Padmanabhapuram Palace (Tamil: பத்மநாபபுரம் அரண்மனை, Malayalam: പത്മനാഭപുരം കൊട്ടാരം) is a Travancore era palace located in Padmanabhapuram, Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. It is also known as Kalkulam Palace.
Padmanabhapuram is the former capital city of the erstwhile Hindu Kingdom of Travancore. It is around 20km from Nagercoil, and 60km from Thiruvananthapuram city. The palace is complex inside with an old granite fortress around four kilometers long. The palace is located at the foot of the Veli Hills, which forms a part of the Western Ghats. The river Valli flows nearby. Another palace known as kuttalam Palace is situated in Kuttalam in Tenkasi, Thirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu which is also under the ownership of Kerala government. It is situated in the Tenkasi, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu (before state reorganisation, Kanyakumari District, Chenkottah Taluk, Tenkasi Taluk including the areas of Kuttalam are in the control of Travancore Kingdom in Kerala).
The palace was constructed around 1601 AD by Iravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal who ruled Venad between 1592 and 1609. It is believed that the Thai Kottaram was built in 1500. The founder of modern Travancore, King Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma (1706–1758) who ruled Travancore from 1729 to 1758, rebuilt the palace in around 1750. King Marthaanda Varma dedicated the kingdom to his family deity Sree Padmanabha, a form of Lord Vishnu and ruled the kingdom as Padmanabha dasa or servant of Lord Padmanabha. Hence the name Padmanabhapuram or City of Lord Padmanabha. In the late 18th century, precisely in 1795 the capital of Travancore was shifted from here to Thiruvananthapuram, and the place lost its former glory. However, the palace complex continues to be one of the best examples of traditional Kerala architecture, and some portions of the sprawling complex are also the hallmark of traditional Kerala style architecture. The Palace though surrounded entirely by the State of Tamil Nadu is still part of Kerala and the land and Palace belongs to the Government of Kerala. This Palace is maintained by the Govt.of Kerala Archaeology Department.
The Padmanabhapuram Palace complex consists of several structures:
The four-storeyed building is located at the centre of the palace complex. The ground floor houses the royal treasury. The first floor houses the King's bedrooms. The ornamental bedstead is made of 64 types of herbal and medicinal woods, and was a gift from the Dutch merchants. Most of the rooms here and in other parts of the palace complex have built-in recesses in walls for storing weapons like swords and daggers. The second floor houses the King's resting and study rooms. Here the King used to spend time during fasting days. The top floor (called upparikka malika) served as the worship chamber of the royal household. Its walls are covered with exquisite 18th century murals, depicting scenes from the puranas, and also few scenes from the social life of the Travancore of that time. The top floor was supposed to be Sree Padmanabha Swamy's room. This building was constructed during the reign of King Marthandavarma. He was also designated as Padmanabha Dasa and used to rule the Travancore kingdom as a servant of Sree Padmanabha Swamy.
The southern palace is as old as the ‘Thai kottaram’ (Mother's palace), which would make it about 400 years old. Now, it serves as a heritage museum, exhibiting antique household articles and curios. Collections of items give an insight into the social and cultural ethos of that period.
The Padamnabhapuram Palace complex has several other interesting features:
The Sri Adikesavaperumal Temple is a Hindu temple located in Thiruvattar, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India and is one of the 108 Divya desams, the holy sites of Hindu Vaishnavism according to existing Tamil hymns from the seventh and eighth centuries C.E.The temple is one of the historic thirteen Divya Deshams of Kerala Nadu. The temple is a picturesque setting surrounded on three sides by rivers namely, (River Kothai, River Pahrali and River Thamirabarani) It was the Rajya Temple and Bharadevatha shrine of Erstwhile Travancore. After state reorganisation handed over to Tamilnadu H&RCE Dept. Prime deity: Lord Vishnu as Ananthapadmabhan/Adikeshavaperumal, believed to be older than Padmanabhaswamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram. Since Lord Vishnu resides here in a reclining position and is surrounded by rivers, the temple is called as 'The Srirangam of Chera Kingdom'.
As per section 32 (schedule III part III of the Tamilnadu (Transferred Territory incorporated and Unincorporated Devaswam Act (Tamilnadu Act No.30 of Act of 1959. Amunthuruthimadom Potty shall be the Representative of Highness Maharaja of Travancore for all purpose of Temple rituals including for conducting and supervising the Pallivetta and Thiruvarattu.
