspect of the game.
MilSim addresses the logistics of combat, mission planning and execution, and dealing with limited resources and ammunition. Players are typically eliminated from the game when struck by paint. For aesthetic reasons, MilSim often uses airsoft guns rather than paintball guns, as their prominent hoppers appear unrealistic, however Airsoft pellets, being smaller caliber and fired at higher velocity, have an increased risk of player injury if the scenario involves high rates of fire or close range.
With the advent of shaped projectiles, such as the First Strike, and the resulting development of magazine fed markers, a considerable increase in range, accuracy and MILSIM realism was gained. Functionally speaking, magazine-fed markers are no different than any other paintball marker, with one exception. Instead of paintballs being gravity fed from a bulky hopper, which sits above the marker, shaped projectiles (or paintballs) are fed from a spring-loaded magazine from the bottom of the marker. The caliber of both the gravity fed and magazine fed markers are the same (.68 caliber) and the velocities are also generally the same. The increased range and accuracy of the shaped projectile comes from the higher ballistic coefficient that the shaped projectile has, and the gyroscopic spin imparted onto the projectile from a rifled barrel and fins on the projectile itself. Magazine fed markers and shaped projectiles have allowed marker designs to more closely approximate the styling and functionality of actual (real steel) firearms, which in turn has given paintball a better avenue to compete with Airsoft in the MilSiM environment.
Speedball is played in an open field that could be compared to a soccer field, it is flat with a minimum of natural obstacles, and sometimes artificial turf is used, especially in indoor fields. The first speedball fields were constructed with flat wooden obstacles staked into the ground to provide cover; this concept was further developed into a number of urban-scenario field styles with larger building-like obstacles for casual play, but speedball itself progressed to using smaller obstacles made from plastic drainage pipe, which offered a more variable field layout and some "give" to the obstacles for increased safety. Eventually, inflatable fabric "bunkers" were developed based on common obstacle shapes from previous fields, such as "snake" and "can" bunkers. The use of inflatable obstacles both increases player safety by reducing potential injury from collisions with obstacles, and allows them to be easily moved to reconfigure the field or to set up temporary fields. Tournaments such as the PSP hold different events throughout the summer months all over the United States. Speedball games were originally started as a way to make the game safer for players who might trip on uneven woodland terrain. Speedball is generally a fast-paced game where many more balls are used than in woodsball style games. The Markers used are usually more "High Tech" in a sense that they are controlled by an electronic board and have very high rates of fire(upwards to 20 ball per second).
Concept Fields have many objects set up to allow players to remain hidden from their opponents. A concept field is a perfect man-made creation for paintball games. A field in this style is usually outdoors and almost always has a theme. There are a small amount of indoor fields, some have a theme, some speedball and some with a blend of woodsball game play in an indoor environment. Manchester Paintball Arena is the largest indoor game zone in the UK. Urban concept fields are often seen filled with cars, buildings, and other elements that are found in the city, though some concept field creators go all out and put together themes that may seem a bit over the top to those who aren't familiar with the sport.
Regulated games are overseen by referees or marshals, who patrol the course to ensure enforcement of the rules and the safety of the players. If a player is marked with paint, they will call him out, but competitors may also be expected to follow the honor code; a broken ball means elimination. Field operators may specify variations to this rule, such as requiring a tag to certain body locations only – such as the head and torso only. There are game rules that can be enforced depending on the venue, to ensure safety, balance the fairness of the game or eliminate cheating.
Player and team strategy varies depending on the size and layout of the field and the total number and experience level of players. The most basic strategy is to coordinate with the team to distribute the team members across the field roughly perpendicular to the line between starting stations to cover all potential lines of advance; a team that runs all in the same direction is easily flanked by opponents moving around the field on the opposite side. A second basic goal is to control as much of the field as possible, as early as possible, either by being the first to get to advantageous obstacles on the field or by quickly eliminating one or more opponents to reduce the number of directions each player has to watch for incoming paint. The more territory that the members of a team have behind them, the more options they have for choosing effective cover and changing position to get a good shot at one or more opponents, and because the field is of finite size, the fewer options the opposing team has.
A key element of intermediate and advanced strategy is the concept of "firing lanes". These are clear lines of sight between obstacles on the field and thus potentially between opposing players on the field behind them. A lane is "occupied" if at least one player of the opposing team can fire along it, and it's "active" if any player is firing along it, friend or foe. Occupied and active lanes hinder player movement as the player risks getting hit and eliminated. Open fields with sparse cover often have long open lanes between most or all bunkers on the field, most of which will be occupied if not active. Therefore, players have to keep track of which lanes to and from their bunker become occupied by the other team, so the player can make sure the bunker is between himself and the opponent(s). This becomes harder the more occupied firing lanes there are; when most available firing lanes on the field are occupied, each team has to create cover in at least one direction using suppressing fire (rounds sent to the opponent's location designed to keep their head down more than to eliminate them). Speedball, which tends to use small open fields with relatively few obstacles, requires each player to use hundreds of paintballs in the course of a game to keep his opponents pinned down, lest he be pinned himself. Conversely, if most firing lanes on the field are clear, players on each team have greater mobility and the use of covering fire to pin an opponent is less useful as the player can stay behind cover while moving long distances, so players tend to fire less and move more to gain clear shots. Urban scenarios and woodsball fields tend to be larger and with more cover, shortening firing lanes and requiring players to move more to get good shots against their opponent.
