Pacific Islands Americans

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.[2][3]

Pacific Islander Americans make up 0.5% of the U.S. population including those with partial Pacific Islander ancestry, enumerating about 1.4 million people. The largest ethnic subgroups of Pacific Islander Americans are Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Chamorros, Fijians, Marshallese and Tongans. Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros have large communities in Hawaii, California, Utah, American Samoa, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, with sizable communities in Washington, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Florida, and Alaska. Fijians are predominantly based in California.

American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands are insular areas (U.S. territories), while Hawaii is a state.

Pacific Islands Americans
Oceanian Americans
Total population
608,219 alone
0.2% of the total U.S. population (2017)[1]
1,225,195 alone or in combination
0.4% of the total U.S. population (2010 Census)
Regions with significant populations
 American Samoa,  Guam,
 Northern Mariana Islands,
 California,  Hawaii,  Washington,  Oregon,  Nevada,  Alaska,
 Texas,  Florida
Languages
American English, Polynesian languages, Micronesian languages
Religion
Christianity, Polytheism, Bahá'í, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism
Related ethnic groups
Pacific Islanders, Austronesians

Population

In the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Census, the term "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Tonga, Samoa, Fiji, the Marshalls or other Pacific Islands.

In the 2010 census 1,225,195 Americans claimed "'Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander'" as their race alone or in combination.

Pacific Islands Americans in the 2000[4]2010 U.S. Census[5] (From over 1,000 people)

Ancestry 2000 2000 % of Pacific Islands American population 2010 2010 % of Pacific Islands American population
Flag of Hawaii.svg Native Hawaiians 401,162 45.9% 527,077 43.0%
Flag of American Samoa.svg Flag of Samoa.svg Samoan 133,281 15.2% 184,440 15.1%
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Flag of Guam.svg Chamorro 93,237 (Guamanian or Chamorro: 92,611; Saipanese: 475; Mariana Islander: 141) 10.7% 148,220 (Guamanian or Chamorro: 147,798; Saipanese: 1,031; Mariana Islander: 391) 12.2%
Flag of Tonga.svg Tongan 36,840 4.2% 57,183 4.7%
Flag of Fiji.svg Fijian 13,581 1.6% 32,304 2.6%
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg Marshallese 6,650 0.8% 22,434 1.8%
Flag of Palau.svg Palauan 3,469 0.4% 7,450 0.6%
Flag of French Polynesia.svg French Polynesian 3,313 0.4% 5,062 0.4%
Flag of New Zealand.svg Polynesians with New Zealand citizenship (Māori, Tokelauans, Niueans, Cook Islanders) 2,422 (Māori: 1,994; Tokelauans: 574) 0.3% 925 (Tokelauans only) 0.1%
Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg Micronesian (FSM) 1,948 0.2% 8,185 0.7%
"Micronesian" (not specified) 9,940 1.1% 29,112 2.4%
"Polynesian" (not specified) 8,796 1.0% 9,153 0.7%
Others 188,389 % 241,952 %
TOTAL 874,414 100.0% 1,225,195 100.0%

Location

State/territory Pacific Islands
Americans alone
(2010 US Census)[6]
Pacific Islands Americans
alone or in combination
(2010 US Census)[7]
Percentage
(Pacific Islands
Americans alone)[note 1]
 Alabama 5,208 7,984 0.1%
 Alaska 7,662 11,360 1.0%
 American Samoa 51,403[8] 52,790[9] 92.6%[10]
 Arizona 16,112 28,431 0.2%
 Arkansas 6,685 8,597 0.2%
 California 181,431 320,036 0.8%
 Colorado 8,420 16,823 0.1%
 Connecticut 3,491 6,864 0.0%
 Delaware 690 1,423 0.0%
 District of Columbia 770 1,514 -
 Florida 18,790 43,416 -
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 10,454 18,587 0.1%
 Guam 78,582 [11] 90,238 [12] 49.3%[13]
 Hawaii 138,292 358,951 10.0%
 Idaho 2,786 5,508 0.1%
 Illinois 7,436 15,873 -
 Indiana 3,532 7,392 0.1%
 Iowa 2,419 4,173 0.1%
 Kansas 2,864 5,445 0.1%
 Kentucky 3,199 5,698 0.1%
 Louisiana 2,588 5,333 -
 Maine 377 1,008 -
 Maryland 5,391 11,553 -
 Massachusetts 5,971 12,369 -
 Michigan 3,442 10,010 <0.1%
 Minnesota 2,958 6,819 0.0%
 Mississippi 1,700 3,228 -
 Missouri 7,178 12,136 0.1%
 Montana 734 1,794 0.1%
 Nebraska 2,061 3,551 0.1%
 Nevada 19,307 35,435 0.6%
 New Hampshire 532 1,236 -
 New Jersey 7,731 15,777 -
 New Mexico 3,132 5,750 0.1%
 New York 24,000 45,801 0.1%
 North Carolina 10,309 17,891 0.1%
  North Dakota 334 801 0.1%
 Northern Mariana Islands 18,800 [14] 24,891 [15] 34.9%[16]
 Ohio 5,336 11,380 0.03%
 Oklahoma 5,354 9,052 0.1%
 Oregon 14,649 26,936 0.4%
 Pennsylvania 7,115 14,662 -
 Puerto Rico 370 [17][18] No data 0.0%
 Rhode Island 1,602 2,803 0.1%
 South Carolina 3,957 6,988 0.1%
 South Dakota 517 1,040 0.1%
 Tennessee 5,426 9,359 0.1%
 Texas 31,242 54,801 0.1%
 Utah 26,049 37,994 1.3%
 Vermont 175 476 -
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (U.S.) 16 [19] No data 0.0%
 Virginia 8,201 17,233 0.1%
 Washington 43,505 73,213 0.6%
 West Virginia 485 1,295 -
 Wisconsin 2,505 5,558 -
 Wyoming 521 1,137 0.1%
 United States 674,625 1,332,494 0.2%

