Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava[note 1] (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Buddhist master from the Indian subcontinent. Although there was a historical Padmasambhava, little is known of him apart from helping the construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of Trisong Detsen,[1] and shortly thereafter leaving Tibet due to court intrigues.[2]

A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava's life and deeds, and he is widely venerated as a "second Buddha" by adherents of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Himalayan states of India, and elsewhere.[3][4]

In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a character of a genre of literature called terma,[2] an emanation of Amitābha that is said to appear to tertöns in visionary encounters and a focus of guru yoga practice, particularly in the Rimé schools. The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a founder of their tradition.[5]

Padmasambhava, Pema Jugne
Guru Rinpoche in mist 2
Statue of Padmasambhava 123 ft. (37.5 m) high in mist overlooking Rewalsar Lake, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Ecclesiastical career
ReligionTibetan Buddhism

Historical sources

One of the earliest sources for Padmasambhava as a historical figure is the Testament of Ba (dating to the 9th or 10th centuries), which records the founding of Samye Monastery under the reign of king Trisong Detsen (r. 755–797/804).[6] Other texts from Dunhuang show that Padmasambhava's tantric teachings were being taught in Tibet during the 10th century. New evidence suggests that Padmasambhava already figured in religious myth and ritual, and was probably even seen as the enlightened source of tantric scriptures, as many as two hundred years before Nyangrel Nyima Özer (1136-1204).[7]

Mythos

Sources

Nyangrel Nyima Özer (1136-1204) was the principal architect of the Padmasambhava mythos according to Janet Gyatso.[8] Guru Chöwang (1212–1270) was the next major contributor to the mythos.[8]

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries there were several competing terma traditions surrounding Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra, Songtsän Gampo, and Vairotsana.[9] At the end of the 12th century, there was the "victory of the Padmasambhava cult,"[10] in which a much greater role is assigned to Padmasambhava in the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet.[11]

Early years

Birth

According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana.[12] While some scholars locate this kingdom in the Swat Valley area of modern-day Pakistan, a case on literary, archaeological, and iconographical grounds can be made for placing it in the present-day state of Odisha in India.[13] Padmasambhava's special nature was recognized by the childless local king of Oḍḍiyāna and was chosen to take over the kingdom, but he left Oddiyana for northern parts of India.[14][15]

Tantra in India and Nepal

Shrine to Mandarava in cave above Lake Rewalsar
Statue of Princess Mandarava at Rewalsar Lake.

In Rewalsar, known as Tso Pema in Tibetan, he secretly taught tantric teachings to princess Mandarava, the local king's daughter. The king found out and tried to burn him, but it is believed that when the smoke cleared he just sat there, still alive and in meditation. Greatly astonished by this miracle, the king offered Padmasambhava both his kingdom and Mandarava.[16]

Padmasambhava left with Mandarava, and took to Maratika Cave[17] in Nepal to practice secret tantric consort rituals. They had a vision of buddha Amitāyus and achieved what is called the "phowa rainbow body,"[note 2] a very rare type of spiritual realization. [note 3] Both Padmasambhava and one of his consorts, Mandarava, are still believed to be alive and active in this rainbow body form by their followers. She and Padmasambhava's other main consort, Yeshe Tsogyal, who reputedly hid his numerous termas in Tibet for later discovery, reached Buddhahood. Many thangkas and paintings show Padmasambhava in between them, with Mandarava on his right and Yeshe Tsogyal on his left.[18]

Tibet

Subjection of local religions

According to Sam van Schaik, from the 12th century on a greater role was assigned to Padmasambhava in the introduction of tantric Buddhism into Tibet:

According to earlier histories, Padmasambhava had given some tantric teachings to Tibetans before being forced to leave due to the suspicions of the Tibetan court. But from the twelfth century an alternative story, itself a terma discovery, gave Padmasambhava a much greater role in the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, and in particular credited him with travelling all over the country to convert the local spirits to Buddhism.[11]

According to this enlarged story, King Trisong Detsen, the 38th king of the Yarlung dynasty and the first Emperor of Tibet (742–797), invited the Nalanda University abbot Śāntarakṣita (Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet.[19] Śāntarakṣita started the building of Samye.[19] Demonical forces hindered the introduction of the Buddhist dharma, and Padmasambhava was invited to Tibet to subdue the demonic forces.[20] The demons were not annihilated, but were obliged to submit to the dharma.[21][note 4] This was in accordance with the tantric principle of not eliminating negative forces but redirecting them to fuel the journey toward spiritual awakening. According to tradition, Padmasambhava received the Emperor's wife, identified with the dakini Yeshe Tsogyal, as a consort.[23]

Translations

Padmasambhava, budha amithayuh statues, bailakkuppa
Statues of Padmasambhava, Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling Monastery.

King Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist Dharma Texts into Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Shantarakṣita, 108 translators, and 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project. The translations from this period formed the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on the Sutra-teachings.

Nyingma

Padmasambhava introduced the people of Tibet to the practice of Tantric Buddhism.[21][24]

He is regarded as the founder of the Nyingma tradition. The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.[note 5] The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to Padmasambhava.

"Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as "Nga'gyur" "[note 6] or the "early translation school" because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan, in the eighth century.[note 7]

The group particularly believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations,[25] though Padmasambhava is regarded as the founder of Samye Gompa, the first monastery in the country.[26] In modern times the Nyingma lineage has been centered in Kham in eastern Tibet.

Bhutan

Bhutan has many important pilgrimage places associated with Padmasambhava. The most famous is Paro Taktsang or "Tiger's Nest" monastery which is built on a sheer cliff wall about 900m above the floor of Paro valley. It was built around the Taktsang Senge Samdup (stag tshang seng ge bsam grub) cave where he is said to have meditated in the 8th Century. He flew there from Tibet on the back of Yeshe Tsogyal, whom he transformed into a flying tigress for the purpose of the trip. Later he travelled to Bumthang district to subdue a powerful deity offended by a local king. According to legend, Padmasambhava's body imprint can be found in the wall of a cave at nearby Kurje Lhakhang temple.