Typically, strategy is limited for casual walk-on style paintball play. Some teamwork will be seen at the beginning of the games with brief discussions on tactics and strategy, such as distributing players between bunkers and assigning defenders that will stay back and cover attackers that advance. However, mid to late game tactics tend to be limited to groups of players sticking together or doing isolated attacks rather than a coordinated sweep down the field. In team paintball tournaments, more serious planned team tactics and strategy is seen throughout each game from the opening to the endgame. Teams generally practice together and have planned tactics they can use in the tournament, and know what each of their teammates will be trying to do in various situations during the game.
Paintball is played at both commercial venues, which require paid admission, and private land; both of which may include multiple fields of varying size and layout. Fields can be scattered with either natural or artificial terrain, and may also be themed to simulate a particular environment, such as a wooded or urban area, and may involve a historical context. Smaller fields (such as those used for speedball and tournament play) may include an assortment of various inflatable bunkers; these fields are less prone to cause injury as the bunkers are little more than air bags, which can absorb the impact of a player colliding with them. Before these inflatable fields became available and popular, speedball fields were commonly constructed of various rigid building materials, such as plywood and framing timber, shipping pallets, even concrete and plastic drainage pipe. The use of plastic pipe tethered with stakes became common, as it allowed for relatively easy reconfiguration of fields and at least some impact-absorption, and was the precursor to the modern inflatable bunker (in fact, certain common features in inflatable fields, such as "can" and "snake" bunkers, were derived from similar features built with plastic drainage pipe). Recreational fields still commonly use these older materials for their higher durability and novelty; inflatable bunkers are prone to bursting seams or otherwise developing holes and leaks. Other fields have wooden or plastic barriers.
Commercial venues may provide amenities such as bathrooms, picnic areas, lockers, equipment rentals, air refills and food service. Countries may have paintball sports guidelines, with rules on specific safety and insurance standards, and paid staff (including referees) who must ensure players are instructed in proper play to ensure participants' safety. Some fields are "BYOP" (Bring Your Own Paint), allowing players to buy paint at unrelated retail stores or online and use it at their field. However, most fields are FPO (Field Paint Only,) meaning players must buy paint at the venue or at a pro shop affiliated with the park. This is largely for revenue reasons; field and rental fees generally do not cover expenses of a paintball park. However, other reasons relating to player safety are generally cited and have some merit, as poor quality or poorly stored paint can cause gun failures or personal injury to targeted players. Other times, FPO policies are in keeping with municipal laws for wastewater and runoff; paintballs contain food dyes, and some formulations have metallic flakes and/or cornstarch to make them more visible, all of which can pose problems in water reservoirs and treatment plants. So, fields that must wash paintball paint into municipal wastewater facilities, or that have substantial rain runoff into bodies of water that are used as sources of drinking water, are generally required by the municipality to restrict players to only certain paint formulations; the easiest way to achieve this is to sell only approved paint and require that field paint be used.
Playing on a non-established field is sometimes referred to as renegade or gonzo play or outlaw ball (with the players nicknamed renegade ballers or outlaws). Though less expensive and less structured than play at a commercial facility, the lack of safety protocols, instruction, and oversight can lead to higher incidence of injuries.
The first organized paintball game in record was held by Charles Gaines and friends in New Hampshire in 1981, with the first paintball field opening approximately a year later in Sutton, NH. In 1983 the first National Survival Game (NSG) national championship was held, with a $14,000 cash award for the winning team. As of 2010, tournaments are largely organized by paintball leagues.
A Speedball league is an organization that provides a regulated competition for Speedball players to compete. Leagues can be of various sizes (for example, regional, national or international) and offer organized tournaments and or games for professional, semi-professional, and amateur teams, sometimes with financial prizes. The first British national league was the British Paintball League created in 1989 by Gary Morhall, Richard Hart and Derek Wildermuth in Essex England. As of 2017, the major leagues in the United States are the National X-ball League (NXL), Carolina Field Owners Association (CFOA), Maximum Velocity Paintball Series (MVPS), the Northern Xtreme Paintball League (NXPL). Internationally, the Paintball Asia League Series (PALS) in Asia, the Millennium Series in western Europe, the Centurio series in Eastern Europe, and the National Collegiate Paintball Association in the US and Canada (A league was also created for high school and college players, the NCPA.*Not recognized by the NCAA*). They are supplemented by various regional and local leagues spread worldwide. Within these leagues it is narrowed down further to divisions. There are 6 divisions from division 5 to division 1 besides various professional leagues.