Micronesian Americans

Micronesian Americans are Americans of Micronesian descent.

According to the 2010 census, the largest Chamoru populations were located in California, Washington and Texas, but their combined number from these three states totaled less than half the number living throughout the U.S. It also revealed that the Chamoru people are the most geographically dispersed Oceanic ethnicity in the country.[20]

Marshallese Americans or Marshallese come from the Marshall Islands. In the 2010 census 22,434 Americans identified as being of Marshallese descent.

Because of the Marshall Islands entering the Compact of Free Association in 1986, Marshallese have been allowed to migrate and work in the United States. There are many reasons why Marshallese came to the United States. Some Marshallese came for educational opportunities, particularly for their children. Others sought work or better health care than what’s available in the islands. Massive layoffs by the Marshallese government in 2000 led to a second big wave of immigration.

Arkansas has the largest Marshallese population with over 6,000 residents. Many live in Springdale, and the Marshallese comprise over 5% of the city's population. Other significant Marshallese populations include Spokane and Costa Mesa.

Polynesian Americans

Polynesian Americans are Americans of Polynesian descent.

Large subcategories of Polynesian Americans include Native Hawaiians and Samoan Americans. In addition there are smaller communities of Tongan Americans (see Culture and diaspora of Tonga), French Polynesian Americans, and Māori Americans.

A Samoan American is an American who is of ethnic Samoan descent either from the independent nation Samoa or the American territory of American Samoa. Samoan American is a subcategory of Polynesian American. About 55,000 people live on American Samoa, while the US census in 2000 and 2008 has found 4 times the number of Samoan Americans live in the mainland USA.

California has the most Samoans; concentrations live in the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, and San Diego County. San Francisco has approximately 2,000 people of Samoan ancestry, and other Bay Area cities such as East Palo Alto and Daly City have Samoan communities. In Los Angeles County, Long Beach and Carson have abundant Samoan communities, as well as in Oceanside in San Diego County.[21][22][23] Other West Coast metropolitan areas such as Seattle have strong Samoan communities, mainly in King County and in Tacoma. Anchorage, Alaska and Honolulu, Hawaii both have thousands of Samoan Americans residing in each city.

Persons born in American Samoa are United States nationals, but not United States citizens.[24] (This is the only circumstance under which an individual would be one and not the other.) For this reason, Samoans can move to Hawaii or the mainland United States and obtain citizenship comparatively easily. Like Hawaiian Americans, the Samoans arrived in the mainland in the 20th century as agricultural laborers and factory workers.

Elsewhere in the United States, Samoan Americans are plentiful throughout the state of Utah, as well as in Killeen, Texas, Norfolk, Virginia and Independence, Missouri.

A Tongan American is an American who is of ethnic Tongan descent. Utah has the largest Tongan American population and Hawaii has the second largest. Many of the first Tongan Americans came to the United States in connection to the LDS Church.

