Pacific Islander

Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and often ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. These people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century and into the 21st century the country saw a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue and French Polynesia.

Oceania UN Geoscheme Regions with Zones and ISO3166 labels
Pacific Islanders originate from countries within the Oceanic regions of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. New Zealand is uniquely within Australasia as well as Polynesia and its majority European and native Māori populations are not considered Pacific Islanders.

Pacific Islander regions

The Pacific islands consist of three main regions:

Polynesia

The islands are scattered across a triangle covering the east-central region of the Pacific Ocean. The triangle is bound by the Hawaiian Islands in the north, New Zealand in the west, and Easter Island in the east. The rest of Polynesia includes the Samoan islands (American Samoa and Western Samoa), the Cook Islands, French Polynesia (Tahiti and The Society Islands, Marquesas Islands, Austral Islands and the Tuamotu Archipelago), Niue Island, Tokelau and Tuvalu, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Rotuma Island and Pitcairn Island.

Melanesia

The island of New Guinea, the Bismarck and Louisiade archipelagos, the Admiralty Islands, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, Western New Guinea (part of Indonesia), Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands (part of the Solomon Islands), New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides), Fiji, Norfolk Island and various smaller islands.

Micronesia

The islands of Kiribati, Nauru, the Marianas (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia (Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae, all in the Caroline Islands).

Ethnolinguistics

Ethnolinguistically, those Pacific islanders who reside in Oceania are divided into two different ethnic classifications.

Austronesian language peoples
Papuan language peoples
  • Papuan peoples, those who speak the Papuan languages, who number about 7 million, and reside on the island of New Guinea and a few of the smaller islands of Melanesia located off the northeast coast of New Guinea.[1]

Usage by country

The umbrella term Pacific Islands may take on several meanings.[2] Sometimes it refers to only those islands covered by the continent of Oceania.[3][4] In some common uses, the term "Pacific Islands" refers to the islands of the Pacific Ocean once colonized by the Portuguese, Spaniards, Dutch, British, French, United States, and Japanese, such as the Pitcairn Islands, Taiwan, and Borneo.[5] In other uses it may refer to islands with Austronesian linguistic heritage like Taiwan, Indonesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Myanmar islands, which found their genesis in the Neolithic cultures of the island of Taiwan.[6]

Australia

In Australia the term South Sea Islander was used to describe Australian descendants of people from the more than 80 islands in the western Pacific who had been brought to Australia to work on the sugar fields of Queensland,[7] in the 19th century called Kanakas. The Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 was enacted to restrict entry of Pacific Islanders to Australia and to authorise their deportation. In the legislation Pacific Islanders were defined as:

"Pacific Island Labourer" includes all natives not of European extraction of any island except the islands of New Zealand situated in the Pacific Ocean beyond the Commonwealth [of Australia] as constituted at the commencement of this Act.[8]

In 2008 a Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme was announced as a three-year pilot scheme.[9] The scheme provides visas for workers from Kiribati, Tonga, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea to work in Australia.[10] The pilot scheme includes one country each from Melanesia (Vanuatu), Polynesia (Tonga) and Micronesia (Kiribati), countries which already send workers to New Zealand under its seasonal labour scheme. Australia's pilot scheme also includes Papua New Guinea.[11][12]

New Zealand

Cook Island dancers at Auckland's Pacifica festival
Cook Island dancers at Auckland's Pasifika Festival, 2010

Local usage in New Zealand uses "Pacific islander" (or Pasifika) to distinguish those who have emigrated from one of these areas in modern times from the indigenous New Zealand Māori, who are also Polynesian but arrived in New Zealand centuries earlier.