Amunthuruthimadom potty shall be entitled to all the privileges of the King and known as Sree Karna Stani. The present sreeKarna Stani Amunthuruthimadom Jayakumar,S/O Amunthuruthimadom Theerdhapadar. Thantri Mathoor Madam Sankara NarayanaruAruvikkarai
Aruvikkarai is a village in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. It lies at the southernmost tip of mainland India (the southern extremity of India as a whole being Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island). Cape Comorin is the southern part of the Cardamom Hills, an extension of the Western Ghats range along the west coast of India. The nearest major city is Nagercoil, Marthandam & Thiruvattar. Ponmanai is situated in the east, Thirparappu in the north-east and Arumanai in the north-west. It lies near Thiruvattar, which is about 50 km from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Hanging Bridge at Mathur is the prime attraction. Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thengapattinam, and Thriparappu Waterfalls are nearby tourist spots. Accommodation facilities are available at Nagercoil.
The nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport. Kuzhithurai Railway Station serves the town. Nagercoil Junction Railway Station is the nearest major railhead. Aruvikkarai can be accessed from Kuzhithurai and Nagercoil by road.Eraniel
Eraniel is a panchayat town in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is of major commercial and political importance in the history of South India, as it was the seasonal capital of the affluent Venad and later Travancore kingdoms until the seventeenth century, when Padmanabhapuram and Thiruvananthapuram rose to prominence. Currently it is known for its archaeological importance for the ruins of the dilapidated Eraniel Palace.Eraniel railway station
Eraniel Railway station (Station code: ERL) in Eraniel is the most important railway station of Kallkkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district in the Tamil Nadu state of India. The station has two platforms and falls on the Kanyakumari—Thiruvananthapuram line in the Thiruvananthapuram division of the Southern Railway zone. All daily trains passing through the station halts in Eraniel station.
The famous Mandaikadu Bagavathi Amman Temple, Colachel Port, I.R.E Industries in Manavalakurichi and Padmanabhapuram Palace are situated nearby the Station. The station also is the nearest railhead for two municipalities - Padmanabapuram, Colachel and for 25 villages.Kalkulam
Kalkulam is a small village located in Kalkulam taluk, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. The taluk was among several in Thiruvananthapuram district that with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 were transferred from Thiruvananthapuram district, Travancore-Cochin State to the newly created Kanyakumari district of Madras State (the latter later renamed as Tamil Nadu State).Kerala mural painting
Kerala mural paintings are the frescos depicting mythology and legends, which are drawn on the walls of temples and churches in South India, principally in Kerala. Ancient temples, churches and palaces in Kerala, South India, display an abounding tradition of mural paintings mostly dating back between the 9th to 12th centuries CE when this form of art enjoyed Royal patronage.
The masterpieces of Kerala mural art include: the Shiva Temple in Ettumanoor, the Ramayana murals of Mattancherry Palace and Vadakkumnatha kshetram. The "Gajendra Moksham" mural painting in the Krishnapuram Palace near Kayamkulam, the Anantha Shayanam mural painting in the Pallikurup Mahavishnu Temple, Mannarkkad Palakkad District and the mural paintings in the sanctom of Padmanabha temple at Thiruvananthapuram are very famous.Some of the oldest, largest, and best executed murals in Kerala are to be found in the churches at Cheppad, Alappuzha (dozens of panels on the three walls of the Madhbaha depicting scenes from OT and NT),Paliekkara, Thiruvalla ( a dozen panels, scenes from NT), Angamaly(esp. huge murals "Hell", and "Last Judgement"), and Akapparambu.Kottar
Kottar is a locality and a bazaar area of Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu state, in the southernmost part of Peninsular India ; though a part of Nagercoil today, it is the original town around which the city of Nagercoil grew. It was an ancient trade center of both Pandyans and Cheras at various times. The name Kottar was derived from the Tamil word kottam+aaru (river). The trade centre was established on the banks of the Pahrali River.
St. Francis Xavier, the revered Roman Catholic saint and missionary, lived for a time at Kottar, in the 16th century. He built a small church himself at Kottar, which today forms part of the St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Kottar. Called 'Savariyar Kovil' by the local people, the Cathedral is visited by tens of thousands of devotees every year.
