Pager

A pager (also known as a beeper) is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can also acknowledge, reply to, and originate messages using an internal transmitter.[1]

Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters (or in the case of response pagers and two-way pagers, one or more base stations), as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users. These systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations.

Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, and became widely used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cellphones and smartphones has greatly diminished the pager industry. Nevertheless, pagers continue to be used by some emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disasters.[2] This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging.[3][4]

The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of remaining pagers in 2017 (130,000),[5] with an annual cost of £6.6 million.[6] Matt Hancock announced in February 2019 that the 130,000 pagers still in use were to be phased out.[7]

Pager teletrim
A Motorola Advisor alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s, operated by Teletrim

History

Alphadual
A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units
Skyper-stardado
A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio
Motorolaradiobeeper
Original Motorola "Pageboy II" pager, used in New York in the late 1970s.

The first telephone pager system was patented in 1949 by Alfred J. Gross.[8]

One of the first practical paging services was launched in 1950 for physicians in the New York City area. Physicians paid $12 per month for the service and carried a 200-gram (7 oz) pager that would receive phone messages within 40 kilometres (25 mi) of a single transmitter tower. The system was manufactured by the Reevesound Company and operated by Telanswerphone.[9] In 1960, John Francis Mitchell combined elements of Motorola's walkie-talkie and automobile radio technologies to create the first transistorized pager,[10][11][12] and from that time, paging technology continued to advance, and pager adoption among emergency personnel is still popular, as of July 2016.[13]

In 1962 the Bell System—the U.S. telephone monopoly colloquially known as "Ma Bell"—presented its Bellboy radio paging system at the Seattle World's Fair. Bellboy was the first commercial system for personal paging. It also marked one of the first consumer applications of the transistor (invented by Bell Labs in 1947), for which three Bell Labs inventors received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Solid-state circuitry enabled the Bellboy pager, about the size of a small TV remote device, to fit into a customer's pocket or purse, quite a feat at that time. The Bellboy was a terminal that notified the user when someone was trying to call them. When the person received an audible signal (a buzz) on the pager, he found a telephone and called the service centre, which informed him of the caller's message. Bell System Bellboy radio pagers each used three reed receiver relays, each relay tuned to one of 33 different frequencies, selectively ringing a particular customer when all three relays were activated at the same time—a precursor of DTMF.[14] The ReFLEX protocol was developed in the mid-1990s.

While Motorola announced the end of its new pager manufacturing in 2001,[15] pagers remained in use in large hospital complexes.[5] Another is a facility handling classified information, where various radio transmitter or data storage devices are excluded to ensure security. First responders in rural areas with inadequate cellular coverage are often issued pagers.

The 2005 London bombings resulted in overload of TETRA systems by the emergency services, and showed that pagers, with their absence of necessity to transmit an acknowledgement before showing the message, and the related capability to operate on very low signal levels, are not completely outclassed by their successors.[16] Volunteer firefighters, EMS paramedics, and rescue squad members usually carry pagers to alert them of emergency call outs for their department. These pagers receive a special tone from a fire department radio frequency.

Restaurant pagers were in wide use in the 2000s. Customers were given a portable receiver that usually vibrates, flashes, or beeps when a table becomes free or when their meal is ready.[17] Pagers have been popular with birdwatchers in Britain and Ireland since 1991, with companies Rare Bird Alert and Birdnet Information offering news of rare birds sent to pagers that they sell.[18][19]

The U.S. paging industry generated $2.1 billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.[20] In Canada, 161,500 Canadians paid $18.5 million for pager service in 2013. Telus, one of the three major mobile carriers, announced the end to its Canadian pager service as of March 31, 2015, but rivals Bell, Rogers and PageNet intend to continue service.[15]

Design

Timex Datalink Beepwear Pro
Timex Datalink Beepwear Pro: a wearable pager/watch featuring alphanumeric paging capability. Part of the Timex Datalink family of watches

Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email. This is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email; but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, and are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel.

Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, GOLAY, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone. In the United States, pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power, resulting in a much wider coverage area per tower than a mobile phone transmitter, which typically radiates around 0.6 watts per channel. Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks, commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs.