In the 2013 New Zealand census, 7.4 percent of the New Zealand population identified with one or more Pacific ethnic groups, although 62.3 percent of these were born in New Zealand.[13] Those with a Samoan background make up the largest proportion, followed by Cook Islands Maori, Tongan, and Niuean.[13] Some smaller island populations such as Niue and Tokelau have the majority of their nationals living in New Zealand.[14]

To celebrate the diverse Pacific island cultures, the Auckland region hosts several Pacific island festivals. Two of the major ones are Polyfest, which showcases performances of the secondary school cultural groups in the Auckland region,[15] and Pasifika, a festival that celebrates Pacific island heritage through traditional food, music, dance, and entertainment.[16]

United States

According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program (PEP), a "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" is "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific islands. It includes people who indicate their race as 'Native Hawaiian', 'Guamanian or "Chamorro', 'Samoan', and 'Other Pacific Islander' or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses."[17]

According to the Office of Management and Budget, "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.

The term Pacific Islands American is used for ethnic Pacific islander residents in U.S. states, and in the territories of the United States in the region.[18]

List of Pacific peoples

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pacific Islands on Encyclopædia Britannica".
  2. ^ William Collins Sons & Co Ltd (1983), Collins Atlas of the World (revised 1995 ed.), London W6 8JB: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-448227-1
  3. ^ D'Arcy, Paul (March 2006). The People of the Sea: Environment, Identity, and History in Oceania. University Of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3297-1. Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  4. ^ Rapaport, Moshe (April 2013). The Pacific Islands: Environment and Society, Revised Edition. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-6584-9. JSTOR j.ctt6wqh08. This is the only contemporary text on the Pacific Islands that covers both environment and sociocultural issues and will thus be indispensable for any serious student of the region. Unlike other reviews, it treats the entirety of Oceania (with the exception of Australia) and is well illustrated with numerous photos and maps, including a regional atlas. – via JSTOR (subscription required)
  5. ^ Wright, John K. (July 1942). "Pacific Islands". Geographical Review. 32 (3): 481–486. doi:10.2307/210391. JSTOR 210391. – via JSTOR (subscription required)
  6. ^ Compare: Blundell, David (January 2011). "Taiwan Austronesian Language Heritage Connecting Pacific Island Peoples: Diplomacy and Values" (PDF). International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies. 7 (1): 75–91. Retrieved 2 May 2015. Taiwan associations are based on almost forgotten old connections with far-reaching Pacific linguistic origins. The present term Austronesia is based on linguistics and archaeology supporting the origins and existence of the Austronesian Language family spread across the Pacific on modern Taiwan, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Micronesia, Polynesia, the non-Papuan languages of Melanesia, the Cham areas of Vietnam, Cambodia, Hainan, Myanmar islands, and some Indian Ocean islands including Madagascar. Taiwan is in the initiating region.
  7. ^ "South Sea Islander Project". ABC Radio Regional Production Fund. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2004. Retrieved 2008-08-27. Recognition for Australian South Sea Islanders (ASSI) has been a long time coming. It was not until 1994 that the federal government recognized them as a distinct ethnic group with their own history and culture and not until September 2000 that the Queensland government made a formal statement of recognition.
  8. ^ "Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 (Cth)" (PDF). Documenting a Democracy. National Archives of Australia. 1901. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
  9. ^ Australian Institute of Criminology: Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme: Managing vulnerabilities to exploitation
  10. ^ "Pacific guestworker scheme to start this year". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008-08-17.
  11. ^ "Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme is more proof of Australia's new Pacific focus" (Press release). The Hon Duncan Kerr SC MP; Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs. 2008-08-20.
  12. ^ Australian classification standards code Pacific islanders, Oceanians, South Sea islanders, and Australasians all with code 1000, i.e., identically. This coding can be broken down into the finer classification of 1,100 Australian Peoples; 1,200 New Zealand peoples; 1,300 Melanesian and Papuan; 1,400 Micronesian; 1,500 Polynesian. There is no specific coding therefore for "Pacific islander"."Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) - 2nd edition" (pdf - 136 pages). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005-07-07. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
  13. ^ a b "Pacific peoples ethnic group", 2013 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Accessed on 18 August 2017.
  14. ^ Smelt, and Lin, 1998
  15. ^ "Polyfest NCEA credits / Pasifika Education Plan / Home - Pasifika". Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI). Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Thousands turn out for Pasifika Festival". Radio New Zealand. 25 March 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Information on Race". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  18. ^ Gary Y. Okihiro, American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific Islanders (University of California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp.