Iconography, manifestations and attributes

Iconography

Paro Padmasambhava
Wall painting at Paro Bridge, Bhutan, of Padmasambhava.

General

  • He has one face and two hands.[27][28]
  • He is wrathful and smiling.[27]
  • He blazes magnificently with the splendour of the major and minor marks.[27]

Head

  • On his head he wears a five-petalled lotus hat,[27][29] which has
    • Three points symbolizing the three kayas,
    • Five colours symbolizing the five kayas,
    • A sun and moon symbolizing skilful means and wisdom,
    • A vajra top to symbolize unshakable samadhi,
    • A vulture's feather to represent the realization of the highest view.[28]
  • His two eyes are wide open in a piercing gaze.[27]
  • He has the youthful appearance of an eight-year-old child.[28]

Skin

  • His complexion is white with a tinge of red.[28]

Dress

  • On his body he wears a white vajra undergarment. On top of this, in layers, a red robe, a dark blue mantrayana tunic, a red monastic shawl decorated with a golden flower pattern, and a maroon cloak of silk brocade.[27]
  • On his body he wears a silk cloak, Dharma robes and gown.[29]
  • He is wearing the dark blue gown of a mantra practitioner, the red and yellow shawl of a monk, the maroon cloak of a king, and the red robe and secret white garments of a bodhisattva.[28]

Hands

  • In his right hand, he holds a five-pronged vajra at his heart.[27][28][29]
  • His left hand rests in the gesture of equanimity,[27]
  • In his left hand he holds a skull-cup brimming with nectar, containing the vase of longevity that is also filled with the nectar of deathless wisdom[27][28] and ornamented on top by a wish-fulfilling tree.[29]

Khatvanga

The khaṭvāńga is a particular divine attribute of Padmasambhava and intrinsic to his iconographic representation. It is a danda with three severed heads denoting the three kayas (the three bodies of a Buddha, the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya), crowned by a trishula, and dressed with a sash of the Himalayan Rainbow or Five Pure Lights of the Mahabhuta. The iconography is utilized in various Tantric cycles by practitioners as symbols to hidden meanings in transmitted practices.

  • Cradled in his left arm he holds the three-pointed khatvanga (trident) symbolizing the Princess consort Mandarava, one of his two main consorts.[27][29] who arouses the wisdom of bliss and emptiness, concealed as the three-pointed khatvanga trident.[28] Other sources say that the khatvanga represents the Lady Yeshe Tsogyal, his primary consort and main disciple.[30]
  • Its three points represent the essence, nature and compassionate energy (ngowo, rangshyin and tukjé).[28][29]
  • Below these three prongs are three severed heads, dry, fresh and rotten, symbolizing the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya.[28][29]
  • Nine iron rings adorning the prongs represent the nine yanas.[28][29]
  • Five-coloured strips of silk symbolize the five wisdoms[28]
  • The khatvanga is also adorned with locks of hair from dead and living mamos and dakinis, as a sign that the Master subjugated them all when he practised austerities in the Eight Great Charnel Grounds.[28][29]

Seat

  • He is seated with his two feet in the royal posture.[27][28][29]

Surrounding

  • All around him, within a lattice of five-coloured light, appear the eight vidyadharas of India, the twenty-five disciples of Tibet, the deities of the three roots, and an ocean of oath-bound protectors[29]

There are further iconographies and meanings in more advanced and secret stages.

Eight Manifestations

Ss459-319-068-WrathfulPadma-1
A wrathful manifestation of Padmasambhava.

Padmasambhava is said to have taken eight forms or manifestations (Tib. Guru Tsen Gye) representing different aspects of his being, such as wrath or pacification for example. According to Rigpa Shedra the eight principal forms were assumed by Guru Rinpoche at different points in his life. The Eight Manifestations of Padmasambhava belong to the tradition of the Revealed Treasures (Tib.: ter ma).[31]

  • Guru Orgyen Dorje Chang (Wylie: gu ru U-rgyan rDo-rje 'chang, Sanskrit: Guru Uddiyana Vajradhara) The vajra-holder (Skt. Vajradhara), shown dark blue in color in the attire of the Sambhogakaya. Depicted in union with consort.
  • Guru Shakya Senge (Wylie: shAkya seng-ge, Skrt: Guru Śākyasimha) of Bodh Gaya, Lion of the Sakyas, who learns the Tantric practices of the eight Vidyadharas. He is shown as a fully ordained Buddhist monk.
  • Guru Pema Gyalpo (Wylie: gu ru pad ma rgyal-po, Skrt: Guru Padmarāja) of Uddiyana, the Lotus Prince, king of the Tripitaka (the Three Collections of Scripture). He is shown looking like a young crowned prince or king.
  • Guru Pema Jungne (Wylie: pad ma 'byung-gnas, Skrt: Guru Padmakara) Lotus-arisen, the Saviour who teaches the Dharma to the people. He is shown sitting on a lotus, dressed in the three robes of a monk, under which he wears a blue shirt, pants and heavy Tibetan boots, as protection against the cold. He holds the diamond-scepter of compassionate love in his right hand and the yogi's skull-bowl of clear wisdom in his left. He has a special trident called khatvanga of a wandering Yogi, and wears on his head a Nepalese cloth crown, stylistically designed to remind one of the shape of a lotus flower. Thus he is represented as he must have appeared in Tibet, on wikimedia commons
  • Guru Loden Chokse (Wylie: gu ru blo ldan mchog sred; Skrt: Guru Mativat Vararuci[32]) of Kashmir, the Intelligent Youth, the one who gathers the knowledge of all worlds. He is shown in princely clothes, beating a hand-drum and holding a skull-bowl.
  • Guru Nyima Ozer (Wylie: gu ru nyi-ma 'od-zer, Skrt: Guru Suryabhasa or Sūryaraśmi[32]), the Sunray Yogi, who illuminates the darkness of the mind through the insight of Dzogchen. He is shown as a naked yogi dressed only in a loin-cloth and holding a Khatvanga which points towards the sun.
  • Guru Dorje Drolo (Wylie: gu ru rDo-rje gro-lod, Skrt: Guru Vajra ?) the fierce manifestation of Vajrakilaya (wrathful Vajrasattva) known as "Diamond Guts", the comforter of all, imprinting the elements with Wisdom-Treasure.[33]
  • Guru Senge Dradog (Wylie: gu ru seng-ge sgra-sgrogs, Skrt: Guru Simhanāda[32]) of Nalanda University, the Lion of Debate, promulgator of the Dharma throughout the six realms of sentient beings. He is shown in a very fierce form, dark blue and imitative of the powerful Bodhisattva Vajrapani, holding a thunderbolt scepter in one hand and a scorpion in the other.