Unlike mobile phones, most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters, one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. Because of this, if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted, the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact. In the mid-1990s, some paging companies began offering a service, which allowed a customer to call their pager-number, and have numeric messages read back to them. This was useful for times when the pager was off or out of the coverage area, as it would know what pages were sent to the subscriber even if he never actually received the page. Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band, the VHF band, and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). Other paging protocols used in the VHF, 400 MHz UHF, and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier, called the Subsidiary Communications Authority, of a broadcast station. On-site paging systems in hospitals, unlike wide area paging systems, are local area services. Hospitals commonly use on-site paging for communication with staff and increasingly for contacting waiting patients when their appointment is due. These offer waiting patients the opportunity to leave the waiting area, but still be contacted.

Operation

NumericPager
The top of a Motorola "Bravo" numeric pager

Paging systems are operated by commercial carriers, often as a subscription service, and they are also operated directly by end users as private systems. Commercial carrier systems tend to cover a larger geographical area than private systems, while private systems tend to cover their limited area more thoroughly and deliver messages faster than commercial systems. In all systems, clients send messages to pagers, an activity commonly referred to as paging. System operators often assign unique phone numbers or email addresses to pagers (and pre-defined groups of pagers), enabling clients to page by telephone call, e-mail, and SMS. Paging systems also support various types of direct connection protocols, which sacrifice global addressing and accessibility for a dedicated communications link. Automated monitoring and escalation software clients, often used in hospitals, IT departments, and alarm companies, tend to prefer direct connections because of the increased reliability. Small paging systems, such as those used in restaurant and retail establishments, often integrate a keyboard and paging system into a single box, reducing both cost and complexity.

Paging systems support several popular direct connection protocols, including TAP, TNPP, SNPP, and WCTP, as well as proprietary modem- and socket-based protocols. Additionally, organizations often integrate paging systems with their Voice-mail and PBX systems, conceptually attaching pagers to a telephone extensions, and they set up web portals to integrate pagers into other parts of their enterprise. A paging system alerts a pager (or group of pagers) by transmitting information over an RF channel, including an address and message information. This information is formatted using a paging protocol, such as 2-tone, 5/6-tone, GOLAY, POCSAG, FLEX, ERMES, or NTT. Two-way pagers and response pagers typically use the ReFLEX protocol.

Modern paging systems typically use multiple base transmitters to modulate the same signal on the same RF channel, a design approach called simulcast. This type of design enables pagers to select the strongest signal from several candidate transmitters using FM capture, thereby improving overall system performance. Simulcast systems often use satellite to distribute identical information to multiple transmitters, and GPS at each transmitter to precisely time its modulation relative to other transmitters. The coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disaster.[2] This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging.[3][4]

Categories

Pagers themselves vary from very cheap and simple beepers, to more complex personal communications equipment, falling into eight main categories.

Beepers or tone-only pagers
Beepers or tone-only pagers are the simplest and least expensive form of paging. They were named beepers because they originally made a beeping noise, but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. Some use audio signals, others light up and some vibrate, often used in combination. The majority of restaurant pagers fall into this category.[17]
Voice/tone
Voice/Tone pagers enable pager users to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is received.
Numeric
Numeric Pagers contain a numeric LCD display capable of displaying the calling phone number or other numeric information generally up to 10 digits. The display can also convey pager codes, a set of number codes corresponding to mutually understood pre-defined messages.
Alphanumeric
Alphanumeric pagers contain a more sophisticated LCD capable of displaying text and icons. These devices receive text messages, often through email or direct connection to the paging system. The sender must enter a message, either numeric and push # or, text & push # or a verbal message. The pager does not automatically record the sender's number; the pager will beep but no message can be seen or heard if none has been entered.
Response
Response pagers are alphanumeric pagers equipped with built-in transmitters, with the ability to acknowledge/confirm messages. They also allow the user to reply to messages by way of a multiple-choice response list, and to initiate "canned" messages from pre-programmed address and message lists. These devices are sometimes called "1.5-way pagers" or "1.7-way pagers" depending on capabilities.
Two-way
Two-way pagers are response pagers with built-in QWERTY keyboards. These pagers allow the user to reply to messages, originate messages, and forward messages using free-form text as well as "canned" responses.
One-way modems
One-way modems are controllers with integrated paging receivers, which are capable of taking local action based on messages and data they receive.
Two-way modems
Two-way modems have capabilities similar to one-way modems. They can also confirm messages and transmit their own messages and data.

Security

Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station), its location cannot be tracked. However, this can also be disadvantageous, as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. Thus, if a pager has nationwide service, a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area.