The nature and timing of paintball events are specified by the league running the tournament, with the league also defining match rules – such as number of players per team (anywhere from 3-7 players per team), or acceptable equipment for use. The number of matches in a tournament is largely defined by the number of available teams playing. However, the NSL offers non-tournament game play where a more traditional game day format has been adopted. Two teams face off at a set time and play only one game per game day in the season as beginners play a 24-minute game and Amateur and Professional play a 32-minute game, both requiring 90 minutes to resolve.
A match in a tournament is refereed by a judge, whose authority and decisions are final. Tournament rules can vary as specified by the league, but may include for example – not allowing players to use devices to communicate with other persons during a game, or not allowing players to unduly alter the layout of terrain on the field. In contrast to a casual game designed for fun, a tournament is much stricter and violations of rules may result in penalties for the players or entire teams.
Though tournament paintball was originally played in the woods, speedball became the standard competitive format in the 1990s. The smaller fields made use of artificial terrain such as bunkers, allowing symmetrical fields that eliminate terrain advantages for either team; woodsball fields having no such guarantee. Most recently, fields using inflatable bunkers, tethered to the ground with stakes, have become standard for most tournament formats; the soft, yielding bunkers reduce the occurrence of injuries, the bunkers deflate to store in a compact space and anchor to the ground with tent stakes, allowing for temporary fields to be set up and torn down with less impact on the ground underneath, and the arrangement of bunkers can be easily re-configured to maintain novelty of play or to simulate a predetermined field layout for an upcoming event.
A professional paintball team is one that plays paintball with the financial, equipment or other kind of support of one or more sponsors, often in return for advertising rights. Professional teams can have different names in different leagues due to franchising and sponsorship issues.
In the past, unlawful groups and terrorists have been accused of using paintball for tactical training purposes in connection with the following incidents:
Mohamed Mahmood Alessa and Carlos "Omar" Eduardo Almonte, two men arrested in June 2010 as they were bound for Somalia, and charged with terrorism and conspiring to kill, maim, and kidnap people outside the U.S., had simulated combat at an outdoor paintball facility in West Milford, New Jersey, according to the complaint against them.
Similarly, 11 men, convicted in 2003–04 of composing the Virginia Jihad Network, engaged in paintball training in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, to simulate guerrilla operations and develop combat skills to prepare for jihad, according to prosecutors. In 2006, Ali Asad Chandia of the Virginia Jihad Network was sentenced to 15 years in prison aiding the Pakistani terrorist organization, Lashkar-e-Taiba, including arranging a shipment of 50,000 paintballs from the U.S. to Pakistan.
In addition, two of the 2005 London 7/7 bombers were filmed while training in June 2005 at a paintball center in Tonbridge, Kent. Also, the suspects in the 2006 Toronto Terrorism case played paintball to prepare for their attack. In 2007, paintball training was engaged in by five terrorists to prepare for an attack aimed at killing American soldiers in Fort Dix, New Jersey; they were later convicted.
The rate of injury to paintball participants has been estimated as 45 injuries per 100,000 participants per year. Research published by the Minnesota Paintball Association has argued that paintball is one of the statistically safest sports to participate in, with 20 injuries per 100,000 players annually, and these injuries tend to be incidental to outdoor physical activity (e.g. trip-and-fall). A 2003 study of the 24 patients with modern sports eye injuries presenting to the eye emergency department of Porto São João Hospital between April 1992 and March 2002 included five paintball eye injuries. Furthermore, a one-year study undertaken by the Eye Emergency Department, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary in Boston has shown that most sports eye injuries are caused by basketball, baseball, hockey, and racquetball. Another analysis concluded that eye injuries incurred from paintball were in settings where protective equipment such as masks were not enforced, or were removed by the player. Eye injuries can occur when protective equipment is not properly used and such injuries often cause devastating visual loss. For safety, most regulated paintball fields strictly enforce a 'masks-on' policy, and most eject players who consistently disobey.
Regardless, paintball has received criticism due to incidents of injury. In Canada in 2007, an eleven-year-old boy lifted his mask and was shot point blank in the eye by an adult playing on the same field, leading to calls by the Montreal Children's Hospital to restrict the minimum age of paintball participants to 16 years. In Australia, the sport attracted criticism when a 39-year-old man playing at a registered field in Victoria died of a suspected heart attack, after being struck in the chest.
Additionally, the use of paintball markers outside a regulated environment has caused concern. In the United States in 1998, 14-year-old Jorel Lynn Travis was shot with a paintball gun while standing outside a Fort Collins, Colorado ice cream parlor – blinding her in one eye. In 2001, a series of pre-meditated and racially motivated drive-by shootings targeted Alaska Natives in Anchorage, Alaska, using a paintball marker. In Ottawa, Canada in 2007, Ashley Roos was shot in the eye and blinded with a paintball gun while waiting for a bus. In 2014 in the UK, as a marketing strategy, one company advertised and hired a Human Bullet Tester.
