Pahala, Hawaii

Pahala (Hawaiian: Pāhala[1]) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States. The population was 1,356 at the 2010 census.[2]

Pahala, Hawaii
U.S. post office in Pahala
U.S. post office in Pahala
Location in Hawaii County and the state of Hawaii
Location in Hawaii County and the state of Hawaii
Coordinates: 19°12′9″N 155°28′38″W / 19.20250°N 155.47722°WCoordinates: 19°12′9″N 155°28′38″W / 19.20250°N 155.47722°W
CountryUnited States
StateHawaii
CountiesHawaii
Area
 • Total0.8 sq mi (2.2 km2)
 • Land0.8 sq mi (2.2 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation
920 ft (280 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total1,356
 • Density1,622/sq mi (626.1/km2)
Time zoneUTC-10 (Hawaii–Aleutian)
ZIP Code
96777
Area code(s)808
FIPS code15-59750
GNIS feature ID362938

Geography

Pahala is located in the southern part of the island of Hawaii at 19°12′15″N 155°28′44″W / 19.204109°N 155.479005°W.[3] Hawaii Route 11 forms the southeast border of the community. The highway leads northeast 52 miles (84 km) to Hilo and southwest 12 miles (19 km) to Naalehu. The main entrance to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is 23 miles (37 km) to the northeast of Pahala on Route 11.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.85 square miles (2.2 km2), all of it land.[2]

History

Pahala was created by a sugarcane plantation. The area selected to house the sugar refinery had several key features:

  • a flat plateau on a sloping mountainous region
  • direct access to a water well
  • a strategic central location to sugarcane fields

In Hawaiian, Pāhala refers to the ashes of leaves from the hala tree (Pandanus tectorius). Long ago, when cracks were found in the sugarcane fields, workers would stuff them with hala leaves and burn them.

For years, Pahala consisted of a manager's house, several plantation homes, a general store, and the sugar refinery. Many of the sugarcane workers were housed in small camps in and around Pahala and in camps situated throughout the outlying sugarcane fields. Many of these camps were self-sufficient. They consisted of eight to twelve plantation dwellings with a small store. Some camps had specialty shops such as a blacksmith or a simple barbershop. As time passed some installed gas stations.

In 1881, the first public school in the district of Kaʻu was established in Kapapala. The humble campus consisted of just two buildings. Some years later the school and its two buildings were relocated to Pahala and called Pahala High and Elementary School. In 1959, as Hawaii Territory became the state of Hawaii, the last class of the Pahala High School held commencement ceremonies. The school then became Kaʻu High and Pahala Elementary School. It is the second oldest public school in the state of Hawaii, behind Lahainaluna School in Lahaina. Still in use today at Kaʻu High is Kapono Building, the oldest public school building west of the Rocky Mountains. The only other public school in the district of Kaʻu is Naʻalehu Elementary. Naʻalehu once had a high school. Today, students attend grades kindergarten through 6th grade in Naʻalehu.

As time progressed, Pahala became the focal town of the northeastern side of the district of Kaʻu; Naʻalehu became the other focal town to the south of the district. Businesses from outer camps migrated to Pahala to set up shop. With social and economic changes came the demands for convenience. Soon, more stores opened up. A bank and gas stations were built. For leisure, a town hall or "Club House" was built and used by the plantation and the community to hold meetings and parties. In the early 1940s Pahala Theatre was built.

By the early 1960s, C. Brewer & Co. had decided to phase out all of the camps and move homes and other structures to Pahala. At this time C. Brewer explored other alternatives to diversify into, eventually settling on macadamia nuts. Considered a weed in their native Australia, macadamia trees flourished into a new niche market for Hawaii.

The early 1970s demonstrated how influential the world's economy can be to Pahala. The 1970s brought about fuel shortages, and developing nations began to produce cheaper sugar. During the 1970s C. Brewer proposed the perfect opportunity to diversify. A gentleman by the name of Bob Shleser had proposed to Doc Buyers (then CEO of C. Brewer) the idea and technology to convert the Pahala Sugar Mill to produce ethanol fuel from sugarcane. Shleser also proposed that Hawaii County pass a bill that would require 25% of all vehicles on the island to be retrofitted to use ethanol by 1985. Doc Buyers, however, decided against it.

