Padma Vibhushan

The Padma Vibhushan is the second-highest civilian award of the Republic of India, second only to the Bharat Ratna. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The award criteria include "service in any field including service rendered by Government servants" including doctors and scientists, but excluding those working with the public sector undertakings. As of 2018, the award has been bestowed on 303 individuals, including twelve posthumous and 19 non-citizen recipients.

During 1 May and 15 September of every year, the recommendations for the award are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, constituted by the Prime Minister of India. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals. The committee later submits their recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for the further approval. The award recipients are announced on Republic Day.

The first recipients of the award were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, and V. K. Krishna Menon, who were honoured in 1954. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute. The "Padma Vibhushan", along with other personal civil honours, was briefly suspended twice, from July 1977 to January 1980 and from August 1992 to December 1995. Some of the recipients have refused or returned their conferments. P. N. Haksar, Vilayat Khan, E. M. S. Namboodiripad, Swami Ranganathananda, and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award, the family members of Lakshmi Chand Jain (2011) and Sharad Anantrao Joshi (2016) declined their posthumous conferments, and Baba Amte returned his 1986 conferment in 1991. Most recently on 25 January 2018, the award has been bestowed upon three recipients; Ilaiyaraaja, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, and P. Parameswaran.

Padma Vibhushan
Awarded by
Emblem of India.svg
Government of India
CountryIndia
TypeNational Civilian
Ribbon
IND Padma Vibhushan BAR
ObverseA centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus.
ReverseA platinum Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Statistics
Established1954
Previous name(s)Padma Vibhushan "Pahela Warg" (Class I)
First awarded1954
Last awarded2018
Total awarded303
Precedence
Next (higher)
Bharat Ratna Ribbon
Bharat Ratna
Next (lower)
IND Padma Bhushan BAR
Padma Bhushan

History

On 2 January 1954, a press release was published from the office of the secretary to the President of India announcing the creation of two civilian awards—Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, and the three-tier Padma Vibhushan, classified into "Pahela Warg" (Class I), "Dusra Warg" (Class II), and "Tisra Warg" (Class III), which rank below the Bharat Ratna.[1] On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards: the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri.[2]

The award, along with other personal civilian honours, was briefly suspended twice in its history;[3] for the first time in July 1977 when Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister of India, for being "worthless and politicized".[4][5][6] The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980 after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister.[7] The civilian awards were suspended again in mid-1992, when two Public-Interest Litigations were filed in the High Courts of India, one in the Kerala High Court on 13 February 1992 by Balaji Raghavan and another in the Madhya Pradesh High Court (Indore Bench) on 24 August 1992 by Satya Pal Anand. Both petitioners questioned the civilian awards being "titles" per an interpretation of Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India.[6][a] On 25 August 1992, the Madhya Pradesh High Court issued a notice temporarily suspending all civilian awards.[6] A Special Division Bench of the Supreme Court of India was formed comprising five judges: A. M. Ahmadi C. J., Kuldip Singh, B. P. Jeevan Reddy, N. P. Singh, and S. Saghir Ahmad. On 15 December 1995, the Special Division Bench restored the awards and delivered a judgment that the "Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are not titles under Article 18 of the Constitution of India".[9]

Regulations

The award is conferred for "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The criteria include "service in any field including service rendered by Government servants", but excludes those working with the public sector undertakings, with the exception of doctors and scientists.[10] The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards,[1] but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute;[2] Aditya Nath Jha, Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq, and Vikram Sarabhai became the first recipients to be honoured posthumously in 1972.[11]

The recommendations are received from all state and union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers, the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament, including private individuals. The recommendations received during 1 May and 15 September of every year are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, convened by the Prime Minister of India. The Awards Committee later submits its recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for further approval.[10]

The Padma Vibhushan award recipients are announced every year on Republic Day of India and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication released weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Urban Development used for official government notices.[10] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. Recipients whose awards have been revoked or restored, both of which actions require the authority of the President, are also registered in the Gazette and are required to surrender their medals when their names are struck from the register.[2]

Specifications

The original 1954 specifications of the award called for a circle made of gold gilt 1 38 inches (35 mm) in diameter, with rims on both sides. A centrally located lotus flower was embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma Vibhushan" written in Devanagari script was inscribed above the lotus along the upper edge of the medal. A floral wreath was embossed along the lower edge and a lotus wreath at the top along the upper edge. The Emblem of India was placed in the centre of the reverse side with the text "Desh Seva" in Devanagari Script on the lower edge. The medal was suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width divided into two equal segments by a white vertical line.[1]