Paintball has been considered an inappropriate game, that promotes violence, by the Parliament of the Province of Buenos Aires. The approved law 14,492 (December 2012) regulates its use: it is totally forbidden for children under 16 years old, but can be played with written authorization by the parents, or responsible person in charge, of youths between 16 and 18 years old. Originally, the initiative had proposed the total prohibition for players under 21 years old. The penalties are also established by law, as 30 days of communitarian work or other modalities.
Paintballing in Australia is controlled by the police in each state, with differing minimum age requirements. Players under 18 are required to have a guardian sign a consent form. The minimum ages are 12 for South Australia and Western Australia, 15 for Queensland, 16 for New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and Victoria. Previously the minimum age for Victoria was 18, but legislation has recently been introduced to lower the legal age for paintball to 16. Both major parties in Victoria have supported the changes. Paintball has been recently legalized in Tasmania as of 4 November 2016 .
To own a paintball marker privately in Australia (outside Tasmania and the Northern Territory) one must hold a valid firearms license endorsed for paintball use.
In the Northern Territory they are considered a Class C firearm and private ownership is illegal.
In Western Australia they are considered a Category E(5) miscellaneous weapon.
In Victoria they are now classified as a Category P firearm.
Operators must adhere to legislation on gun storage, safety training and field sizes; private owners have to secure their markers according to state law on storage, as by law paintball markers are considered firearms in Australia.
As in Australia, paintballing in the Republic of Cyprus is controlled by police, i.e. all paintball markers must be registered and licensed, the field must be in certain standards that is inspected by police in order to obtain the license for a paintball field. The process of buying one's own paintball marker is just as complicated, the buyer must have completed military service, have a clean police record and be over the age of 18 years.
Minimum age for paintball is 14 years old with parents consent, from 16 and up no parental consent is required. It is required that all players must wear protective mask as well and neck and chest protection. Paintball markers are not allowed to exceed 290 fps velocity and a maximum of 12bit/s firing rate.
In Germany, paintball is restricted to players over 18 years of age. Paintball markers are classified as weapons that do not require a license or permit; they are legal to buy and use, but restricted to adults. Markers are limited to a kinetic energy of 7.5 J. Tampering with the marker to increase muzzle velocity above 214 fps can lead to confiscation/destruction of the marker and a fine. All Paintball markers sold officially in Germany must be certified by the government "Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt" (PTB) (Federal Physical and Technical Institute) to operate within these limits and must have a registered serial number and an official stamp on the firing mechanism. In May 2009, reacting to the Winnenden school shooting, German lawmakers announced plans to ban games such as paintball as they allegedly trivialised and encouraged violence but the plans were retracted a few days later. Most Indoor-Paintball-Areas in Germany have a strict "No-Mil-Sim"-Policy, meaning that no camouflage clothing or real-life looking markers are allowed.
Paintballing is widely accepted as a recreational pastime in Ireland and is not directly subject to any governing regulations. In Northern Ireland all paintball guns are classified as firearms and as such all gun owners needs to obtain a license from the PSNI (Police Service of Northern Ireland). There is also a minimum age where all players need to be 16 or older. Paintball is governed by the local Gardaí in the Republic of Ireland. A Firearms licence is required for both personal and site use. Weapon storage guidelines and security must also be strictly adhered to.
Paintball markers are classified as Airguns under New Zealand law, and as such are legal for persons 18 and over to possess (those between the ages of 16 and 18 require a firearms license). Following the Arms (Military Style Semi-automatic Firearms and Import Controls) Amendment Act 2012 (Which came into effect on December 1, 2013), fully automatic Paintball guns are legal to purchase and use, although a permit to procure from the New Zealand Police is required in order to legally import them into the country. Military replicas require a permit for import.
Paintballing venues in the United Kingdom are accredited by bodies such as the United Kingdom Paintball Association and the UKPSF (UK Paintball Sports Federation). These bodies define codes of practice for venue operators, but accredition with these bodies is voluntary.
Laws pertaining to paintball markers in the United Kingdom classify them as a type of air gun, although some could be considered to be imitation firearms. Owners do not require a license unless the marker fires above 90 m/s (300 ft/s). Only approved paintballs may be used, and the marker must not be fully automatic. The minimum age to be in possession of a marker is seventeen, except in target shooting clubs or galleries, or on private property so long as projectiles are not fired beyond the premises. It is prohibited to be in possession of a paintball marker in public places. The minimum age for a commercial venue is generally 10, although some venues provide lower-powered guns for goblins of a younger age.