Padmasambhava's various Sanskrit names are preserved in mantras such as those found in the Yang gsang rig 'dzin youngs rdzogs kyi blama guru mtshan brgyad bye brag du sgrub pa ye shes bdud rtsi'i sbrang char zhe bya ba.[32]

Attributes

Pure-land Paradise

His Pureland Paradise is Zangdok Palri (the Copper-Coloured Mountain).[34]

Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri

Padmasambhava said:

My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra (Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ). My mother is the ultimate sphere of reality, Samantabhadri (Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་མོ). I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus-Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I act in the way of the Buddhas of the three times.

Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava

The Vajra Guru mantra

Vajra Guru Mantra
The Vajra Guru Mantra in Lanydza and Tibetan script.

The Vajra Guru (Padmasambhava) mantra Om Ah Hum Vajra Guru Padma Siddhi Hum is favoured and held in esteem by sadhakas. Like most Sanskritic mantras in Tibet, the Tibetan pronunciation demonstrates dialectic variation and is generally Om Ah Hung Benza Guru Pema Siddhi Hung. In the Vajrayana traditions, particularly of the Nyingmapa, it is held to be a powerful mantra engendering communion with the Three Vajras of Padmasambhava's mindstream and by his grace, all enlightened beings.[35] In response to Yeshe Tsogyal's request, the Great Master himself explained the meaning of the mantra although there are larger secret meanings too.[36] The 14th century tertön Karma Lingpa has a famous commentary on the mantra.[37]

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche) is a famous prayer that is recited by many Tibetans daily and is said to contain the most sacred and important teachings of Dzogchen.

Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso composed a famous commentary to the Seven Line Prayer called White Lotus. It explains the meanings, which are embedded in many levels and intended to catalyze a process of realization. These hidden teachings are described as ripening and deepening, in time, with study and with contemplation.[38] Tulku Thondup says:

Enshrining the most sacred prayer to Guru Padmasambhava, White Lotus elucidates its five layers of meaning as revealed by the eminent scholar Ju Mipham. This commentary now makes this treasure, which has been kept secret among the great masters of Tibet for generations, available as a source of blessings and learning for all.

There is also a shorter commentary, freely available, by Tulku Thondup himself.[39] There are many other teachings and Termas and widely practiced tantric cycles incorporating the text as well as brief ones such as Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang.[40]

Termas

Padmasambhava also hid a number of religious treasures (termas) in lakes, caves, fields and forests of the Himalayan region to be found and interpreted by future tertöns or spiritual treasure-finders.[41] According to Tibetan tradition, the Bardo Thodol (commonly referred to as the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was among these hidden treasures, subsequently discovered by a Tibetan terton, Karma Lingpa.

Tantric cycles

Tantric cycles related to Padmasambhava are not just practiced by the Nyingma, they even gave rise to a new offshoot of Bon which emerged in the 14th century called the New Bön. Prominent figures of the Sarma (new translation) schools such as the Karmapas and Sakya lineage heads have practiced these cycles and taught them. Some of the greatest tertons revealing teachings related to Padmasambhava have been from the Kagyu or Sakya lineages. The hidden lake temple of the Dalai Lamas behind the Potala called Lukhang is dedicated to Dzogchen teachings and has murals depicting the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.[42] Padmasambhava established Vajrayana Buddhism and the highest forms of Dzogchen (Mengagde) in Tibet and transformed the entire nation.

Consorts and twenty five main disciples

Many of those who gathered around Padmasambhava became advanced tantric practitioners as well as helping to found and propagate the Nyingma tradition. The most prominent of these include Padmasambhava's five main female consorts, also known as dakinis and his twenty five main disciples.

The five main consorts or five wisdom dakinis

Padmasambhava in yam-yum
Padmasambhava in yab-yum form with his Shakti.

Padmasambhava had five main female tantric companions, beginning in India before his time in Tibet and then in Tibet as well. When seen from an outer, or perhaps even historical or mythological perspective, these five women from across South Asia were known as the Five Consorts. That the women come from very different geographic regions is understood as mandala, a support for Padmasambhava in spreading the dharma throughout the region.

Yet, when understood from a more inner tantric perspective, these same women are understood not as ordinary women but as dakinis; from this point of view, they are known as the "Five Wisdom Dakinis" (Wylie: Ye-shes mKha-'gro lnga). Each of these consorts is believed to be an emanation of the tantric yidam, Vajravārāhī.[43] As one author writes of these relationships:

Yet in reality, he [Padmasambhava] was never separate from the five emanations of Vajravarahi: the Body-emanation, Mandarava; the Speech-emanation, Yeshe Tsogyal; the Mind-emanation, Shakyadema; the Qualities-emanation, Kalasiddhi; and the Activity-emanation, Trashi [sic] Chidren.[44]

In summary, the five consorts/wisdom dakinis were:

  • Yeshe Tsogyal of Tibet, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Speech (Tibetan: gsung; Sanskrit: vāk);
  • Mandarava of Zahor, northeast India, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Body (Tibetan: sku; Sanskrit: kāya);
  • Belwong Kalasiddhi of northwest India, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Quality (Tibetan: yon-tan; Sanskrit: gūna);
  • Belmo Sakya Devi of Nepal, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Mind (Tibetan: thugs; Sanskrit: citta); and
  • Tashi Kyedren (or Chidren) (sometimes called Mangala) of Bhutan, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Activity (Tibetan: phrin-las; Sanskrit: karma).[45]

While there are very few sources on the lives of Kalasiddhi, Sakya Devi, and Tashi Kyedren, there are extant biographies of both Yeshe Tsogyal and Mandarava that have been translated into English and other western languages.