A year later, the design was modified. The current decoration is a circular-shaped bronze toned medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob carved within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of 1 116 inches (27 mm) in diameter is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus. The Emblem of India is placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs), in Devanagari Script, inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges. and all embossing on either side is of white gold with the text "Padma Vibhushan" of silver gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width.[2]

The medal is ranked fourth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations.[12] The medals are produced at Alipore Mint, Kolkata along with the other civilian and military awards like Bharat Ratna, Padma Bhushan, Padma Shri, and Param Veer Chakra.[13]

Recipients

Award recipients by year[11]
Year Number of recipients
1954–59
17
1960–69
27
1970–79
53
1980–89
20
1990–99
42
2000–09
86
2010–present
58
Award recipients by field[11]
Field Number of recipients
Arts
57
Civil Service
53
Literature & Education
40
Medicine
13
Others
5
Public Affairs
68
Science & Engineering
35
Social Work
17
Sports
3
Trade & Industry
12

The first recipients of the Padma Vibhushan were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nandalal Bose, Zakir Husain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, V. K. Krishna Menon, and Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, who were honoured in 1954. As of 2017, the award has been bestowed on 300 individuals, including 12 posthumous and 19 non-citizen recipients.[11] Some of the conferments have been refused or returned by the recipients; P. N. Haksar,[b] Vilayat Khan,[c], E. M. S. Namboodiripad,[d], Swami Ranganathananda,[e] and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award;[19] the family members of Lakshmi Chand Jain (2011) and Sharad Anantrao Joshi (2016) declined their posthumous conferments,[f][g] and Baba Amte returned his 1986 conferment in 1991.[h] On 25 January 2018, the award has been bestowed upon three recipients; Ilaiyaraaja, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, and P. Parameswaran.[11]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Per Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India: Abolition of titles, "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State".[8]
  2. ^ P. N. Haksar was offered the award in 1973 for, among other services, his crucial diplomatic role in brokering the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation and the Shimla Agreement, but declined as "Accepting an award for work done somehow causes an inexplicable discomfort to me."[14]
  3. ^ Vilayat Khan refused Padma Shri (1964), Padma Bhushan (1968), and Padma Vibhushan (2000) and stated that "the selection committees were incompetent to judge [his] music".[15][16]
  4. ^ E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) from 1964) and the first Chief Minister of Kerala (1957-59, 1967-69), declined the award in 1992, as it went against his nature to accept a state honour.[17]
  5. ^ Swami Ranganathananda declined the award in 2000 as it was conferred to him as an individual and not to the Ramakrishna Mission.[16][18]
  6. ^ Lakshmi Chand Jain died on 14 November 2010, at the age of 84.[20] His family refused to accept the posthumous honour as Jain was against accepting state honours.[21]
  7. ^ Sharad Anantrao Joshi's family refused to accept the posthumous honour as Joshi's work for good of farmers is not reflected in the Government policies for them.[22]
  8. ^ In 1991, Baba Amte returned the award, along with the Padma Shri conferred in 1971, to protest against the treatment given to the tribals during the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam.[23]

References

  1. ^ a b c Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg'
  2. ^ a b c d Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015. All persons upon whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan (Pahela Warg) was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan has been conferred by the President.
  3. ^ Hoiberg & Ramchandani 2000, p. 96.
  4. ^ Mukul, Akshaya (20 January 2008). "The great Bharat Ratna race". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  5. ^ Bhattacherje 2009, p. A248.
  6. ^ a b c Edgar 2011, p. C-105.
  7. ^ Bhattacherje 2009, p. A253.
  8. ^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Balaji Raghavan S. P. Anand Vs. Union of India: Transfer Case (civil) 9 of 1994". Supreme Court of India. 4 August 1997. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Padma Awards: Year wise list of recipients (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 1, 3–6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 19–20, 23, 25, 29, 32–33, 37, 42, 48, 55, 59, 63, 66, 69–70, 72, 74, 83, 86, 88, 90–93, 95, 99–100, 105–106, 112, 114–115, 117–118, 121, 126, 131, 135, 139–140, 144, 149, 154–155, 160, 166, 172, 178, 183, 188. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    • "Padma Awards: 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2015. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    • "Padma Awards: 2016" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2016. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
    • "Padma Awards: 2017" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2017. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
    • "Padma Awards: 2018" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2018. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Crafting Bharat Ratna, Padma Medals at Kolkata Mint". Press Information Bureau. 26 January 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  14. ^ "Haksar and the Padma Vibhushan". The Hindu. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  15. ^ Kaminsky, Arnold P.; Long, Roger D. (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017.
  16. ^ a b Venkatesan, V. (5 February 2000). "Spotlight: Republic Day honours". 17 (3). Frontline. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  17. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (2001). An Anthropologist Among the Marxists and Other Essays. Permanent Black. p. 211. ISBN 81-7824-001-7.
  18. ^ "Ranganathananda, kept alive spirit of Vivekananda's legacy". The Hindu. 31 May 2005. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  19. ^ Kumar, A. Prasanna (1983). "The Privilege of Knowing M. C.". Triveni: Journal of Indian Renaissance. 52. Triveni Publishers. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  20. ^ Pawar, Yogesh (15 November 2010). "Gandhian activist who revitalised Indian handicraft dies at 85". Daily News Analysis. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  21. ^ "Gandhian's family declines Padma Vibhushan". Mumbai Mirror. The Times of India. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  22. ^ Chavan, Vijay (26 January 2016). "Sharad Joshi's family refuses Padma award". Pune Mirror. The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  23. ^ D'Monte, Darryl (2011). Dharker, Anil, ed. Icons: Men and Women Who Shaped India's Today. Roli Books Private Limited. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-7436-944-4. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016.
    • Deshpande, Neeta (11 February 2008). "The Good Life". Outlook. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.