In the modern day, Kottar is one of the main bazaar areas of Kanyakumari District. The main railway station of Nagercoil, the Nagercoil Junction is at Kottar. The only Government Ayurveda Medical College in Tamilnadu state is also at Kottar.Krishnapuram Palace
The Krishnapuram Palace is a palace and museum located in Kayamkulam near Alappuzha in Alappuzha district, Kerala in southwestern India. It was built in the 18th century by Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma (1729–1758 AD), the Travancore kingdom. It is built in the architectural style of Kerala with gabled roof, narrow corridor and dormer windows, near the Krishnaswamy Temple at Krishnapuram.The palace is maintained by the Kerala State Department of Archaeology and contains exhibits that belonged to the Palace and its former occupant, the Travancore Maharaja Marthanda Varma. It is also famous for a large pond within the palace complex. It is also said that an underground escape route runs from the bottom of the pond as a possible escape route from enemies.Among the many Kerala-style paintings seen in the palace, a distinctly placed mural painting is titled "Gajendra Moksham" of 154 square feet (14.3 m2) size, which is said to be the largest such find in Kerala. It is placed on the western end of the ground floor of the palace.The double edged Kayamkulam Vaal (sword) is also on display here. The palace houses, in its courtyard, one of the four statues of Buddha found in Alappuzha District.Manavalakurichi
Manavalakurichi is a panchayat town in Kanniyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is hardly 60 km from Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala. Tamil and Malayalam are the common languages of people living here.
Manavalakurichi is located at . It has an average elevation of 0 metres (0 feet).
Marthandam is a major trade centre in Kuzhithura municipality across National Highway (NH 47) in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Also known to some by the name Thoduvetty (another name for the Marthandam market region), it was a portion of Kanyakumari district which was added to the state of Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956.
It is the second largest town next to Nagercoil in the district. Marthandam derived its name from the ruler of Travancore, Sri Padmanabhadasa Vanchipala Anizham Tirunal Bala Marthanda Varma. Martandam is famous for honey, cashew nut processing, rubber and hand-embroidered motifs. The area is full of greenery, and there is a river adjoining. It is also a major trade center due to its location bordering Kerala. It is one of the most fertile lands of Tamil Nadu and has the climatic conditions of Kerala. Methan mani
Methan Mani is a clock tower which stands next to the Padmanabha Swamy Temple, East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram in the south west Indian state of Kerala. It is a historic landmark and a tourist attraction.Moolachel
Moolachel, or Moolachy, is a village in Kanniyakumari District in the southern tip of India.
The primary occupation in this small village is agriculture. By the improvement of education, people are getting into various fields and also in various countries. There is a CSI Church (CSI Hacker Memorial Church) at the village center. There is a Creche and a matriculation School ran by the Church. Government High School and TNEB Sub Station/Office are also there in Moolachel. This village also have active self-help groups, which has helped a great deal.People of all religions live here. A channel runs across the village. It gives more beauty to the village
Moolachel is covered with trees & plants and green landscapes. Important areas include Valiavilai, Christu Nager, Saralvilai, Manali, Paalapazhi, Kannankarai Vilai. Kattuvilai, Valanvilai and Keezha Moolachel etc. It is near to Padmanabhapuram Palace. Thuckalay is the nearest town. Marthandam and Nagercoil are the nearby town centers. In olden days Moolachel is famous for Silambam and Kalial.''
Google Earth LocationNanjinad
Nanjinad (pronounced Nancinatu) is a historical region corresponding to present-day Thovala and Agastheeshwaram taluks and south half of Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district. The name comes from nanj, meaning 'plough', and nad, meaning 'land'. It was (and still is) an important centre of paddy (rice) cultivation. It formed the core around which the kingdom of Travancore was built. Padmanabhapuram Palace and Vattakottai fort were also situated in the Nanjil Nadu region.Padmanabhapuram
Padmanabhapuram is a town and a municipality near Thuckalay in Kanyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. As of 2011, the town had a population of 21,342.Quadrangle (architecture)
In architecture, a quadrangle (or colloquially, a quad) is a space or a courtyard, usually rectangular (square or oblong) in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly occupied by parts of a large building (or several smaller buildings). The word is probably most closely associated with college or university campus architecture, but quadrangles are also found in other buildings such as palaces. Most quadrangles are open-air, though a few have been roofed over (often with glass), to provide additional space for social meeting areas or coffee shops for students.