Military

Based on 2003 recruiting data, Pacific Islander Americans were 249% over-represented in the military.[25]

American Samoans are distinguished among the wider Pacific Islander group for enthusiasm for enlistment. In 2007, a Chicago Tribune reporter covering the island's military service noted, "American Samoa is one of the few places in the nation where military recruiters not only meet their enlistment quotas but soundly exceed them."[26] As of 23 March 2009 there have been 10 American Samoans who have died in Iraq, and 2 who have died in Afghanistan.[27]

Pacific Islander Americans are also represented in the Navy SEALS, making up .6% of the enlisted and .1% of the officers.[28]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Pacific Islanders relative to the state/territory population as a whole — the percentage is of Pacific Islands Americans alone.

References

  1. ^ "Pacific Islanders 2017 Origin: 2017". US Census Bureau.
  2. ^ University of Virginia. Geospatial and Statistical Data Center. "1990 PUMS Ancestry Codes." 2003. August 30, 2007."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2007-08-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Clark Library - U-M Library". www.lib.umich.edu.
  4. ^ The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population, Census 2000
  5. ^ The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010 Census, 2010 Census Briefs, United States Bureau of the Census, May 2012
  6. ^ US Census Bureau: " Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" retrieved September 05, 2016 - select state from drop-down menu
  7. ^ US Census Bureau: " Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" retrieved September 05, 2016 - select state from drop-down menu
  8. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  9. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  10. ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/american_samoa/demographics_profile.html Indexmundi.com. American Samoa. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  11. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  12. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  13. ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/guam/demographics_profile.html Indexmundi.com. Guam. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  14. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  15. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  16. ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/northern_mariana_islands/demographics_profile.html Indexmundi.com. Northern Mariana Islands. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  17. ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk American FactFinder. Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010. 2010 Census Summary File 1. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  18. ^ https://suburbanstats.org/race/puerto-rico/how-many-native-hawaiian-pacific-islander-people-live-in-puerto-rico Suburbanstats.org. Pacific Islanders in Puerto Rico. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  19. ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_VISF_P3&prodType=table American FactFinder. Race (Total Population). 2010 U.S. Virgin Islands Summary File. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  20. ^ "2010 Census Shows More than Half of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders Report Multiple Races". United States Census 2010. United States government. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  21. ^ Knight, Heather (March 1, 2006). "A YEAR AT MALCOLM X: Second Chance at Success Samoan families learn American culture". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  22. ^ Sahagun, Louis (October 1, 2009). "Samoans in Carson hold church services for tsunami, earthquake victims". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  23. ^ Garrison, Jessica. "Samoan Americans at a Crossroads", Los Angeles Times, April 14, 2000. Retrieved 2010-10-3.
  24. ^ https://harvardlawreview.org/2017/04/american-samoa-and-the-citizenship-clause/ American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism. Chapter 3. Harvard Law Review. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  25. ^ "Who Bears the Burden?". Heritage Foundation.
  26. ^ Scharnberg, Kirsten (March 21, 2007). "Young Samoans have little choice but to enlist". Chicago Tribune.
  27. ^ Congressman Faleomavaega (23 March 2009). "WASHINGTON, D.C.—AMERICAN SAMOA DEATH RATE IN THE IRAQ WAR IS HIGHEST AMONG ALL STATES AND U.S. TERRITORIES". Press Release. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  28. ^ "Navy SEALS to Diversify". Time. March 12, 2012.

External links

African Americans in Alabama

African Americans in Alabama are residents of the state of Alabama who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 26.5% of the state's population.

African Americans in California

African-American Californians or Black Californians are residents of the state of California who are of African ancestry. According to U.S. Census Bureau, those identified as African American or black constituted 5.9% or 2,265,387 residents in California in 2015.

African Americans in Florida

African Americans in Florida are residents of the state of Florida who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 16.6% of the state's population. The African-American presence in the peninsula extends as far back as the early 18th century, when African-American slaves escaped from slavery in Georgia into the swamps of the peninsula.

African Americans in Georgia (U.S. state)

African-American Georgians are residents of the U.S. state of Georgia who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 31.2% of the state's population.

African Americans in Louisiana

African Americans in Louisiana are residents of the state of Louisiana who are of African-American ancestry.

African Americans in Mississippi

African Americans in Mississippi are residents of the state of Mississippi who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 37.4% of the state's population.

African Americans in North Carolina

African-American North Carolinians are residents of the state of North Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 22% of the state's population.

African Americans in South Carolina

African-American South Carolinians are residents of the state of South Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 28% of the state's population. The first African descendants were brought on South Carolina shores as slaves by wealthy white planters from Barbados. Black people constituted the majority population of the colony by 1720, but were largely enslaved for plantation labor. This intensified when the later U.S. state of South Carolina largely switched from a rice-and-indigo-growing agriculture to one of cotton. The Civil War freed most African-Americans in the state, and a troubled respite from racist terrorism prevailed during the Reconstruction Era, but segregation dominated the government and economy of South Carolina from the 1870s to the 1960s, when the Civil rights movement occurred and African-Americans regained their voting rights.