In popular culture

As is the case with many new technologies, the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life.[21]:175 During the rise of the pager, it became the subject of various forms of media; most notably in the 1990s hip-hop scene. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube, Method Man, and A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies, in particular the pager. A Tribe Called Quest's single "Skypager" directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication device. "Q-Tip" conveys that the Skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young professional with a full calendar".[21] Three 6 Mafia's "2-Way Freak", Sir Mix-A-Lot's "Beepers" and "Bug a Boo" from Destiny's Child also make reference to pagers. These references relate directly to illicit drug trade. Illicit drug dealers used pagers to great effect during the 1990s to conduct commerce, using them to arrange meetings with buyers. Associate superintendent for Dade County Public Schools in Florida James Fleming once called them "the most dominant symbol of the drug trade" and schools have previously forbidden students from carrying them because of the ease with which they could be "used to arrange illegal drug sales".[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ "What is pager? - Definition". WhatIs.com.
  2. ^ a b Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks (12 June 2006). "Report and Recommendations to the Federal Communications Commission" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. p. 24. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b London Ambulance Service - Pager and SMS Procedure Section 3.0. March 2007.
  4. ^ a b NFPA 1221: Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems, 2002 edition, at 1221-23 section 8.4.2.1
  5. ^ a b "Old technology: NHS uses 10% of world's pagers at annual cost of £6.6m". The Guardian. London. 9 September 2017.
  6. ^ "NHS still reliant on 'archaic' fax machines". BBC News. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  7. ^ "NHS told to ditch 'outdated' pagers". BBC. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  8. ^ "When Pagers and Beepers Were All the Rage". thoughtco.com.
  9. ^ Corporation, Bonnier (1 January 1951). "Popular Science". Bonnier Corporation – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "John F. Mitchell Biography". brophy.net.
  11. ^ "The Top Giants in Telephony". historyofthecellphone.com.
  12. ^ "Who invented the cell phone?". brophy.net.
  13. ^ Use of Pagers in Crisis Situations (Archive)
  14. ^ Keller, A. C. (1964), Recent Developments in Bell System Relays -- Particularly Sealed Contact and Miniature Relays (PDF), The Bell System Technical Journal
  15. ^ a b "Why the pager isn't dead yet".
  16. ^ "London Ambulance Service - Response to London Assembly 7 July Review Committee report". londonambulance.nhs.uk.
  17. ^ a b Tyson, Jeff, How Restaurant Pagers Work, retrieved 17 January 2010
  18. ^ "Rare Bird Alert — Upgrade to the X3 Pager Today".
  19. ^ "BirdNet Pager".
  20. ^ AnythingResearch.com report on Paging Industry market size 2003 and 2008 research data used with permission
  21. ^ a b Heckman, Davin (2006). ""Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?": Telecommunications, African-Americans, and Popular Culture". In Anandam P. Kavoori; Noah Arceneaux (eds.). The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation. Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8204-7919-4.
  22. ^ Sims, Calvin (25 September 1988). "Schools Responding to Beeper, Tool of Today's Drug Dealer, by Banning It". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2014.

External links

Antal Páger (actor)

Antal Páger (29 January 1899 – 14 December 1986) was a Hungarian film actor. He appeared in 155 films between 1932 and 1986. He won the award for Best Actor at the 1964 Cannes Film Festival for his role in Drama of the Lark.

Antal Páger (canoeist)

Antal Páger is a Hungarian sprint canoer who competed in the mid-1990s. He won a gold medal in the K-4 200 m event at the 1995 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Duisburg.

Area code 917

Area code 917 is an area code for all five boroughs of New York City (The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island). It was the first cellular/pager/voicemail area code for the city and is an overlay to Manhattan's 212/646/332 and the other four boroughs' 718/347/929. Occasionally, 917 is also assigned to landlines, most commonly in Manhattan, in large part because of the particularly severe shortage of numbers there.Introduced on February 4, 1992, area code 917 is the first overlay area code in the North American Numbering Plan. When it was established, all cellphones in New York City were switched to 917, freeing up telephone numbers for additional landlines.Shortly after its implementation, the Federal Communications Commission announced that any new area codes going forth must not be service-specific, but did grandfather 917 from that rule. It is the last area code added under the original X1X format whose last digit was not 0.In 1990, The New York Telephone Company wanted cellphones and pagers in Manhattan and all telephone lines in The Bronx to be assigned area code 917. The New York State Public Service Commission denied the request and chose the present configuration.