The word quadrangle was originally synonymous with quadrilateral, but this usage is now relatively uncommon.Some modern quadrangles resemble cloister gardens of medieval monasteries, called garths, which were usually square or rectangular, enclosed by covered arcades or cloisters. However, it is clear from the oldest examples (such as Mob Quad) which are plain and unadorned with arcades, that the medieval colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were creating practical accommodation for college members. Grander quadrangles that look like cloisters came later, once the idea of a college was well established and benefactors or founders wished to create more monumental buildings. Although architectonically analogous, for historical reasons quads in the colleges of the University of Cambridge are always referred to as courts (such as the Trinity Great Court).
In North America, Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia centered the housing and academic buildings in a Palladian form around three sides of the Lawn, a huge grassy expanse. Later, some American college and university planners imitated the Jeffersonian plan, the Oxbridge idea, Beaux-Arts forms, and other models. The University of Chicago's Gothic campus is also notable for its innovative use of quadrangles. All five barracks at The Citadel (military college) feature quadrangles with red-and-white squares (the colors of the South Carolina battle flag), which are used for formations by the Corps of Cadets.
Quadrangles are also found in traditional Kerala houses (Naalukettu) and is known as the Nadumittam ("Middle Space").Thuckalay
Thuckalay or Thakkalai is a town in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Thuckalay comes under the Padmanabhapuram Municipality, and is the administrative headquarters of Kalkulam Taluk. The Revenue Divisional Office is located in Mettukadai. Thuckalay is connected by road from both Thiruvananthapuram (51 km) and Nagercoil (17 km). The nearest railway station is located in Eraniel, which is approximately 5 km from Thuckalay. The nearest airport is the Trivandrum International Airport, which is approximately 51 km from Thuckalay.Tourism in Kerala
Kerala, a state situated on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. Named as one of the ten paradises of the world by National Geographic Traveler, Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives and beautiful backwaters. Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, have made Kerala one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy.Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination, with most tourism circuits concentrated around the north of the country. Aggressive marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation—the government agency that oversees tourism prospects of the state—laid the foundation for the growth of the tourism industry. In the decades that followed, Kerala Tourism was able to transform itself into one of the niche holiday destinations in India. The tag line Kerala – God's Own Country was adopted in its tourism promotions and became a global superbrand. Kerala is regarded as one of the destinations with the highest brand recall. In 2010, Kerala attracted 660,000 foreign tourist arrivals.Kerala is an established destination for both domestic as well as foreign tourists. Kerala is well known for its beaches, backwaters in Alappuzha and Kollam, mountain ranges and wildlife sanctuaries. Other popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Varkala, Kollam and Kapad; backwater tourism and lake resorts around Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam; hill stations and resorts at Munnar, Wayanad, Nelliampathi, Vagamon and Ponmudi; and national parks and wildlife sanctuaries at Periyar, Parambikulam and Eravikulam National Park. The "backwaters" region—an extensive network of interlocking rivers, lakes, and canals that centre on Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam, also see heavy tourist traffic. Heritage sites, such as the Padmanabhapuram Palace, Hill Palace, and Mattancherry Palace, are also visited. The city of Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala. To further promote tourism in Kerala, the Grand Kerala Shopping Festival was started by the Government of Kerala in 2007. Since then it has been held every year during the December–January period.
The state's tourism agenda promotes ecologically sustained tourism, which focuses on the local culture, wilderness adventures, volunteering and personal growth of the local population. Efforts are taken to minimise the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people.Vijayakrishnan
Vijayakrishnan was born in 1952 in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. He is a well-known film critic as well as a film director who also writes stories and movie reviews. Vijayakrishnan has received eight State Awards, one National Award, and two Critics Awards, among many others. Vijayakrishnan is a well known film historian in India.
Vijayakrishnan was a member of the Kerala State Film Award Committee, National Award Committee and the Indian Panorama Selection Committee for Filmotsav 1986. At present, he is a member of the Indian Central Board for Film Certification, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, and former Director Board Member of Kerala State Film Development Corporation. He is also a member of Board of Studies in Thunchath Ezhuthachan Malayalam University.