The 'Twenty-five Main Disciples' of Padmasambhava

The Twenty Five Main Disciples (Tibetan: རྗེ་འབངས་ཉེར་ལྔ, Wylie: rje 'bangs nyer lnga) also called the disciples of Chimphu.[46] In various lists these include:

Denma Tsemang
Denma Tsemang
  • Denma Tsémang (Tibetan: ལྡན་མ་རྩེ་མང, Wylie: ldan ma rtse mang) [47]
  • Dorje Dudjom of Nanam (Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་བདུད་འཇོམ, Wylie: rdo rje bdud 'joms) [48] (image on Wikimedia commons)
  • Khyechung Lotsawa (Tibetan: ཁྱེའུ་ཆུང་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ, Wylie: khye'u chung lo tsā ba)
  • Gyalwa Changchub of Lasum (Tibetan: ལ་སུམ་རྒྱལ་བ་བྱང་ཆུབ, Wylie: la sum rgyal ba byang chub) [49] (image on Wikimedia commons)
  • Gyalwa Choyang (Tibetan: རྒྱལ་བ་མཆོག་དབྱངས, Wylie: rgyal ba mchog dbyangs) [50]
  • Gyalwe Lodro of Dré (Tibetan: རྒྱལ་བའི་བློ་གྲོས, Wylie: rgyal ba'i blo gros) [51]
  • Jnanakumara of Nyak (Tibetan: གཉགས་ཛཉའ་ན་ཀུ་མ་ར, Wylie: gnyags dzny' na ku ma ra) [52]
  • Kawa Paltsek (Tibetan: སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས, Wylie: ska ba dpal brtsegs) [53]
  • Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the princess of Karchen (Tibetan: མཁར་ཆེན་བཟའ་མཚོ་རྒྱལ, Wylie: mkhar chen bza' mtsho rgyal)
  • Konchog Jungné of Langdro (Tibetan: ལང་གྲོ་དཀོན་མཆོག་འབྱུང་གནས, Wylie: lang gro dkon mchog 'byung gnas) [54]
  • Lhapal the Sokpo (Tibetan: སོག་པོ་ལྷ་དཔལ, Wylie: sog po lha dpal) [55]
  • Namkhai Nyingpo (Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: nam mkha'i snying po)
  • Zhang Yeshe De (Tibetan: ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ, Wylie: zhang ye shes sde)
  • Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje (Tibetan: ལྷ་ལུང་དཔལ་གྱི་རྡོ་རྗེ, Wylie: lha lung dpal gyi rdo rje) [56]
Palgyi Sengge
Palgyi Sengge
  • Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་སེང་གེ, Wylie: dpal gyi seng ge) [57]
  • Palgyi Wangchuk (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག, Wylie: dpal gyi dbang phyug) [58]
  • Palgyi Wangchuk of Odren (Tibetan: འོ་དྲན་དཔལ་གྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག, Wylie: 'o dran dpal gyi dbang phyug) [59]
  • Palgyi Yeshe (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས, Wylie: dpal gyi ye shes)
  • Rinchen Chok of Ma (Tibetan: རྨ་རིན་ཆེན་མཆོག, Wylie: rma rin chen mchog) [60]
  • Sangye Yeshe (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་ཡེ་ཤེས, Wylie: sangs rgyas ye shes) [61]
  • Shubu Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: ཤུད་བུ་དཔལ་གྱི་སེང་གེ, Wylie: shud bu dpal gyi seng ge)
  • Vairotsana, the great translator (Tibetan: བཻ་རོ་ཙ་ན, Wylie: bai ro tsa na)
  • Yeshe Yang (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་དབྱངས, Wylie: ye shes dbyangs) [62]
  • Yudra Nyingpo of Gyalmo (Tibetan: ག་ཡུ་སྒྲ་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: g.yu sgra snying po)

Also:

  • Vimalamitra (Tibetan: དྲུ་མེད་བཤེས་གཉེན, Wylie: dru med bshes gnyen)
  • Tingdzin Zangpo (Tibetan: ཏིང་འཛིན་བཟང་པོ, Wylie: ting 'dzin bzang po) [63] (image on Wikimedia commons)

Gallery

Hemis Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava statue in Hemis Monastery, Ladakh, India.

Guru Padmasambhava sideview

The Holy Statue of Guru Padmasambhava at Samdruptse, Namchi, Sikkim, India.

Entrance to Dawa Puk, Padmasambhava's cave, Yerpa 1993

Entrance to Dawa Puk, Guru Rinpoche's cave, Yerpa, 1993.