Further reading

  • Lal, B., & Fortune, K. (Eds.). (2000). The Pacific Islands: An encyclopedia. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific Islanders (University of California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp.
  • Smelt, R., & Lin, Y. (1998). Cultures of the world: New Zealand. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark
  • Thomas, Nicholas, Islanders: The Pacific in the Age of Empire, Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-12438-5

External links

Americans in the United Kingdom

Americans in the United Kingdom or American Britons, includes emigrants from the United States who gain British citizenship, people from the United States who are or have become residents or citizens of the United Kingdom.

Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium

The Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium (AAPIPRC) focuses on critical policy issues facing the Asian American and Pacific Islander communities. Conceived of as part of the White House Executive Order 13515 (2009) (Increasing Participation of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Federal Programs) the consortium supports, promotes, and conducts applied social science and policy research. In addition, Professor Paul M. Ong proposed two courses of action for AAPIPRC, one which formalizes working relationships among university-based AAPI research institutions and the other which would include publishing the proceedings of the briefs to inform policy.

Asian Pacific American

Asian-Pacific American (APA) or Asian-Pacific Islander (API) is a term sometimes used in the United States to include both Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans.

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, South Asia, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and in South Asia, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan." A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.

Asian or Pacific Islander was an option to indicate race and ethnicity in the United States Censuses in the 1990 and 2000 Census as well as in several Census Bureau studies in between, including Current Population Surveys reports and updates between 1994 and 2002. A 1997 Office of Management and Budget directive separated the "Asian or Pacific Islander" racial category into two categories: "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander." Following this change, he U.S. Census Bureau defined Asian as "a person having origins in the in any of the original people of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam." The U.S. Census Bureau defined Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander as "a person having origins in any of the original people of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands."

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, South Asia, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and in South Asia, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan." A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.

The term is used in reference to Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week, the first ten days of May, established in 1978 by a joint resolution in United States Congress. The commemorative week was expanded to a month (Asian Pacific American Heritage Month) by Congress in 1992. The month of May was chosen to celebrate the emigration of the first Japanese Americans on May 7, 1843, and to honor the Chinese immigrants who contributed to the transcontinental railroad which was completed on May 10, 1896.The term is also used by several state boards and commissions, including in Washington, Michigan, Maryland, and Connecticut. The term is also used in the names of several non-profit groups, such as the A|P|A History Collective, Center for Asian Pacific American Women, Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund, and National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development. Asian Pacific Americans are listed as a group on the United States Army website.

Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

Asian Pacific American Heritage Month (APAHM), now officially proclaimed Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, takes place in May. It celebrates the culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States.

Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance

The Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance (APALA) is a nonprofit organization of Asian-Pacific American trade union members affiliated with the AFL-CIO. It was the "first and only national organization for Asian Pacific American union members".In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a number of AFL-CIO affiliates became concerned with sweatshop work and child labor as a threat to American jobs. Campaigns against these practices, coupled several sweatshop and slave labor scandals in the United States, created a growing awareness within the federation of the plight of Asian-Pacific American workers. Independent worker groups such as the Asian Immigrant Women's Advocates in the San Francisco, California, the Korean Immigrant Workers Advocates in Los Angeles, California, and Workers' Awaaz and the Chinese Staff and Workers' Association in New York City also helped the federation see the need for an Asian-Pacific American labor organization.

The Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance was founded on May 1, 1992 when 500 Asian-Pacific American labor activists met to found a new national labor organization to give Asian and Pacific Islander workers a more effective voice within the AFL-CIO and on labor issues nationally. APALA's first president was Kent Wong. Its first executive director was Matthew Finucane.

APALA is the official voice of the 500,000 Asian and Pacific Islander labor union members in the AFL-CIO, and has 13 chapters in the U.S. APALA has been credited with shifting the AFL-CIO toward more actively organizing Asian Pacific workers. It has a biennial membership convention, which meets in even-numbered years.