Bibliography

External links

Aditya Nath Jha

Aditya Nath Jha of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) is the recipient of Padma Vibhushan in 1972 for his service to Civil Services in India. He belonged to the 1937 batch of the ICS.Jha was the son of Sir Ganganath Jha, and the brother of Shri Amarnath Jha, a scholar of English and Sanskrit and former vice-chancellor of Allahabad University.

He also served as the first director of the National Academy of Administration, Mussorie.

Anthony Lancelot Dias

Anthony Lancelot Dias, also known as A. L. Dias (13 March 1910 – 22 September 2002), was an Indian Civil Service officer from the Maharashtra cadre. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1970 for his management of a drought in Bihar. He was the Chief commissioner or Lieutenant governor of Tripura from 1969 to 1971. He was the Governor of West Bengal from 1971 to 1977.

B. Sivaraman

Balaram Sivaraman was an Indian civil servant, writer and the sixth defence secretary of India. He assumed office on the New Year's Day of 1969 and held the position until November 30, 1970. The Government of India awarded him Padma Vibhushan, the second highest Indian civilian award, in 1971.

Bhola Nath Jha

Bhola Nath Jha is the recipient of Padma Vibhushan (1967), the second highest civilian honor of India, for his contribution to the field of civil services.

C. K. Daphtary

Chander Kishan Daphtary (1893 – February 1983) was an Indian lawyer and was the first Solicitor General of India from 1950 to 1963. He was the Attorney General for India from 1963 to 1968. He was President of the Bar Association of India. He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha the Upper House of Indian Parliament from 1972 to 1978. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1967.

D. P. Chattopadhyaya

Debi Prasad Chattopadhyaya (born November 5, 1933) is the Founder/Chairman of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi. Currently, he is the Chairman of the Centre for Studies in Civilizations, and General Editor of the Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture, which produced a multi-volume cultural history of India.

Chattopadhyay has authored many books on culture and philosophy. In 2009 he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian award.

D. S. Joshi

Dattatraya Shridhar Joshi was an Indian Civil Service member and former cabinet secretary of India. He served as cabinet secretary of India from 27 June 1966 to 31 December 1968.He was awarded Padma Vibhushan, second highest civilian honour of India by the President of India, in 1969.

Harish Chandra Sarin

Harish Chandra Sarin (1914–1997) was an Indian civil servant, writer and the defence secretary of India. He assumed office on November 3, 1968 and held the position until December 7, 1970. He was the author of the book, Defence and Development.Sarin was born on May 27, 1914 at Deoria in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and was an alumnus of Cambridge University. He held the position of the Defence Secretary past his retirement age. Sarin, who was married to Pushpa Rathore, died on January 27, 1997. The Government of India awarded him Padma Vibhushan, the second highest Indian civilian award, in 1967. He was also a recipient of the First Special IMF Award of the Indian Mountaineering Foundation in 1993.