By the late 1970s, with sugar's looming demise, C. Brewer instead decided to expand its macadamia nut operations. They began to phase out sugarcane fields that encircled Pahala, converting them to grow macadamia trees.

By the mid 1980s it was apparent that sugar had seen its heyday. Honuapo's mill had closed in 1972 and its workers transferred to Pahala. But other sugarcane plantations around the island began to close as well. Still, the Pahala Sugar Mill continued to produce record tons per acre, but at a steep price. At the time it cost $1.50 to produce 1 lb (0.45 kg), which would then sell for $0.60. Congress had proposed bills that placed huge tariffs and taxes on imported sugar. But economically, even those measures could not stave off the inevitable.

In the 1990s, it was all too evident that sugarcane had lost its lustre. C. Brewers' investors were getting older and demanded Doc Buyers cut their losses and liquidate. In 1994, Buyers made a last-ditch effort to keep the mill running. But it required all workers to take drastic pay cuts; most would have had to accept minimum wage. The workers refused. That sealed the fate of the sugar legacy in Pahala. The last sugarcane was hauled and processed at the mill. Over the next two years the mill was dismantled and sold as parts to other manufacturing plants around the world. The sugarcane plantation and mill shut down in April 1996.

Many who lived and worked in Pahala moved on to other jobs around the island. Some took jobs in the hotel industry. Some commute up to five hours a day to and from jobs at resorts along the Kohala coast. Some moved to Maui and Kauaʻi and worked at sugarcane plantations there. Others moved to the mainland to try a fresh start. Many old timers that have generations of family ties to Pahala had passed on. Many in the younger generation have chosen not to return.

Still, there are those that have found their roots and figured out a way to remain in Pahala. In fact, unlike many other places where the larger plantation homes were purchased by outsiders coming to live in Hawaiʻi, the manager homes in Pahala were mostly purchased by local people who have stepped up to the new economy and have such jobs as doctor, bakery manager, fisherman, policeman, painting contractor and other jobs important to the community. Some new people have also moved in, restored the historic homes and established their roots, and now call Pahala home.

There has also been a movement to preserve the shoreline near Pahala, called the Kaʻu Coast, which is the longest uninhabited coast in Hawaii. Its 80 miles (130 km) now include 235 acres (95 ha) of oceanfront park, for which the community raised more than $4 million to purchase and set aside forever. Another 750 acres (300 ha) along the coast called Kawa is likely to be preserved. Inland, more than 115,000 acres (470 km2) have been added to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which now circles Pahala in the mountains above the village.

Economy

Pahala's main industries include one of the world's largest macadamia nut growing orchards, cattle and horse ranching, small independent Ka`u Coffee farms, and the Ka`u Coffee Mill & Visitor Center. Kaʻu Coffee has won many international coffee tasting competitions.

A former sugar plantation town, Pahala is the district hub for education and health services, including a pharmacy, hospital, clinic, preschool and public school as well as a library.

Plantation houses, from small cottages to large homes and the former plantation manager's manor, have been restored around the village, serving local families and visitors to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Punalu`u Black Sand Beach. The village has a post office, swimming pool, two food stores, fire station and gas station. Fisherman sell their catch and farmers sell their produce on the roadside in the village. There is a Catholic, an Assembly of God, and a Baptist church, as well as a Buddhist Hoangwanji and a Tibetan Buddhist temple up the mountain in Wood Valley.

The Ka'u District's regional newspaper – the Ka`u Calendar – with offices in Pahala, is online daily and printed monthly.

Pahala hosts the annual Ka`u Coffee Festival and Ka`u Coffee Trail Run, Science Camps of America for teenagers each summer, and many family reunions and weddings, as well as NGO, company, music and dance retreats.

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 1,378 people, 443 households, and 334 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,635.9 people per square mile (633.4/km²). There were 487 housing units at an average density of 578.1 per square mile (223.8/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 8.78% White, 0.07% Native American, 47.68% Asian, 10.45% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, and 32.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.31% of the population.