APALA has two main goals. First, it works with the AFL-CIO Organizing Institute to train Asian and Pacific Islander workers in organizing techniques, and assists member unions of the AFL-CIO in organizing these workers of similar ethnic and racial background. APALA also works to build awareness of the labor movement among Asian-Pacific American workers. Second, APALA works to build awareness of and address exploitative conditions in industries with large numbers of Asian-Pacific American workers, such as the garment, electronics, hotel and restaurant, food processing, and health care industries.

Most recently, APALA has been working with the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights and the National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium to educate union members and the Asian-Pacific American community on affirmative action issues.

APALA is also active in voter registration, education and mobilization, and is active in federal and state legislative efforts on immigration reform and the access of immigrants (legal and illegal) to social services.

APALA's president is Monica Thammarath, Senior Liaison at the National Education Association union. Executive director Gloria Caoile stepped down in March 2008. Malcolm Amado Uno, APALA's Deputy Director since August 2007, was tapped to replace her. Uno was previously the National Organizing Director of Asian Pacific Islander American Vote (APIAVote) and Policy and Outreach Coordinator for Preschool California. The current Executive Director is Alvina Yeh.

APALA is a member of the National Council of Asian Pacific Americans.

Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic people are people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.

A variety of definitions and geographical data are presented by organizations and individuals for classifying the ethnic groups in Asia.

Closing the Gaps

Closing the Gaps was a policy of the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand for assisting socio-economically disadvantaged Māori and Pacific Islander ethnic groups in New Zealand through specially targeted social programmes. The phrase "Closing the Gaps" was a slogan of the Labour Party in the 1999 election campaign and was implemented as a policy initiative in the 2000 Budget.

Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus

The Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus (CAPAC), founded on May 16, 1994 by former Congressman Norman Mineta, is a bicameral caucus consisting of members of the United States Congress who have a strong interest in promoting Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) issues and advocating the concerns of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. While CAPAC describes itself as non-partisan, all of its current members are Democrats, though some past members, such as Joseph Cao, have been Republicans. This caucus generally includes members of East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian or Pacific Islander descent, members with high concentrations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in their district, or those with an interest in AAPI issues.

Fijian literature

Among the first published works of Fijian literature, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, were Raymond Pillai's and Subramani's short stories (in English) and Pio Manoa's poetry (in English and in Fijian). The emergence of Fiji's written literature (as distinct from oral literature) coincides with the country's transition to independence in 1970.

In 1968, the founding of the University of the South Pacific, whose main campus was in Fiji's capital Suva, provided a stimulus for Fijian (and, more widely, Pacific Islander) literature. Creative writing courses and workshops were set up. The South Pacific Arts Society was founded at the University in 1973, and published Pacific Islander literature (poetry and short stories) in the magazine Pacific Islands Monthly. In 1974, the Society founded the publishing house Mana Publications, followed in 1976 by the art and literature journal Mana. The journal published anthologies of Fijian poetry. Playwright Vilsoni Hereniko's work also began to appear in this print at this time.

Among Fiji's most noted writers are Satendra Nandan, author of poetry, short stories and the semi-autobiographical novel The Wounded Sea, published in 1991. Fiji poet Sudesh Mishra "combines classical Indian poetic forms with an English peppered with Hindi and Fijian words"; his collections of poems include Tandava (1992) and Rahu (1997). Larry Thomas is a contemporary playwright and director. His 1998 play The Anniversary Present has been described as "captur[ing] the words and rhythms and creative power of the basilectal 'Fiji English' many of his marginalised characters speak: the young, the unemployed, disempowered women and men". Joseph Veramo is a contemporary novelist, whose works include the novel Moving Through the Streets (1994), the children's book The Shark, and Black Messiah, a collection published in 1989 which includes short stories and a novella.

List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress

This is a list of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the U.S. Congress.