Ginger (comics)

Ginger was a British comic strip series, introduced in the first issue of The Beezer in 1956. The character was the magazine's cover star until 1961, after which Pop, Dick and Harry took over the cover for a few years afterwards, but Ginger returned to the front cover in 1964.Ginger was a gag-a-day comic strip about a young boy. A typical gag was a one- or two-pager. He was originally created by Dudley D. Watkins, who drew the strip until his death in 1969. Bob McGrath then took over, drawing it until 1985, when he in turn was succeeded by Jimmy Glen, who drew the strip until the Beezer merged with the Topper. In the later Beezer annuals, he was drawn by Nick Brennan. The character was last seen on the covers of D.C. Thomson's monthly Classics from the Comics, issue # 134 (May 2007) and issue #141 (January 2008), in brand new artwork by Ken H. Harrison.

Less (Unix)

less is a terminal pager program on Unix, Windows, and Unix-like systems used to view (but not change) the contents of a text file one screen at a time. It is similar to more, but has the extended capability of allowing both forward and backward navigation through the file. Unlike most Unix text editors/viewers, less does not need to read the entire file before starting, resulting in faster load times with large files.

More (command)

In computing, more is a command to view (but not modify) the contents of a text file one screen at a time.

It is available on Unix and Unix-like systems, DOS, FlexOS, 4690 OS, OS/2, Microsoft Windows and ReactOS. Programs of this sort are called pagers. more is a very basic pager, originally allowing only forward navigation through a file, though newer implementations do allow for limited backward movement.

Pager River

The Pager River is a river of Uganda in eastern Africa. It flows through the northern part of the country and joins the Achwa River.

Phantom vibration syndrome

Phantom vibration syndrome or phantom ringing syndrome is the perception that one's mobile phone is vibrating or ringing when it is not ringing. Other terms for this concept include ringxiety (a portmanteau of ring and anxiety), fauxcellarm (a portmanteau of "faux" /fō/ meaning "fake" or "false" and "cellphone" and "alarm" pronounced similarly to "false alarm") and phonetom (a portmanteau of phone and phantom). According to Dr. Michael Rothberg, the term is not a syndrome, but is better characterised as a tactile hallucination since the brain perceives a sensation that is not actually present. WebMD published an article on phantom vibration syndrome with Rothberg as a source. Several other articles have been published recently, including in NPR, Bustle, CBS News, and Psychology Today. Phantom ringing may be experienced while taking a shower, watching television, or using a noisy device. Humans are particularly sensitive to auditory tones between 1,000 and 6,000 hertz, and basic mobile phone ringtones often fall within this range. Phantom vibrations develop after carrying a cell phone set to use vibrating alerts. Researcher Michelle Drouin found that almost 9 of 10 undergraduates at her college experienced phantom vibrations.

Quiet Internet Pager

QIP (; an acronym for Quiet Internet Pager) is a multiprotocol instant messaging client. It is a closed source freeware program originally developed by Ilgam Zyulkorneev. In 2008 it was bought by RosBusinessConsulting media group and named most popular RBC service in 2009.

RIM-900

The RIM-900 was one of the first wireless data devices, marketed as a two-way pager. It operated on the Mobitex network. It was a clam shell device that could fit on your belt. It had a small QWERTY keyboard for sending and receiving email and interactive messages.

The product was introduced as Inter@ctive Paging in 1996 by Research in Motion and RAM Mobile Data.

Satish Kaushik

Satish Kaushik (Hindi: सतीश कौशिक) is an Indian film director, producer, and actor, primarily in Hindi films and theatre.

As a film actor, he is noted for his roles as "Calendar" in Mr. India,, as Pappu Pager in Deewana Mastana, and as "Chanu Ahmed" in Sarah Gavron's British film Brick Lane (2007). He won the Filmfare Best Comedian Award twice: in 1990 for Ram Lakhan and in 1997 for Saajan Chale Sasural.

As a theatre actor, his most noted role was that of "Willy Loman" in the Hindi-language play, Salesman Ramlal, an adaptation of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman.He wrote dialogues for Kundan Shah's comedy classic Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron (1983).

His film Teree Sang, starring Ruslaan Mumtaz and Sheena Shahabadi, explores issues of teen pregnancy.

Telephone numbers in Malta

Malta adopted a new telephone numbering plan in 2001–2002, in which telephone numbers were expanded to eight digits for fixed line and mobile numbers. Previously, fixed line numbers were six digits, while mobile, mailbox and pager services were seven digits long.