Guru Rinpoche, Yerpa 1993

Statue of Guru Rinpoche in his meditation cave at Yerpa, Tibet

Vajra Guru Mantra - Tibetan Script

Mantra of Padmasambhava in Tibetan script.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sanskrit Padmasambhāva; Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས།, Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas (EWTS); Mongolian ловон Бадмажунай, lovon Badmajunai, Chinese: 莲花生大士 (pinyin: Liánhuāshēng)
  2. ^ Wylie 'pho ba chen po, pronounced Phowa Chenpo
  3. ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jalü.
  4. ^ The subjection of concurring deities and demons is a recurrent theme in Buddhist literature. See also Vajrapani and Mahesvara and Steven Heine's "Opening a Mountain".[22]
  5. ^ The other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug
  6. ^ Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར།, Wylie: snga 'gyur, ZYPY: Nga'gyur, "school of the ancient translations.
  7. ^ The Tibetan script and grammar was actually created for this endeavour.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Kværne, Per (2013). Tuttle, Gray; Schaeffer, Kurtis R. (eds.). The Tibetan history reader. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780231144698.
  2. ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 34-5, 96-8.
  3. ^ "Padmasambhava". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  4. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 608. ISBN 9781400848058. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  5. ^ Harvey, Peter (2008). An Introduction to Buddhism Teachings, History and Practices (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  6. ^ van Schaik, Sam; Iwao, Kazushi (2009). "Fragments of the Testament of Ba from Dunhuang". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 128 (3): 477–487. ISSN 0003-0279
  7. ^ Cantwell, Cathy;Mayer, Rob; REPRESENTATIONS OF PADMASAMBHAVA IN EARLY POST-IMPERIAL TIBET(pg.22). https://ocbs.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Cantwell-Mayer-Early-Representations-of-Padmasambhava-copy.pdf
  8. ^ a b Gyatso, Janet (August 2006). "A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Ye shes mtsho rgyal". The Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies (2).
  9. ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 229. Columbia University Press, 2005.
  10. ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 278. Columbia University Press, 2005.
  11. ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 96.
  12. ^ Trungpa (2001) 26. For debate on its geographical location, see also the article on Oddiyana.
  13. ^ Keown, Damien (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism (1 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780198605607. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  14. ^ Morgan (2010) 208.
  15. ^ Tsogyal (1973) volume I deals with Padmasambhava's life in India.
  16. ^ Lama Chonam and Sangye Khandro, translators. The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava: The Indian Consort of Padmasambhava. (1998). Wisdom Publications.
  17. ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/institution/Maratika
  18. ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/paintings/view/Padmasambhava/35
  19. ^ a b Snelling 1987, p. 198.
  20. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 196, 198.
  21. ^ a b Snelling 1987.
  22. ^ Heine 2002.
  23. ^ 'Guru Rinpoche' and 'Yeshe Tsogyal' in: Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2013). The Illustrated Tibetan Book of the Dead. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. B00BCRLONM
  24. ^ Harvey 1995.
  25. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937506205. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09.
  26. ^ Norbu 1987, p. 162.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Illuminating the Excellent Path to Omniscience
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chökyi Drakpa, A Torch for the Path to Omniscience: A Word by Word Commentary on the Text of the Longchen Nyingtik Preliminary Practices.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Patrul Rinpoche, Brief Guide to the Ngöndro Visualization
  30. ^ John Huntington and Dina Bangdel. The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio, and Serindia Publications, Chicago. 2004. p. 358.
  31. ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche The Eight Emanations Of Guru Padmasambhava; Rigpawiki Eight Manifestations of Guru Rinpoche; For the eight manifestations as terma, see: Padmasambhava - 8 Forms: Dorje Drolo.
  32. ^ a b c d Boord 1993, p. 115.
  33. ^ See image + description
  34. ^ Schmidt and Binder 1993, pp. 252-53.
  35. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche (1992). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, pp. 386-389 Harper, San Francisco. ISBN 0-7126-5437-2.
  36. ^ Khenpo Namdrol's Padmasambhava Global Project for World Peace
  37. ^ Benefits and Advantages of the Vajra Guru Mantra
  38. ^ White Lotus: An Explanation of the Seven-line Prayer to Guru Padmasambhava by Mipham Rinpoche, Ju and translated by the Padmakara Translation Group Archived 2009-01-25 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Commentary on the Seven Line Prayer to Guru Rinpoche
  40. ^ Lotsawa House|Seven Line Prayer, Accomplishing the Lama through the Seven Line Prayer: A Special Teaching from the Lama Sangdü, The Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang
  41. ^ Laird (2006) 90.
  42. ^ Ian A. Baker: The Lukhang: A hidden temple in Tibet.
  43. ^ Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 265.
  44. ^ Gyalwa Changchub and Namkhai Nyingpo, Lady of the Lotus-Born: The Life and Enlightenment of Yeshe Tsogyal, Shambhala (1999, pp. 3-4)
  45. ^ Tibetan Wylie transliteration and Sanskrit transliteration are found in Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 193.
  46. ^ RigpaShedra
  47. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Denma Tsemang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  48. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  49. ^ Dorje, Gyurme (August 2008). "Lasum Gyelwa Jangchub". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  50. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwa Choyang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  51. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwai Lodro". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  52. ^ Garry, Ron (August 2007). "Nyak Jñānakumara". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  53. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kawa Peltsek". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  54. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Langdro Konchok Jungne". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  55. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Sokpo Pelgyi Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  56. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  57. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lang Pelgyi Sengge". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  58. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kharchen Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  59. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Odren Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  60. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Ma Rinchen Chok". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  61. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (December 2009). "Nubchen Sanggye Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  62. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Yeshe Yang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  63. ^ Leschly, Jakob (August 2007). "Nyang Tingdzin Zangpo". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.

Sources

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  • Boord, Martin (1993). Cult of the Deity Vajrakila. Institute of Buddhist Studies. ISBN 0-9515424-3-5.
  • Dudjom Rinpoche The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Translated by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein. Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1991, 2002. ISBN 0-86171-199-8.
  • Guenther, Herbert V. (1996), The Teachings of Padmasambhava, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-10542-5
  • Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press
  • Heine, Steven (2002), Opening a Mountain. Koans of the Zen Masters, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Jackson, D. (1979) 'The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava (Padma bKaí thang)' in: The Journal of Asian Studies 39: 123-25.
  • Jestis, Phyllis G. (2004) Holy People of the World Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576073556.
  • Kinnard, Jacob N. (2010) The Emergence of Buddhism Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800697480.
  • Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
  • Morgan, D. (2010) Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0313384525.
  • Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1987), Tibet: Its History, Religion and People, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140213821
  • Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks
  • Sun, Shuyun (2008), A Year in Tibet: A Voyage of Discovery, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-00-728879-3
  • Taranatha The Life of Padmasambhava. Shang Shung Publications, 2005. Translated from Tibetan by Cristiana de Falco.
  • Thondup, Tulku. Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986.
  • Trungpa, Chögyam (2001). Crazy Wisdom. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-910-2.
  • Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava. Padma bKa'i Thang. Two Volumes. 1978. Translated into English by Kenneth Douglas and Gwendolyn Bays. ISBN 0-913546-18-6 and ISBN 0-913546-20-8.
  • Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Lotus-Born: The Lifestory of Padmasambhava Pema Kunsang, E. (trans.); Binder Schmidt, M. & Hein Schmidt, E. (eds.) 1st edition, Boston: Shambhala Books, 1993. Reprint: Boudhanath: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004. ISBN 962-7341-55-X.
  • Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Refining and Examining Consciousness", Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 .
  • Zangpo, Ngawang. Guru Rinpoche: His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications, 2002.