In the United States, eight states define explicit legislation for paintball guns. In Pennsylvania, paintball markers have transport requirements, cannot be used against anyone not participating in a paintball activity, and cannot be used for property damage. New Hampshire and Rhode Island require players be at least eighteen years of age to own a marker, with students in New Hampshire faced with the possibility of expulsion from school for possessing a marker. In Illinois, owners must be over the age of twelve and can only use their markers in private land or on safely constructed target ranges.
Virginia is one of two states that permit its towns to adopt ordinances on paintball guns, allowing its local authorities to do so. Delaware on the other hand only authorizes Wilmington to do so, but does allow paintball to be played on farms as it is considered an agritourism activity. Florida and Texas limit government liability if a government entity allows paintball on its property.
In virtually all jurisdictions, the use of a paintball marker in a manner other than its intended purpose and/or outside the confines of a sanctioned game or field can result in criminal charges such as disturbing the peace, disorderly conduct, vandalism, criminal mischief or even aggravated assault.
Despite stiff legislation, paintball is growing in popularity as a competitive sport, with several leagues and tournaments across the country. There are paintball fields in every state except Tasmania that allows paintball marker ownership. In Victoria the Paintball Association of Victoria runs a number of events including scenario, 3v3 and 5v5 competitions.
Certain paintball fields opened in the Eastern Townships and in the Laurentians. In the beginning it was mostly fields with regular open fields with barricades of wood, old tires and barrels, and very basic infrastructure. Harry Kruger has operated a paintball venue known as "Capture the Flag" in Alberta since the late 1980s. In 1995 Bigfoot Paintball opened in St. Alphonse-Rodriguez in the region of Lanaudière. After only a few years it became more and more prominent in Québec. In 2013, paintball has become relatively mainstream in Canada, with multiple commercial indoor paintball facilities located in most large cities across Canada, as well as a variety of outdoor style commercial paintball fields located in the countryside around the cities. In 2016, the Ontario Paintball League (OPL) was created. The league offers 4 divisions with cash and gear prizes for the different divisions. In 2018, the most recent NXL World Cup winners, Edmonton Impact, or just Impact, were based out of Canada.
There are about ten fields in Cyprus, the most recognized of them being the Lapatsa Paintball Ranch in Nicosia, DNA-Paintball in Paphos, and Paintball Cyprus in Limassol. The Republic of Cyprus has a number of ongoing paintball leagues, including CRL (Cyprus Rec-ball League) and CSL (Cyprus Speedball League). Each league has tournaments every month for the duration of the season which is usually about 7–9 months.
In Denmark paintball is a very popular sport. There are around 25 paintball outdoor and indoor fields in Denmark. The largest indoor paintball center in Europe is in Copenhagen.
In India as of 2018, paintball fields are found in almost all cities. The youth have taken a liking to this adventure sport, which even now incorporates also lands into this as a recreation theme sports, events, and there are a couple of organisations in Mumbai as well, like Urban Games, MyUrbanGames and Headrush. These are the leading Paintball organisations in India.
In India, paintball dates back to 2005 when TPCI (The Paintball Co India) joined with PALS (Paintball Asia League Series) which then was the biggest paintball tournament organiser in the Asian Circuit and introduced this sport to the country by starting the first commercial paintball park on the outskirts of the national capital at Damdama Lake in Gurgaon, Haryana.
With the growth of outsourcing and offshoring of IT companies, especially in New Delhi and Bangalore, paintball as a sport is being used as a tool for corporate training. There has been a sharp increase in the woods-ball, speedball and scenario gaming arenas and is growing at a fast pace. Many semi-urban Indian cities have built indoor and outdoor paintball fields in recent years.
PaintBall X, Bangalore has the only International Standard "Speedball" arena in India. Started in 2010 they are run by brothers Swapneel Shetty and Ritesh Shetty who are actively involved with promoting paintball as a Sport in India. PaintBall X is the first operator to import paintball marker (gun) in May 2018 after it was classified under the Arms and Ammunition Act in 2016. They sponsor teams in International paintball events with the latest being the NXL - Asia (National X Ball League - Asia) held at Georgetown - Malaysia in October 2018. They also are the biggest suppliers or paintball equipment in India.
Last concluded India Level paintball tournament was the PaintBall X - India Cup 2018.
Delta 9 Adventures is India's only paintball operator with more than one field. They host 3 paintball fields at their Vadodara arena for the paintball players. The players get to play at various scenarios fields. They host multiple tournaments throughout the year for various paintball divisions, allowing fair competition between different categories of players.
Sarfaraz Ahmed, Kaviraj Thapa, Naveen N, Bharath Rajashekar, Swapneel Shetty are the first International paintballer players of India and still participate in paintball tournaments across Asia and Europe.
Bangalore used to host the Paintball Indian open every year in which teams come from all over the world to compete for the championship.
India has been participating in world championships since 2009, Team Paintmechanix has a set of good players and team members representing India.