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.As of 2019, there are 13 representatives and 3 senators of Asian-American descent who are currently serving in Congress. In addition, there are one representative and three non-voting delegates of Pacific Islander descent who currently are also serving. Since 1900, 19 Pacific Islanders have been elected to the House of Representatives (17 of them as non-voting Resident Commissioners, Delegates or Resident Representatives) and one has been elected to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first territory to send a Pacific Islander to the House of Representatives (in 1900) and was also the first state to send a Pacific Islander to the U.S. Senate (in 1990). Since 1957, 35 Asian Americans have been elected to the House of Representatives and 9 to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first of four states to send an Asian American to the Senate (1959) and Illinois is the most recent state to elect a senator of similar descent for the first time (2016). With respect to the House of Representatives, California was the first of 12 states to elect an Asian American to the House (1956), and New Jersey is the most recent to do so for the first time (2018). Three Asian-American women have been elected to the Senate (all three of whom currently are incumbents and represent California, Hawaii and Illinois, respectively), and ten have been elected to the House (five of whom currently are incumbents) from six separate states.

Literature of Vanuatu

The literature of Vanuatu, understood in the strict sense of written literature, began in the 1960s.

Pacific Islands Americans

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.Pacific Islander Americans make up 0.5% of the U.S. population including those with partial Pacific Islander ancestry, enumerating about 1.4 million people. The largest ethnic subgroups of Pacific Islander Americans are Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Chamorros, Fijians, Marshallese and Tongans. Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros have large communities in Hawaii, California, Utah, American Samoa, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, with sizable communities in Washington, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Florida, and Alaska. Fijians are predominantly based in California.

American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands are insular areas (U.S. territories), while Hawaii is a state.

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino". However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights.In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government. The development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.

Samoan literature

Samoan literature can be divided into oral (pre-colonial and post-colonial) and written literatures, in the Samoan language and in English or English translation, and is from the Samoa Islands of independent Samoa and American Samoa, and Samoan writers in diaspora. Samoan as a written language emerged after 1830 when Tahitian and English missionaries from the London Missionary Society, working with Samoan chiefly orators, developed a Latin script based Samoan written language. Before this, there were logologo (tapa signs) and tatau (tattoo signs) but no phonetic written form.

Pre-colonial and post-colonial Samoan oral literature includes solo (poetic narratives), fa'alupega (genealogies), tala (histories and mythologies), fa'agogo (folk tales), pese (songs), and faleaitu theatre. Important solo were collected and published in Samoan and in translations by German scientist Augustin Kraemer working with Tofā Sauni and other Samoan orator chiefs, and English missionary scientist Thomas Powell from Tauanu'u of Manu'a, in the 19th century; and in the 20th century a major collection of fa'agogo or Fagogo were recorded and published by New Zealand based ethnomusicologist Richard M. Moyle from faagogo storytellers throughout the Samoa Islands. Other collections of traditional Samoan stories were published in the 20th century by Teo Tuvale, Gatoloai Peseta Siaosi Sio, Seiuli Le Tagaloatele Fitisemanu, and Daniel Pouesi.

The emergence of Samoan written literature (as distinct from oral literature) took place in the context of the development of indigenous Pacific Islander literature in the Pacific region as a whole, beginning in the late 1960s.

Albert Wendt's novel Sons for the Return Home, in 1973, was one of the very first novels published by a Pacific Islander. Wendt subsequently published a number of novels, poems and plays—including Leaves of the Banyan Tree (1979) and The Songmaker’s Chair (2004)--and has become one of the South Pacific's best known writers. He was invested as a Companion of the Order of New Zealand for his services to literature in 2001. In 1980, Wendt edited Lali, the first anthology of South Pacific writing, which included works from fifty writers from the region.

The South Pacific Arts Society, founded at the University of the South Pacific in 1973, published Pacific Islander literature (poetry and short stories) in the magazine Pacific Islands Monthly. In 1974, the Society founded the publishing house Mana Publications, followed in 1976 by the art and literature journal Mana. Samoan poets Savea Sano Malifa, the founder of the award winning Samoa Observer newspaper, and artist Momoe Malietoa Von Reiche, first published their works through the Society. Other notable Samoan writers of their generation include poets Sapa'u Ruperake Petaia, and Eti Sa'aga.

Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi was the prime minister of Samoa and later the head of state, and holds several royal chiefly titles of Samoa, but is also an important writer of Samoan culture and traditions, both in Samoan and English. His writing are widely read in the Samoan and Pacific Islander communities internationally in print and online.

Emma Kruse Va'ai, Pro Vice Chancellor at the National University of Samoa is a poet and published writer. Dr Sina Vaai is an established Professor of English Literature at National University of Samoa and a notable critic-writer, researcher, academician and published poet. Her published PhD research Literary Representations in Western Polynesia: Colonialism and Indigeneity (Samoa: National University, 1999) examines the postcolonial literature from Samoa, Tonga and Fiji; and there is a collection of her poems Lavoni Rains. Caroline Sinavaiana-Gabbard is another poet from American Samoa based at University of Hawaii, who made a study of faleaitu plays.

Novelist and poet Sia Figiel ushered in a new era of Samoan literature in the 1990s. Figiel's novel Where We Once Belonged won the Commonwealth Prize for best first book for the Asia-Pacific region in 1997. Followed by Girl in the Moon Circle, Portrait of a Young Artist in Contemplation, and other novels and poetry collections. She influenced new generations of Samoan women writers including poets Tusiata Avia and Selina Tusitala Marsh, and novelist Lani Wendt Young.

Dan Taulapapa McMullin is a fa'afafine or LGBT writer and artist from American Samoa based in New York, whose collection of poems Coconut Milk was on the American Library Association's 2013 Ten Best LGBT Books of the Year. Other Samoan LGBT writers include Victor Rodger in Aotearoa-New Zealand, Brian Fuata of Australia and London, and lesbian playwright Kiana Rivera based in Hawaii. Non-binary writer Jenny Bennett-Tuionetoa was the winner of the 2018 Commonwealth Short Story Prize for the Pacific Region.

Solomon Islands literature

Solomon Islands literature began in the 1960s.

Timeline of Asian and Pacific Islander diasporic LGBT history

This is a timeline of notable events in the history of non-heterosexual conforming people of Asian and Pacific Islander ancestry, who may identify as LGBTIQGNC (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, third gender, gender nonconforming), men who have sex with men, or related culturally-specific identities. This timeline includes events both in Asia and the Pacific Islands and in the global Asian and Pacific Islander diaspora, as the histories are very deeply linked.

Tongan Americans

Tongan Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to Tonga, officially known as the Kingdom of Tonga. There are approximately 57,000 Tongans and Tongan Americans living in the United States, as of 2012. Tongans are considered to be Pacific Islanders in the United States Census, and are the fourth largest Pacific Islander American group in terms of population, after Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and Guamanian/Chamorro Americans.

Xaverian High School

Xaverian High School is a private Catholic high school located in Brooklyn, NY. Grades 9-12 offer a college prep program and grades 6-8 are a middle school.

The school was founded in 1957 by the Xaverian Brothers. The school is a member of the Catholic High School Athletic Association (CHSAA). Xaverian is governed by a President and Board of Trustees. It is operated independently of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn. As of October 2017 the school had a total student population of 1,045. 769 students identified as White/Caucasian, 149 as Hispanic/Latino, 68 as Black/African American, 41 as Asian/Pacific Islander, 2 as Native American/Alaskan Native, 1 as Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and 15 as two or more races. On March 5, 2015, the Board of Trustees made a decision to incorporate co-education to the high school, beginning in 2016. The school's first boys and girls class has been admitted for the 2016-2017 school year. Xaverian High School also has a sister school located in Bruges, Belgium called the Sint-Franciscus-Xaveriusinstituut and maintains a yearly cultural exchange program with the school allowing exchange students to come to New York City in the fall and Xaverian students to go to Belgium in the winter.

Yolo County, California

Yolo County, officially the County of Yolo, is a county located in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,849. Its county seat is Woodland.Yolo County is included in the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area and is located in the Sacramento Valley.

The majority of Yolo County remains a relatively rural agricultural region. Much of California's multibillion-dollar tomato industry that accounts for 90% of the canned and processed tomato production in the United States and 35% worldwide, is located in Yolo County.

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