External links

Chemrey Monastery

Chemrey Monastery or Chemrey Gompa is a 1664 Buddhist monastery, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Leh, Ladakh, northern India. It belongs to the Drugpa monastic order. It was founded in 1664 by the Lama Tagsang Raschen and dedicated to King Sengge Namgyal.

The monastery has a notable high Padmasambhava statue. It also contains a valuable collection of scriptures, with title pages in silver and the text in gold letters. The monastery is also a venue for the festival of sacred dances which takes place on the 28th and 29th day of the 9th month of the Tibetan calendar every year.

The monastery comprises a number of shrines, two assembly halls (Du-Khang) and a Lama temple (Lha-Khang). The main attraction of the monastery is the one storey high statue of Padmasambhava. Another big attraction is the 29 volume scripture written in silver and golden letters.

The monastery holds every year the Chemrey Angchok festival of sacred dances. It takes place on the 28th and 29th day of the 9th month of the Tibetan calendar.

Daklha Gampo Monastery

Daklha Gampo Monastery (Dwags lha sgam po), also romanized as Daglha Gampo, is a Kagyu Tibetan Buddhist monastery founded in 1121 CE by Je Gampopa (1079-1153), the disciple of the famous and much-loved bodhisattva, Jetsun Milarepa (c. 1052—c. 1135) It is located in Gyatsa County in the old district of Dakpo in southern Tibet on land sanctified as a geomantic power-place ('head of the ogress') by the first Tibetan emperor, Songtsen Gampo (605 or 617? - 649), and made a repository of terma by Padmasambhava.

Gurudongmar Lake

Gurudongmar Lake is one of the highest lakes in the world and in India, located at an altitude of 17,800 ft (5,430 m), in the Indian state of Sikkim. It is considered sacred by Buddhists, Sikhs and Hindus. The lake is named after Guru Padmasambhava—also known as Guru Rinpoche—founder of Tibetan Buddhism, who visited in the 8th century.

l1995">Dalvindar Singh Grewal (January 1995). Guru Nanak's travel to Himalayan and East Asian Region: a new light. National Book Shop. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-81-7116-177-5.

Hemis Monastery

Hemis Monastery is a Himalayan Buddhist monastery (gompa) of the Drukpa Lineage, in Hemis, Ladakh, India. Situated 45 km from Leh, the monastery was re-established in 1672 by the Ladakhi king Sengge Namgyal. The annual Hemis festival honouring Padmasambhava is held in early June.

Kurjey Lhakhang

Kurjey Lhakang,སྐུ་རྗེས་ ཡང་ན་ གུ་རུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་གི་ ཞབས་རྗེས་ also known as the Kurjey Monastery, is located in the Bumthang valley in the Bumthang district of Bhutan. This is the final resting place of the remains of the first three Kings of Bhutan. Also, a large tree behind one of the temple buildings is believed to be a terma that was left there by Padmasambhava.

List of Buddhas

This is a list of historical, contemporary, and legendary figures which at least one school of Buddhism considers to be a Buddha and which have an article on Wikipedia:

Acala

Adi-Buddha

Akshobhya

Amitābha, principal Buddha of Pure Land Buddhism

Amoghasiddhi

Bhaisajyaguru

Budai

Dīpankara Buddha

Five Tathagatas

Gautama Buddha

Kakusandha

Kassapa Buddha

Koṇāgamana Buddha

Lokesvararaja

Nairatmya

Nichiren Daishonin, Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law (Nikko Lineage)

Padumuttara Buddha

Padmasambhava

Ratnasambhava

Satyanama

Sumedha Buddha

Tara

Tonpa Shenrab

Vairocana, embodiment of the Dharmakaya

Vajradhara

Vajrayogini

Yeshe Tsogyal

Mandarava

Mandarava (Skt., Mandāravā) (Tib., མནྡཱ་ར་བཱ་; Wylie, ma da ra ba me tog) (also known as The Long Life Dakini Mandarava, Machik Drubpai Gyalmo, or Pandaravasini) was, along with Yeshe Tsogyal, one of the two principal consorts of great 8th century Indian tantric teacher Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche), a founder-figure of Tibetan Buddhism, described as a 'second Buddha' by many practitioners. Mandarava is considered to be a female guru-deity in Tantric Buddhism or Vajrayana.

There are a number of conflicting stories about the birthplace of Mandarava. According to some legends, she was born a princess in Zahor, Bengal in eastern India, while other sources, and some contemporary lore place this in Sahor, in Oddiyana (the Swat valley) of northern Pakistan, or near the city of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. Mandi is supposedly named after Mandarava, and many shrines and important pilgrimage sites to Mandarava can be found there today, such as the shrine to Mandarava above Lake Rewalsar pictured here.

According to legend, she renounced her royal birthright at an early age in order to practice the Dharma. Mandarava is known as being highly educated at a very young age, a rare accomplishment for a woman at that time. Mandarava's devotion led her to bring at least 800 women, including her entire personal retinue, to the path of the Dharma, all before meeting her teacher and consort, Padmasambhava.Mandarava attained full enlightenment alongside Padmasambhava in the famed Maratika Cave in Nepal. She was a fully realized spiritual adept, a yogini, and a spiritual teacher.