In Iran, paintball is a very popular recreation but also considered an expensive and/or dangerous sport. Nearly every city has one or more paintball fields but only a few of them offer woodsball and realistic terrain, and every province has one or more teams that play in the national paintball league. Iran itself has a national team.
Paintball is a very popular sport in Malaysia. The Malaysian paintball community is considered the largest in Asia. The Paintball Asia League Series (PALS) is headquartered in Petaling Jaya near the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. They organize tournaments and events around the Asian region.
There are also the Malaysian Paintball Official Circuit (MPOC), Malaysian National Paintball League (MY-NPL), the Malaysian Super Sevens Series, World Paintball Players League (WPPL), the Malaysian Ultimate Woodsball League (UWL Malaysia), and Tactical Paintball Championship (TPC). The Paintball World Cup Asia is also held annually in Langkawi island.
Several woodsball and scenario big games are also held throughout the year such as the International Scenario Paintball Games (ISPG) and by Paintball Warfare Group Malaysia (PWG-Malaysia). There are many commercial paintball fields operating in almost every major city across the country, with most of them concentrated around the Klang Valley region. However, in December 2013, the Royal Malaysian Police stated that all paintball markers must be owned with a licence and owners must hand in their markers. Some paintball organizations have stated that this will be "a big blow" to paintball in the country while others stated that this will not affect the sport at all.
In February 2019 The high court has said that Paintball Marker does not fall under the firearms act but look alike weapons does fall under the category of imitation fire arms. this means that paintball marker that does not look like firearms can be owned by anyone with licence.
In South Africa, organised paintball has been played since the late 1980s. The only legal enforcement regarding paintball is the concealment of paintball (and airsoft) guns in public areas. There are no license requirements or age limitations in place, but with the threat of the implementation of the "Dangerous Weapons Act", this could change.
South Africa has seen a steady growth of the sport of paintball since its introduction. Recreational bushball is the most popular form throughout the country, but the last couple of years have seen a big increase in the popularity of speedball. The South African Paintball League has been in existence since 2002 During 2013 South Africa was invited to send a representative paintball team to the first ever Paintball World Cup held in Paris, France. The South African team got officially ranked 13th in the world.
Popular tournaments such as The Tippmann Challenge, D-Day and the Navy Festival SWAT Challenge, see hundreds of players from around the entire country participate.
The first ever public paintball performance in South Africa was held at the Swartkop Airshow during 2013. More than 80 paintball players took part a in a simulated a counter terrorist raid on a weapons dealer.
Currently, the biggest national speedball league in South Africa is the SARPL (South African Regional Paintball League) with over 500 members and hosting both a 3-man and 5-man series events in 5 provinces (including Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape and the Free State). The league hosts around 31 events per year on a regional and national level with the national finals that takes place at Oviston, Lake Gariep beginning December of each year starting at the end of 2013. The SARPL currently play PSP Race-to-2 format and use the PSP rule set as well as using APPA system for player classification.
Paintball is a very niche yet extremely competitive sport in Thailand. Thai paintball teams are considered to be one of the strongest, if not the strongest in Asia. Thai teams have taken home the Division 1 Paintball Asia League Series (PALS) World Cup and series titles in year 2012, 2014, and 2015. In 2014, Thai teams made the history books by taking victories in all Divisions 1, 2, and 3 at the PALS World Cup at Langkawi Island, Malaysia. This trend continued into 2015, with Thai teams taking victories in Divisions 1 and 2 during the PALS World Cup 2015. Along with winning the PALS World Cup titles in 2014 and 2015, all respective teams also took the overall series titles for their respective divisions in 2014 and 2015. Thai paintball continues to grow at a slow pace, thus allowing the community to be a very well knit family.
At first, the Paintball engaged to the Turkey Shooting and Hounting Federation in 2006, it has perfectly grown especially in the recent years in Turkey. Therefore, it has been organized at least 4 tournaments each year in different cities and times in Turkey about paintball engaged to the Growing Branch of Sports Federation.
Paintball is a growing sport in the United Arab Emirates. Paintball was first introduced in the UAE and the Middle East in 1996. The very first paintball facility was established in Dubai with the technical assistance of some of the best European and American Paintball operators in the industry.