A subset of the African-American population, the Gullah, live largely on the coastline of South Carolina.

Asian Pacific American

Asian-Pacific American (APA) or Asian-Pacific Islander (API) is a term sometimes used in the United States to include both Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans.

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, South Asia, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and in South Asia, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan." A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.

Asian or Pacific Islander was an option to indicate race and ethnicity in the United States Censuses in the 1990 and 2000 Census as well as in several Census Bureau studies in between, including Current Population Surveys reports and updates between 1994 and 2002. A 1997 Office of Management and Budget directive separated the "Asian or Pacific Islander" racial category into two categories: "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander." Following this change, he U.S. Census Bureau defined Asian as "a person having origins in the in any of the original people of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam." The U.S. Census Bureau defined Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander as "a person having origins in any of the original people of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands."

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, South Asia, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and in South Asia, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan." A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.

The term is used in reference to Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week, the first ten days of May, established in 1978 by a joint resolution in United States Congress. The commemorative week was expanded to a month (Asian Pacific American Heritage Month) by Congress in 1992. The month of May was chosen to celebrate the emigration of the first Japanese Americans on May 7, 1843, and to honor the Chinese immigrants who contributed to the transcontinental railroad which was completed on May 10, 1896.The term is also used by several state boards and commissions, including in Washington, Michigan, Maryland, and Connecticut. The term is also used in the names of several non-profit groups, such as the A|P|A History Collective, Center for Asian Pacific American Women, Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund, and National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development. Asian Pacific Americans are listed as a group on the United States Army website.

Australian Americans

Australian Americans are Americans who have Australian ancestry.

Belizean Americans

Belizean Americans are Americans who are of Belizean ancestry. These ancestors might be from Belize or of its diaspora.

German Nebraskan

German Nebraskans are residents of the state of Nebraska who are of German ancestry. As of the 2000 U.S. Census, there are 738,894 German Americans living in Nebraska, making up 42.7% of the population, the third largest percentage of any state.

Guyanese Americans

Guyanese Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry back to Guyana.

Jainism in the United States

Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early 1970s.

List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress

This is a list of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the U.S. Congress.

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.As of 2019, there are 13 representatives and 3 senators of Asian-American descent who are currently serving in Congress. In addition, there are one representative and three non-voting delegates of Pacific Islander descent who currently are also serving. Since 1900, 19 Pacific Islanders have been elected to the House of Representatives (17 of them as non-voting Resident Commissioners, Delegates or Resident Representatives) and one has been elected to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first territory to send a Pacific Islander to the House of Representatives (in 1900) and was also the first state to send a Pacific Islander to the U.S. Senate (in 1990). Since 1957, 35 Asian Americans have been elected to the House of Representatives and 9 to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first of four states to send an Asian American to the Senate (1959) and Illinois is the most recent state to elect a senator of similar descent for the first time (2016). With respect to the House of Representatives, California was the first of 12 states to elect an Asian American to the House (1956), and New Jersey is the most recent to do so for the first time (2018). Three Asian-American women have been elected to the Senate (all three of whom currently are incumbents and represent California, Hawaii and Illinois, respectively), and ten have been elected to the House (five of whom currently are incumbents) from six separate states.

List of minority attorneys general in the United States

This is a list of minority attorneys general in the United States. In the United States, an ethnic minority is anyone who has at least one parent who is not of non-Hispanic white descent (such as African Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islands Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, or Native Americans). Ethnic minorities currently constitute around 38% of the total population.

Oceanian Americans

Oceanian Americans or Oceanic Americans are Americans whose ancestors came from Oceania, a region which is compose of the Australian continent and the Pacific Islands.

There are basically two Oceanian American groups, that well represent the racial and cultural population of Oceania: Euro Oceanic Americans (Australian Americans and New Zealand Americans) and the indigenous peoples of Oceania in the United States or Pacific Islands Americans (Chamorro Americans, Samoan Americans, etc.) Most of the Euro-Oceanians are descended from the European settlers in Oceania; while Pacific Islanders are of indigenous Oceanic descent.

Pacific Islander

Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and often ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. These people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century and into the 21st century the country saw a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue and French Polynesia.

William Paul Jarrett

William Paul Jarrett (August 22, 1877 – November 10, 1929) was a sheriff and congressional delegate representing the Territory of Hawaii.

Pacific Islands Americans
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