There were 443 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.6% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.08 and the average family size was 3.51.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,243, and the median income for a family was $31,548. Males had a median income of $25,375 versus $21,023 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $11,450. About 17.9% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.8% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over.

See also

References

  1. ^ Soehren, Lloyd. "Hawaiian Place Names – Pahala". Hawaiian Place Names. Ulukau. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
  2. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Pahala CDP, Hawaii". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.

External links

1993 Pacific hurricane season

The 1993 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly above-average Pacific hurricane season with seven named storms directly impacting land. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, over a month after the traditional start of the season. The final named storm of the season, Tropical Storm Norma, dissipated on October 14. The Central Pacific Ocean saw very little tropical activity, with only one cyclone, Hurricane Keoni, developing in that particular region. However, many storms out of the season crossed the threshold into the Central Pacific, many as hurricanes, and even major hurricanes.

The season produced fifteen named storms, which was slightly below the average of sixteen named storms per season. However, the total of eleven hurricanes during the season was slightly above average, and the total of nine major hurricanes was significantly higher than the average of three. The deadliest storm was Hurricane Calvin, which killed 37 people in Mexico.

2014 Pacific hurricane season

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was the fifth-busiest season since reliable records began in 1949, alongside the 2016 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin.

Entering the season, expectations of tropical activity were high, with most weather agencies predicting a near or above average season. The season began with an active start, with three tropical cyclones developing before June 15, including two Category 4 hurricanes, of which one became the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in May in the East Pacific. After a less active period in late June and early July, activity once again picked up in late July. Activity increased in August, which featured four major hurricanes, and persisted throughout September and October. However, activity finally waned by early November. Overall, the 22 tropical storms marked the highest total in 22 years. In addition, a record-tying 16 hurricanes developed. Furthermore, there were total of nine major hurricanes, Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, including a then-record-tying eight in Eastern Pacific proper (east of 140°W).

The active season resulted in numerous records and highlights. First, Hurricane Amanda was the strongest May hurricane and earliest Category 4 on record. A month later, Hurricane Cristina became the earliest second major hurricane, although it was surpassed by Hurricane Blanca the following year. In August, Hurricane Iselle became the strongest tropical cyclone on record to strike the Big Island of Hawaii while Hurricane Marie was the first Category 5 hurricane since 2010. The following month, Hurricane Odile became the most destructive tropical cyclone of the season and the most intense and destructive tropical cyclone to make landfall over the Baja California peninsula. Damage across the basin reached $1.52 billion (2014 USD), while 49 people were killed by the various storms.

KAHU

Kahu or KAHU may refer to:

KAHU (FM), a radio station (91.3 FM) licensed to serve Pahala, Hawaii, United States

KIPA (AM), a radio station (1060 AM) licensed to serve Hilo, Hawaii, which held the call sign KAHU from 1984 to 2003

HMNZS Kahu (A04), a Moa class inshore patrol vessel of the Royal New Zealand Navy

HMNZS Kahu (P3571), a Fairmile B motor launch of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Project Kahu, a major upgrade for the A-4 Skyhawk fighter jet

Swamp harrier, a large, slim bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, also known as the kāhu

KAHU (FM)

KAHU is a Hawaii Public Radio station on 91.3 MHz FM. It is licensed to Pahala, Hawaii, on the island of Hawaiʻi.

KPHL

KPHL (90.5 FM) is a non-commercial educational radio station licensed to serve Pahala, Hawaii. The station is owned by Vineyard Christian Fellowship of Honolulu, Inc. It airs a religious broadcasting format.

The station was assigned the KPHL call letters by the Federal Communications Commission on February 13, 2003.

Kau High and Pahala Elementary School

Ka'u High & Pahala Elementary School is a public, co-educational high school, middle school and elementary school of the Hawaii State Department of Education. It serves kindergarten through twelfth grade and was established in 1881. It was the first high school established on the Big Island of Hawaii and the third public high school established in Hawaii, after Lahainaluna High School on Maui and President William McKinley High School, formerly Honolulu High School, on Oahu. The high school was established after the 1876 opening of the Hawaiian Agricultural Company (a predecessor of the Ka'u Sugar Company), at the time one of the largest most remote sugarcane plantations in the Kingdom of Hawaii. The plantation employed a large number of immigrants who wanted their children to have a high school education; Honokaa High & Intermediate School was established on the north end of the island eight years later for similar reasons.