DYE Precision, also known as simply DYE, is a paintball equipment manufacturing company based in California. Dave Dehaan started the company by producing barrels for paintball markers, using his garage as a workshop. He supplied barrels to the California Ironmen and Team Avalanche, who at that time were two of the most dominant teams in Professional paintball. From these humble beginnings, DYE went on to become an International concern that went on to manufacture an extensive range of paintball markers, loaders, playing & casual clothing, protective gear, goggles and luggage. Their range of products is updated each year. In 2005, the company was praised as one of the industry's largest paintball manufacturers. The company has offices in London, Taiwan and Germany.Electropneumatic paintball marker
An electropneumatic paintball marker is a paintball marker that uses a pneumatic solenoid to actuate the hammer and/or bolt's movement.Greg Hastings' Tournament Paintball
Greg Hastings' Tournament Paintball (2004) (GHTP) is a T-rated first person paintball game released exclusively for the Xbox. The game gathered a cult following, consistently appearing on the Xbox Live Top 25 list posted by Major Nelson, peaking at the number nine position. A sequel, Greg Hastings Tournament Paintball MAX'D, was released in 2005. Greg Hastings Paintball 2, developed by Majesco Entertainment, was released for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Wii on September 28, 2010.Greg Hastings Tournament Paintball MAX'D
Greg Hastings Tournament Paintball MAX'D (GHTP) is an action sport first person shooter developed by The Whole Experience, under joint venture with Paintball Players Productions, LLC, and published by Activision on Xbox, Nintendo DS, Game Boy Advance, and PlayStation 2. MAX'D is the sequel to Greg Hastings Tournament Paintball (2004 Xbox).
GameCube and PlayStation Portable versions were planned, but were cancelled. Despite this, the Wii version of Greg Hastings Paintball 2, released in 2010, supports the Nintendo GameCube controller.List of paintball leagues
This is a list of notable professional and semi-professional paintball leagues.List of paintball markers
The following is a list of notable paintball markers that have been, or are currently manufactured - ordered by manufacture in alphabetical order.List of professional paintball teams
This is a list of notable professional and semi-professional paintball teams that have played in a professional tournament. A professional paintball team is one that plays paintball with the financial, equipment or other kind of support of one or more sponsors, often in return for advertising rights. Several professional teams have different names in different leagues due to franchising and sponsorship issues.Modern Warfare (Community)
"Modern Warfare" is the 23rd episode of the first season of Community and originally premiered on May 6, 2010 on NBC. In the episode, after the Dean announces the prize for a friendly game of paintball, Greendale sinks into a state of all-out paintball war, with every student battling for supremacy. During the chaos, Jeff's study group teams up in order to last longer in the game. Meanwhile, Jeff and Britta confront their unresolved sexual tension.
The episode was written by Emily Cutler and directed by Justin Lin. The episode's plot is a pastiche of multiple action movies, such as Battle Royale, Pitch Black, The Matrix, Die Hard, Terminator, 28 Days Later, The Warriors, Rambo, Predator, and the films of John Carpenter and John Woo. The episode received overwhelmingly positive reviews from critics and came third in its timeslot. Three sequels to this episode, "A Fistful of Paintballs", "For a Few Paintballs More", and "Modern Espionage" followed this episode.NCPA (paintball)
The National Collegiate Paintball Association is an all-volunteer, non-profit organization created by college players for college players. The goal of the NCPA is to promote the positive aspects of the sport in an intercollegiate manner. The NCPA consists of two distinct classes which competes separately across the United States. Class AA is an open-class division where any college may enter and compete in regional and national tournaments. On the other hand, Class A is a closed-class division where only certain colleges may compete after securing a bid in the previous season. Class A represents the best talent of college paintball and includes universities such as: Drexel University, University of Maryland, Illinois State University, Purdue University, University of Connecticut, Penn State University, plus 10 other teams across three conferences all fighting for a national title. The association's 2007 playoff tournament was aired on Fox Sports Net's digital cable college sports network, Fox College Sports.NPPL Championship Paintball 2009
NPPL: Championship Paintball 2009 (2008) (NPPL 09) is an E10+-rated first person paintball game by Romanian developer Sand Grain Studios released for Xbox 360, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and Wii. The game features multiple game modes, officially licensed gear, and authentic tournament locations and field layouts from the NPPL, the Millennium European Paintball Series, and the XPSL. Players can perfect their skills as they progress from a rookie to pro in career mode and take on the best paintball teams in the world, or get online for an adrenaline rush of intense, cutthroat multiplayer action.Oliver Lang
Oliver "Ollie" Lang is an American professional paintball player, who by the age of 22 in 2005, had already been awarded the International Paintball Player of the Year award. Paintballer Matt Marshall has stated that Lang “wins so frequently, plays our sport so instinctually, and gobbles up life on the road at such a frantic and furious pace.”Paintball equipment
Paintball is an equipment intensive sport and in order to safely conduct a game, every player requires a marker with propellant to fire the paint, a mask to protect the eyes and face, paintballs, and a loader to hold them. To ensure safety off the playing field, a barrel sock or plug for the marker is also compulsory.