Jasbir Singh Bajaj

Jasbir Singh Bajaj, is an Indian physician and diabetologist. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian award, for his outstanding contribution to the medical sciences and research, and his efforts to improve the healthcare delivery system. Earlier he was decorated with the Padma Shri in 1981 and the Padma Bhushan in 1982. He is the first Punjabi and only the ninth person in the country to receive the award for services in the field of medicine and research.Bajaj was a member (health) of the Planning Commission with the rank of Minister of state in 1991-98. He joined the AIIMS faculty in 1966 and in 1979 was appointed professor and head of medicine. He was appointed honorary physician to the President of India during 1977-1982 and again from 1987 to 1992. He was also consultant physician to the Prime minister from 1991 to 1996. He specializes in endocrinology and was honoured by the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden when, at the time of its 175th anniversary celebration in 1985, Doctorate in Medicine was conferred upon him. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London as well as of Edinburgh, and of the National Academy of Medical Sciences. He is also a founder fellow of the Indian College of Physicians.

John Mathai

John Mathai CIE (1886-1959) was an economist who served as India's first Railway Minister and subsequently as India's Finance Minister, taking office shortly after the presentation of India's first Budget, in 1948. Mathai graduated in economics from University of Madras. He served as a Professor and Head in University of Madras from 1922 to 1925. He presented two Budgets, but resigned following the 1950 Budget in protest at the increasing power of the Planning Commission and P. C. Mahalanobis. He was the first Chairman of the State Bank of India when it was set up in 1955. He was the founding President of the Governing Body of NCAER, the National Council of Applied Economic Research in New Delhi, India’s first independent economic policy institute established in 1956. He served as the Vice Chancellor of the University of Mumbai from 1955 till 1957 and then as the first Vice Chancellor of the University of Kerala from 1957 to 1959. His nephew, Verghese Kurien, was the father of India's White Revolution. Dr. John Matthai Centre, Thrissur, located on the large plot of land donated by his family, is named in his honour. His wife, Achamma Mathai was an Indian social worker, women's rights activist,Government of India honoured her in 1954, with the award of Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award for her contributions to the society,John Mathai was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1934, and was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1959.

K. B. Lall

K.B. Lall (died in 2005 after a brief illness) was an eminent and highly respected civil servant of India and a member of ICS.

He was Principal Defence Secretary of India in Indo-Pak war in 1971. Earlier, he served as Commerce Secretary as well as Ambassador to the European Common Market, as the European Union was then known.

Greatly respected by Defence minister Jagjivan Ram, Lall's stewardship of the Ministry of defence contributed materially to the smooth conduct of, and victory in the 1971 War.

He was conferred Padma Vibhushan award in 2000.

He died at the age of 88 in 2005.

K. Parasaran

K. Parasaran (born 9 October 1927) is an Indian lawyer. He was Advocate-General of Tamil Nadu during President's rule in 1976 and then, Attorney General of India under Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Parasaran was awarded the Padma Bhushan in the year 2003 and Padma Vibhushan in the year 2011. In June 2012, he received a presidential nomination to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's parliament.

List of Padma Vibhushan award recipients

The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for the "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The Padma Vibhushan award recipients are announced every year on Republic Day and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication released weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Urban Development used for official government notices. The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. Recipients whose awards have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, are also registered in the Gazette and are required to surrender their medals when their names are struck from the register. As of 2018, none of the conferments of Padma Vibhushan have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals. The recommendations received during 1 May and 15 September of every year are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, constituted by the Prime Minister. The committee recommendations are later submitted to the Prime Minister and the President for the further approval.When instituted in 1954, the Padma Vibhushan was classified as "Pahela Warg" (Class I) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards; preceded by the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, and followed by "Dusra Warg" (Class II), and "Tisra Warg" (Class III). On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards; the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri. The criteria includes "exceptional and distinguished service in any field including service rendered by Government servants" but excluding those working with the Public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute. The award, along with other personal civil honours, was briefly suspended twice in its history; for the first time in July 1977 when Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister. The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980, after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister. The civilian awards were suspended again in mid-1992, when two Public-Interest Litigations were filed in the High Courts questioning the civilian awards being "Titles" per an interpretation of Article 18 (1) of the Constitution. The awards were reintroduced by the Supreme Court in December 1995, following the conclusion of the litigation.The recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medal with no monetary grant associated with the award. The decoration is a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 3⁄4 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 3⁄16 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob embossed within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 1⁄16 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus. The Emblem of India is placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script, inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of white gold with the text "Padma Vibhushan" of silver gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 1⁄4 inches (32 mm) in width. It is ranked fourth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations.The first recipients of the Padma Vibhushan were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nandalal Bose, Zakir Husain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, V. K. Krishna Menon, and Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, who were honoured in 1954. As of 2017, the award has been bestowed on 300 individuals, including twelve posthumous and nineteen non-citizen recipients. Some of the recipients have refused or returned their awards; P. N. Haksar, Vilayat Khan, E. M. S. Namboodiripad, Swami Ranganathananda, and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award; the family members of Lakshmi Chand Jain (2011) and Sharad Anantrao Joshi (2016) declined their posthumous conferments, and 1986 recipient Baba Amte returned his honour in 1991. Most recently on 25 January 2018, the award has been bestowed upon three recipients; Ilaiyaraaja, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, and P. Parameswaran.