There may be a relationship between Mandarava and the tree with the same colloquial name and the scientific name of Erythrina. Chapter 16 of the Lotus Sutra mentions, "Mandarava blossoms rain down, scattering over the Buddah and the great assembly."

Nyingma

The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). "Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as Ngangyur (IPA: [ŋaɲɟuː], Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར་རྙིང་མ།, Wylie: snga 'gyur rnying ma, "school of the ancient translations" or "old school") because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Old Tibetan in the eighth century. The Tibetan alphabet and grammar was created for this endeavour.

The Nyingma particularly believes in hidden terma treasures and place an emphasis on Dzogchen. They also incorporate local religious practices and local deities and elements of shamanism, some of which it shares with Bon. The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to the Indian master Padmasambhava. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders, are later adaptations.In modern times, the Nyingma lineage has been centered in Kham and has been associated with the Rime movement.

Orgyen Chokgyur Lingpa

Chokgyur Lingpa or Chokgyur Dechen Lingpa (1829-1870) was a tertön or "treasure revealer" and contemporary of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Jamgon Kongtrul. Regarded as one of the major tertöns in Tibetan history, his termas are widely practiced by both the Kagyu and Nyingma schools.

Chokgyur Lingpa was the "manifestation," meaning the reincarnation, of King Trisong Deutsen's son, Prince Damdzin. Another of his former lives was the great terton, Sangye Lingpa, who revealed the Lama Gongdu. Chokgyur Lingpa was the last of the 100 major tertons. He was the owner of seven transmissions and is regarded as the universal monarch of all tertons. One of the reasons for this is that no other terton has revealed a teaching that includes the Space Section (Longde) of Dzogchen. There are several Mind Section (Semde) revelations and all major tertons have revealed the Instruction Section (Mengagde), but only Chokgyur Lingpa transmitted the Space Section. This is why the Dzogchen Desum is considered the most extraordinary terma that he ever revealed.

Chokgyur Lingpa's main consort was Dechen Chodron (Lady Degah) and Padmasambhava predicted that his three children would be emanations of the three family lords: Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani. I don't like saying this, for it may sound like I'm bragging about my family line, but such a prophecy does exist. The Manjushri emanation was supposed to be Wangchok Dorje, the Avalokiteshvara emanation Tsewang Norbu and the Vajrapani emanation my grandmother, Konchok Paldron.

Chokgyur Lingpa founded Neten Monastery in Nangchen in 1858. It is the seat of the Neten Chokling reincarnation line.Neten Chokling Rinpoche and Tsikey Chokling Rinpoche are the fourth reincarnations of Chokgyur Lingpa.

This lineage traces back to Trisong Detsen, the Tibetan king who invited Padmasambhava to Tibet.

Paro Taktsang

Paro Taktsang (Dzongkha: སྤ་གྲོ་སྟག་ཚང་, also known as the Taktsang Palphug Monastery and the Tiger's Nest), is a prominent Himalayan Buddhist sacred site and the temple complex is located in the cliffside of the upper Paro valley in Bhutan.

A temple complex was first built in 1692, around the Taktsang Senge Samdup cave where Guru Padmasambhava is said to have meditated for three years, three months, three weeks, three days and three hours in the 8th century. Padmasambhava is credited with introducing Buddhism to Bhutan and is the tutelary deity of the country. Today, Paro Taktsang is the best known of the thirteen taktsang or "tiger lair" caves in which he meditated.

The temple devoted to Padmasambhava (also known as Gu-ru mTshan-brgyad Lhakhang, "the Temple of the Guru with Eight Names") is an elegant structure built around the cave in 1692 by Gyalse Tenzin Rabgye. It has become the cultural icon of Bhutan. A popular festival, known as the Tsechu, held in honor of Padmasambhava, is celebrated in the Paro valley sometime during March or April.

Rewalsar, India

Rewalsar or Tso Pema in Tibetan is a small town and a pilgrimage place in a nagar panchayat in Mandi district in India. It is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The local name for Rewalsar is Tri Sangam. Rewalsar Lake is a tourist spot in the area.

Rewalsar Lake

Rewalsar Lake is a mid-altitude lake located on a mountain spur in the Mandi district, 22.5 km south-west from Mandi, in India. Its elevation is about 1,360 m above sea level.

The lake is shaped like a square with the shoreline of about 735 m. It is held as a sacred spot for Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists.

There are three Buddhist monasteries at Riwalsar. The lake also has three Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Krishna, Lord Shiva and to the sage Lomas. Another holy lake, Kunt Bhyog which is about 1,750 m above sea level lies above Rewalsar. It is associated with the escape of 'Pandavas' from the burning palace of wax—an episode from the epic Mahabharata.

It was from here that the Indian teacher and 'Tantric' Padmasambhava left for Tibet. Known to the Tibetans as 'Guru Rinpoche', the Precious Master, it was under Padmasambhava's influence that Mahayana Buddhism spread over Tibet. There are islands of floating reed on Rewalsar lake and the spirit of Padmasambhava is said to reside in them. It is here that the sage Lomas did penance in devotion to Lord Shiva, and the Sikh guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), the tenth Guru of Sikhism, also resided here for one month.

The Sisu fair held in late February/early march, and the festival of Baisakhi are important events at Rewalsar.

Samye

Samye (Tibetan: བསམ་ཡས་, Wylie: bsam yas, Chinese: 桑耶寺) was the first gompa (Buddhist monastery) built in Tibet. It was probably first constructed between 775-9 under the patronage of King Trisong Detsen of Tibet who sought to revitalize Buddhism, which had declined since its introduction by King Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. The monastery is in Dranang, Lhoka. It was supposedly modeled on the design of Odantapuri in what is now Bihar, India.The 18th century Puning Temple built by the Qianlong Emperor of Qing China in Chengde, Hebei was modeled after Samye.