Depending on type of play, additional equipment can include gloves, a pack designed to comfortably carry pods containing extra paintballs, and a squeegee or swab for cleaning out the barrel in case a paintball breaks. Players may also elect to wear padding or armor in order to reduce the impact of incoming paintballs.Paintball marker
A paintball marker, also known as a paintball gun, paint gun, or marker, is the main piece of paintball equipment in the sport of paintball. Markers use an expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed air, to propel paintballs through the barrel and quickly strike a target. The term "marker" is derived from its original use as a means for forestry personnel to mark trees and ranchers to mark wandering cattle.The muzzle velocity of paintball markers is approximately 90 m/s (300 ft/s). While greater muzzle velocity is possible, it has been ruled unsafe for use on most commercial paintball fields. When paintballs hit an object at high speed they have the potential to cause damage; a paintball colliding with human skin, even protected by cloth, may cause bruising or further tissue damage. However, the damage depends on the paintball's velocity, its impact angle, whether it breaks, and which part of the body it hits. Because of the potential for serious soft tissue damage, paintball players must wear masks to protect their eyes, mouth, and ears when barrel blocking devices are not preventing paintball markers from firing.
Most paintball markers can be disassembled into four main components: the body, hopper, barrel, and gas system or air tank.Paintball pistol
Paintball pistols are a type of paintball marker used in paintball, which loosely resemble pistols. There are two main types of pistols: pump and semi-automatic.Paintball tank
A paintball tank is a vehicle, or a portable structure that resembles a vehicle, used in various types of the sport of paintball, usually with the intent of military simulation. The purpose of a paintball tank is to provide a mobile shelter for one or several players, from which they may employ their markers against players on the opposing team. Small pneumatic guns, effectively low-powered potato cannons loaded with foam darts, are also often employed as anti-tank weapons.
Paintball tanks are commonly used for woodsball and scenario paintball games, and similar designs have also seen use in Airsoft scenario games, with varying degrees of similarity to a true tank.
The use of the term tank does not mean that the vehicle must resemble a tank, or even that it has tracks, or an engine, or wheels. As long as the finished product is functional within the boundaries of gameplay and safety rules, and has the appearance of some form of military vehicle, it can be referred to as a tank. For this reason, a tank may often be referred to as a paintball armoured vehicle (PAV). Although motorized designs built on the chassis of ATVs, golf carts, or automobiles may have similar internal layouts, the large amount of creative freedom involved in their design and assembly results in great functional and visual variation between vehicles. For this reason, tanks are usually type classified by the method of propulsion rather than functionality or aesthetics. These types include muscle-powered personal armor ("Pugs") and bunkers on wheels, and motorized designs that may or may not be built around the chassis of off-road vehicles and automobiles with various forms of structural and aesthetic alteration.Paintball variations
Paintball is played with a potentially limitless variety of rules and variations, all of which are specified before the game begins. The most basic of all game rules is that players must attempt to accomplish a goal without being tagged with paintballs. Generally paintball is divided into either its original incarnation woodsball, or the small arena-based and tournament de facto speedball. Amongst these paintball game types, variations of basic rules can be played.Scenario paintball
Scenario paintball is a type of paintball game in which players participate in a scenario, or story; and may include historical re-enactments, futuristic or video game simulations. Games tend to last in the range of hours or days, and may include a large group of players. The largest paintball scenario games are the Skirmish Invasion of Normandy (ION) scenario & Oklahoma D-DAY, both of which attract upwards of 4,000 players annually.
Scenario games are almost always objective-driven in regard to scoring. Each team must complete a series of missions to score points. These may be simple "capture the flag at this location" missions to elaborate missions involving props, multiple locations, interactive non-player characters and more.
To further enhance the theme of a game, field locations may be named for important story locations, and props of various sorts are added to the game. These may be objects that players collect for points, or even vehicles that take part in the fighting, like paintball tanks. Players may don costumes specific to the theme, such as historic military uniforms or other costumes.
Scenario events are usually planned far in advance, both by the event "producers" or fields, and by the players themselves. Players may form large, lasting networks of players and teams that play together year after year in a specific scenario. These organizations help plan game strategy and direct their groups on the field and offer a level of organization beyond the basic two-sided team play.
Like all forms of paintball, scenario paintball has a very good per-capita safety record. Due to longer play times, heat-related injuries are one of the more common injuries in scenario paintball. Many players often carry 1- to 3-liter water bladders, allowing players to drink water without removing their safety masks, to combat heat and dehydration.Speedball (paintball)
Speedball is one of the three distinct game variants in the sport of paintball, woodsball and scenario paintball.
It is a general term for a game in which the playing field is composed of bunkers, of the same location and number on each side of the field, that provide an equal playing field for each team competing. It was created in this way to give a better format for competitive paintball, both in playing and viewing the games.Woodsball
Woodsball (also known as woods paintball, hillball or bushball) is a format of paintball gaming, in which players compete in a natural outdoors area (contrasting with inflatable bunker-based speedball format) using paintball guns to mark opponents. The term "woodsball" is sometimes used to describe non-milsim airsoft games, which take place in a forest.
It is recognized as the first format of paintball ever played, and is often used in conjunction with scenario paintball, allowing players to enact parts in a story or historical battle. This is due to its effectiveness in allowing players to simulate military situations using realistic weaponry and equipment; all of which are customizable - allowing each player to fulfill a tactical role. The types of games playable are infinite, and include mostly capture the flag or elimination.
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