The Bake Sale

The Bake Sale is the critically acclaimed EP by American hip hop duo The Cool Kids.

The Pager

"The Pager" is the fifth episode of the first season of the HBO original series, The Wire. The episode was written by Ed Burns from a story by David Simon & Ed Burns and was directed by Clark Johnson. It originally aired on June 30, 2002.

Tijuana bible

Tijuana bibles (also known as eight-pagers, Tillie-and-Mac books, Jiggs-and-Maggie books, jo-jo books, bluesies, blue-bibles, gray-backs, and two-by-fours) were palm-sized pornographic comic books produced in the United States from the 1920s to the early 1960s. Their popularity peaked during the Great Depression era.

Most Tijuana bibles were obscene parodies of popular newspaper comic strips of the day, such as "Blondie", "Barney Google", "Moon Mullins", "Popeye", "Tillie the Toiler", "The Katzenjammer Kids", "Dick Tracy", "Little Orphan Annie", and "Bringing Up Father". Others made use of characters based on popular movie stars, and sports stars of the day, such as Mae West, Clark Gable and Joe Louis, sometimes with names thinly changed. Before World War II, almost all the stories were humorous and frequently were cartoon versions of well-known dirty jokes that had been making the rounds for decades.

The artists, writers, and publishers of these booklets are generally unknown, as their publication was illegal, clandestine, and anonymous. The quality of the artwork varied widely. The subjects are explicit sexual escapades usually featuring well-known newspaper comic strip characters, movie stars, and (rarely) political figures, invariably used without respect for either copyright or libel law and without permission. Tijuana bibles repeated the ethnic stereotypes found in popular culture at the time, although one Tijuana bible ("You Nazi Man") concluded on a serious note with a brief message from the publisher pleading for greater tolerance in Germany for the Jews.The typical bible was an eight-panel comic strip in a wallet-sized 2.5 in × 4 in (64 mm × 102 mm) with black print on cheap white paper and running eight pages in length.

Virtual desktop

In computing, a virtual desktop is a term used with respect to user interfaces, usually within the WIMP paradigm, to describe ways in which the virtual space of a computer's desktop environment is expanded beyond the physical limits of the screen's display area through the use of software. This compensates for a limited desktop area and can also be helpful in reducing clutter. There are two major approaches to expanding the virtual area of the screen. Switchable virtual desktops allow the user to make virtual copies of their desktop view-port and switch between them, with open windows existing on single virtual desktops. Another approach is to expand the size of a single virtual screen beyond the size of the physical viewing device. Typically, scrolling/panning a subsection of the virtual desktop into view is used to navigate an oversized virtual desktop.

W3m

w3m is a free software/open source text-based web browser and terminal pager. It has support for tables, frames, SSL connections, color and inline images on suitable terminals. Generally, it renders pages in a form as true to their original layout as possible.

The name "w3m" stands for "WWW o miru (WWWを見る)", which is Japanese for "to see the WWW" where W3 is a numeronym of WWW.

The original project appears to be inactive, while a currently maintained version exists and is packaged in various GNU/Linux distributions such as Debian and Fedora. This version is available from the repository of Debian developer Tatsuya Kinoshita.

Yahoo! Messenger

Yahoo! Messenger (sometimes abbreviated Y!M) was an advertisement-supported instant messaging client and associated protocol provided by Yahoo!. Yahoo Messenger was provided free of charge and could be downloaded and used with a generic "Yahoo ID" which also allowed access to other Yahoo! services, such as Yahoo! Mail. The service also offered VoIP, file transfers, webcam hosting, a text messaging service, and chat rooms in various categories.

Yahoo! Messenger dates back to Yahoo! Chat, which was a public chat room service. The actual client, originally called Yahoo! Pager, launched on March 9, 1998 and renamed to Yahoo! Messenger in 1999. The chat room service shut down in 2012.In addition to instant messaging features similar to those offered by ICQ, it also offered (on Microsoft Windows) features such as: IMVironments (customizing the look of Instant Message windows, some of which include authorized themes of various cartoons such as Garfield or Dilbert), address-book integration and Custom Status Messages. It was also the first major IM client to feature BUZZing and music-status.

A new Yahoo Messenger was released in 2015, replacing the older one. Yahoo Messenger was shut down entirely on July 17, 2018, partially replaced by a new service titled Yahoo Together.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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