Niren De

Niren De was an Indian Lawyer and was the Attorney General of India from November 1968 to March 1977 and it covered Indian Emergency. He was earlier the Solicitor General of India. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1974. He was also the Chairman of the Bar council of India.

P. V. R. Rao

Pattadakal Venkanna Raghavendra Rao was an Indian civil servant, writer and the sixth defence secretary of India. He assumed office on November 21, 1962, the day the Sino-Indian War ended and held the position until April 3, 1965. He was the author of three books, India's Defence Policy and Organisation Since Independence, Defence without drift and Red Tape and White Cap. The Government of India awarded him Padma Vibhushan, the second highest Indian civilian award, in 1967.

Prathap C. Reddy

Prathap Chandra Reddy (born 5 February 1933 ) is an Indian entrepreneur and cardiologist who founded the first corporate chain of hospitals in India, the Apollo Hospitals. India Today ranked him 48th in its 2017 list of India's 50 most powerful people.==Background==

Reddy was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1991 and received the Padma Vibhushan, which is India's second-highest civilian award, in 2010. In an interview for the Creating Emerging Markets project at the Harvard Business School, Reddy explained how he navigated India's bureaucracy to bring healthcare to the country.

Raghunath Mohapatra

Raghunath Mohapatra (born 23 March 1943) Rajya Sabha MP is an architect and sculptor from Odisha state in India. He was awarded Padma Shri in 1975 and Padma Bhushan in 2001. He was awarded Padma Vibhushan in 2013 on occasion of 64th Republic day of India.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (; listen ; 19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States. He was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics with William A. Fowler for "...theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". His mathematical treatment of stellar evolution yielded many of the best current theoretical models of the later evolutionary stages of massive stars and black holes. The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him.

Chandrasekhar worked on a wide variety of physical problems in his lifetime, contributing to the contemporary understanding of stellar structure, white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, stochastic process, radiative transfer, the quantum theory of the hydrogen anion, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, turbulence, equilibrium and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity, mathematical theory of black holes and theory of colliding gravitational waves. At the University of Cambridge, he developed a theoretical model explaining the structure of white dwarf stars that took into account the relativistic variation of mass with the velocities of electrons that comprise their degenerate matter. He showed that the mass of a white dwarf could not exceed 1.44 times that of the Sun – the Chandrasekhar limit. Chandrasekhar revised the models of stellar dynamics first outlined by Jan Oort and others by considering the effects of fluctuating gravitational fields within the Milky Way on stars rotating about the galactic centre. His solution to this complex dynamical problem involved a set of twenty partial differential equations, describing a new quantity he termed 'dynamical friction', which has the dual effects of decelerating the star and helping to stabilize clusters of stars. Chandrasekhar extended this analysis to the interstellar medium, showing that clouds of galactic gas and dust are distributed very unevenly.

Chandrasekhar studied at Presidency College, Madras (now Chennai) and the University of Cambridge. A long-time professor at the University of Chicago, he did some of his studies at the Yerkes Observatory, and served as editor of The Astrophysical Journal from 1952 to 1971. He was on the faculty at Chicago from 1937 until his death in 1995 at the age of 84, and was the Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics.Chandrasekhar married Lalitha Doraiswamy in September 1936. He had met her as a fellow student at Presidency College, Madras. Chandrasekhar was the nephew of C. V. Raman, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930. He became a naturalized citizen of the U.S. in 1953. Many considered him as warm, positive, generous, unassuming, meticulous, and open to debate, while some others as private, intimidating, impatient and stubborn regarding non-scientific matters, and unforgiving to those who ridiculed his work.

Suranjan Das

Suranjan Das (February 22, 1920 – January 10, 1970) was a pilot in the Indian Air Force. He joined the Royal Indian Air Force during the Second World War. He was amongst the first pilots to be sent to Empire Test Pilots School to a test pilot for the Indian Air force. He was a group captain. He commanded the Halwara Air Force Station Base between 1967 and 1969 and was the director of the Aircraft & Armament Testing Group of the Indian Air Force from 1969 until his death. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan posthumously in 1970. He was the son of Sudhi Ranjan Das He died in an air crash while test flying a HAL HF-24 prototype.

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