List of FM radio stations in the United States by call sign (initial letters KA–KC)

This is a list of FM radio stations in the United States having call signs beginning with the letters KA through KC.

List of Hawaii locations by per capita income

Hawaii has the eighteenth highest per capita income in the United States of America, at $21,525 (2000). Its personal per capita income is $46,034 (2014). The information is represented in the table below.

List of Hawaii tornadoes

The islands of Hawaii, situated in the Pacific Ocean, rarely experience tornadoes, averaging about one per year. The state ranks as the 48th most active in terms of touch downs, with 40 confirmed tornadoes since 1950. None of these tornadoes have caused loss of life and none exceeded F2 intensity. This list of tornadoes in the state is likely incomplete, as official records date back only to 1950 for tornadoes in the United States, and Hawaii did not become a state until August 1959.The most costly tornado occurred on January 28, 1971. Although the intensity of it is unknown, damages from the tornado were estimated at $2.5 million. The largest outbreak of tornadoes took place during a two-day span, starting on January 27, 1971 and ending the following day. During this event, three tornadoes were confirmed and two others were reported.

List of parishes of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu comprises nine vicariates forane consisting of its member parishes.

Puna-Kau Historic District

The Puna-Kāʻu Historic District is an archaeological district located on the Puna-Kāʻu coastline in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The district includes over 300 sites occupied by Polynesians from the 13th through 19th centuries. Eleven of the sites within the district are considered exceptionally significant to modern understanding of native Hawaiian culture and have been the focus of most archaeological research in the area. Five of these sites are villages, at Poupou-Kauka, Kailiili, Kamoamoa, Laeʻapuki, Keahou Landing; these village sites provide insight into the agricultural and social practices of the Polynesians. The Puna-Kāʻu coastal trail, another one of the significant sites, connected these villages and provided a link to communities in the mountains. The remaining sites include the Wahaulu Heiau temple, the Puuloa petroglyph site, a pulu factory, and two shelter sites used by fishermen and opihi pickers.The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 1, 1974. In addition, the Historic Hawaii Foundation created a list of historic places, including the Puna-Kāʻu Historic District, as a service to preserve the Hawaiian people's history and culture.

Satoru Abe

Satoru Abe (born 13 June 1926) is a Japanese American sculptor and painter.

Tony Robello

Thomas Vardasco "Tony" Robello (February 9, 1913 – December 25, 1994) was a Major League Baseball second baseman who played with the Cincinnati Reds in 1933 and 1934.

Climate data for Pahala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 93
(34)
90
(32)
93
(34)
100
(38)
93
(34)
89
(32)
92
(33)
92
(33)
90
(32)
90
(32)
90
(32)
91
(33)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 78
(26)
78
(26)
78
(26)
78
(26)
79
(26)
80
(27)
81
(27)
82
(28)
82
(28)
81
(27)
80
(27)
78
(26)
80
(27)
Average low °F (°C) 63
(17)
62
(17)
63
(17)
64
(18)
65
(18)
67
(19)
67
(19)
68
(20)
68
(20)
67
(19)
66
(19)
67
(19)
66
(19)
Record low °F (°C) 50
(10)
52
(11)
50
(10)
50
(10)
51
(11)
54
(12)
52
(11)
59
(15)
56
(13)
58
(14)
55
(13)
48
(9)
48
(9)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 5.37
(136)
4.22
(107)
4.11
(104)
3.19
(81)
2.38
(60)
1.87
(47)
3.57
(91)
3.28
(83)
4.04
(103)
4.67
(119)
6.53
(166)
5.64
(143)
48.87
(1,240)
Average precipitation days 12 11 13 12 10 7 7 8 9 11 11 11 122
Islands, municipalities, and communities of Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States
CDPs
Unincorporated
communities
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