Takthok Monastery

Takthok Monastery (also known as Thag Thog or Thak Thak) is a Buddhist monastery in Sakti village in Ladakh, northern India, located approximately 46 kilometres east of Leh. The name Takthok, literally meaning 'rock-roof' was named because both its roof as well as walls are made up of rock. It belongs to the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism and approximately 55 lamas reside there. It is the only Nyingma monastery in Ladakh.The monastery was founded around the mid-16th century during the reign of Tshewang Namgyal on a mountainside around a cave in which Padmasambhava is said to have meditated in the 8th century. Every year on the 9th and 10th day of the sixth month of the Tibetan calendar, celebrations which include sacred dances are held.

Terma (religion)

Terma (Tibetan: གཏེར་མ་, Wylie: gter ma; "hidden treasure") are various forms of hidden teachings that are key to Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhist and Bon religious traditions. The belief is that these teachings were originally esoterically hidden by various adepts such as Padmasambhava and dakini such as Yeshe Tsogyal (consorts) during the 8th century, for future discovery at auspicious times by other adepts, who are known as tertöns. As such, terma represent a tradition of continuous revelation in Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism. Termas are a part of tantric literature.

Tertön

Tertön (Tibetan: གཏེར་སྟོན་, Wylie: gter ston) is a term within Tibetan Buddhism. It means a person who is a discoverer of ancient hidden texts or terma. Many tertöns are considered to be incarnations of the twenty five main disciples of Padmasambhava. A vast system of transmission lineages developed. Nyingma scriptures were updated by terma discoveries, and terma teachings have guided many Buddhist and Bon practitioners.

Tsi Nesar

Tsi Nesar (rTsis gnas.gsar, also called rTsis lha.khang) is a geomantic ('district controlling' or 'border taming') temple attributed to Emperor Songtsen Gampo who lived in the 7th century CE. However, the original buildings, their precious murals and paintings said to date back to the 12th century, and the nearby temple constructed by Emperor Trisong Detsen in the 8th century to house a famous image of Prajnaparamita, consecrated by Padmasambhava, which survived until the Cultural Revolution, have all been destroyed. A "country-style" temple has been built in recent years incorporating some of the revered ancient timbers from the original temples. It is located in a valley 25 km from Gyantse and 6 km north of Drongtse Monastery.There were two small ancient temples, the Runo Tsuklakang (Ru-gnon gtsung lag.khang or 'dgon-khang') was built by Songsten Gampo. It consisted of three chapels dedicated to rNam.par snang.mdzad, (Vairocana) mGon.po (Mahākāla) and sPyan.ras.gzigs (Chenresig = Avalokiteshvara). The Yumchen lhakang, apparently founded during the reign of Trisong Detsen, contained a statue of Yumchenmo or Prajnaparamita surrounded by the Buddhas of the Four Directions, as well as an image of mGon.po said to have been made from blood drawn from the nose of Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava). The third temple, traditionally attributed to the reign of Emperor Ralpacan (although Vitali dates its foundation to about 1057), was called rGya-phibs, which, from its name, must have been surmounted by a pagoda roof at one time. The "stiff, medallioned robes" dressing the bodhisattvas at Tsi Nesar show Central Asian and Indian (Pala) influences and probably date to the 11th century.The site is one of the twenty-five main terne, or 'power-places with treasure-troves', of Central Tibet mentioned in the biographies of Padmasambhava. Tsi Nesar is said to contain 'exoteric terma'.

Vimalamitra

Vimalamitra (Chinese: 無垢友, Wylie: དྲི་མེད་བཤེས་གཉེན་) was an 8th-century Indian monk. His teachers were Buddhaguhya, Jñānasūtra and Śrī Siṃha. He was supposed to have vowed to take rebirth every hundred years, with the most notable figures being Rigzin Jigme Lingpa, Khenchen Ngagchung, Kyabje Drubwang Penjor Rinpoche and Kyabje Yangthang Rinpoche. ' Vimalamitra' was more known to the Bhutanese and Tibetans as 'Penchen Vimalamitra' meaning 'the Great Pandita'. He was one of the eight teachers of the great Indian adept Guru Padmasambhava. Centuries later he was adopted as a literary character of terma and was attributed various works. Chatral Sangye Dorji (1913-2016) was said to have received a mala rosary from a man who was at the time dressed as an Indian Sadhu. It was only later that Rinpoche told his attendants that he received a mala on that day from Vimalamitra in real. The attendants were curious and went back to the place where they met a sadhu only to be left lost and I found. The sadhu was not to be found anywhere. One scholar remarked that the historical Vimalamitra "would have been astonished to find himself the focus of such a tradition."

Yeshe Tsogyal

Yeshe Tsogyal (also known as "Victorious Ocean of Wisdom", "Wisdom Lake Queen" (Wylie: ye shes mtsho rgyal, or by her Sanskrit name Jñānasāgara "Wisdom Ocean"; or by her clan name of Lady Kharchen), (757–817CE) was the Mother of Tibetan Buddhism. Some sources regard her as a wife of Trisong Detsen, emperor of Tibet. Her main karmamudrā consort was Padmasambhava, a founder-figure of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. She is known to have revealed terma with Padmasambhava and was also the main scribe for these terma. Later, Yeshe Tsogyal also hid many of Padmasambhava's terma on her own, under the instructions of Padmasambhava for future generations.Born a princess in the region of Kharchen, Tibet, in about 777CE, she lived for approximately 99 years and is a preeminent figure in Tibetan Buddhism and a role model for contemporary spiritual practitioners. Although often referred to as being Padamasambhava's main consort, she was primarily a spiritual master and teacher in her own right.

Based on her spiritual accomplishments, the Nyingma and Karma Kagyu schools of Tibetan Buddhism recognize Yeshe Tsogyal as a female Buddha. The translators of Lady of the Lotus-Born, the namtar, or spiritual biography, that Yeshe Tsogyal left as a terma, observe:

As Dodrup Tenpai Nyima makes clear, beings able to reveal Termas must have at least the realization of the Perfection Stage practices. On the other hand, the one who originates the Treasures must have the supreme attainment of Buddhahood. Lady of the Lotus-Born is thus a testimony of Yeshe Tsogyal's enlightenment.

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