Pablo Casals

Pau Casals i Defilló[1][2] (Catalan: [ˈpaw kəˈzalz i ðəfiˈʎo]; 29 December 1876 – 22 October 1973), usually known in English as Pablo Casals,[3][4][5][6] was a cellist, composer, and conductor from Catalonia, Spain. He is generally regarded as the pre-eminent cellist of the first half of the 20th century, and one of the greatest cellists of all time. He made many recordings throughout his career, of solo, chamber, and orchestral music, also as conductor, but he is perhaps best remembered for the recordings of the Bach Cello Suites he made from 1936 to 1939. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy (though the ceremony was presided over by Lyndon B. Johnson).

Pablocasals
Casals in 1917 at Carnegie Hall
Fritz Kreisler, Harold Bauer, Pablo Casals, and Walter Damrosch at Carnegie Hall on March 13, 1917
Fritz Kreisler, Harold Bauer, Casals, and Walter Damrosch at Carnegie Hall on 13 March 1917

Biography

Childhood and early years

Casals was born in El Vendrell, Catalonia, Spain. His father, Carles Casals i Ribes (1852–1908), was a parish organist and choirmaster. He gave Casals instruction in piano, songwriting, violin, and organ. He was also a very strict disciplinarian. When Casals was young his father would pull the piano out from the wall and have him and his brother, Artur, stand behind it and name the notes and the scales that his father was playing. At the age of four Casals could play the violin, piano and flute; at the age of six he played the violin well enough to perform a solo in public. His first encounter with a cello-like instrument was from witnessing a local travelling Catalan musician, who played a cello-strung broom handle. Upon request, his father built him a crude cello, using a gourd as a sound-box. When Casals was eleven, he first heard the real cello performed by a group of traveling musicians, and decided to dedicate himself to the instrument.

In 1888 his mother, Pilar Defilló de Casals, who was born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico of Catalan ancestry, took him to Barcelona, where he enrolled in the Escola Municipal de Música.[7] There he studied cello, theory, and piano. In 1890, when he was 13, he found in a second-hand sheet music store in Barcelona a tattered copy of Bach's six cello suites. He spent the next 13 years practicing them every day before he would perform them in public for the first time.[8] Casals would later make his own version of the six suites.[9] He made prodigious progress as a cellist; on 23 February 1891 he gave a solo recital in Barcelona at the age of fourteen. He graduated from the Escola with honours five years later.

Youth and studies

Ramon Casas - MNAC- Pau Casals- 027622-D 006612
A young Pau Casals, by Ramon Casas

In 1893, Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz heard him playing in a trio in a café and gave him a letter of introduction to the Count Guillermo Morphy, the private secretary to María Cristina, the Queen Regent of Spain. Casals was asked to play at informal concerts in the palace, and was granted a royal stipend to study composition at the Madrid Royal Conservatory in Madrid with Víctor Mirecki. He also played in the newly organised Quartet Society.

In 1895 he went to Paris, where, having lost his stipend, he earned a living by playing second cello in the theatre orchestra of the Folies Marigny. In 1896, he returned to Spain and received an appointment to the faculty of the Escola Municipal de Música in Barcelona. He was also appointed principal cellist in the orchestra of Barcelona's opera house, the Liceu. In 1897 he appeared as soloist with the Madrid Symphony Orchestra, and was awarded the Order of Carlos III from the Queen.

International career

In 1899, Casals played at The Crystal Palace in London, and later for Queen Victoria at Osborne House, her summer residence, accompanied by Ernest Walker. On 12 November, and 17 December 1899, he appeared as a soloist at Lamoureux Concerts in Paris, to great public and critical acclaim. He toured Spain and the Netherlands with the pianist Harold Bauer from 1900 to 1901; in 1901/02 he made his first tour of the United States; and in 1903 toured South America.

On 15 January 1904, Casals was invited to play at the White House for President Theodore Roosevelt. On 9 March, of that year he made his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York, playing Richard Strauss's Don Quixote under the baton of the composer. In 1906 he became associated with the talented young Portuguese cellist Guilhermina Suggia,[10] who studied with him and began to appear in concerts as Mme. P. Casals-Suggia, although they were not legally married. Their relationship ended in 1912.

The New York Times of 9 April 1911, announced that Casals would perform at the London Musical Festival to be held at the Queen's Hall on the second day of the Festival (23 May). The piece chosen was Haydn's Cello Concerto in D and Casals would later join Fritz Kreisler for Brahms's Double Concerto for Violin and Cello.[5]

In 1914, Casals married the American socialite and singer Susan Metcalfe; they were separated in 1928, but did not divorce until 1957.

Although Casals made his first recordings in 1915 (a series for Columbia), he would not release another recording until 1926 (on the Victor label).[6]

Back in Paris, Casals organized a trio with the pianist Alfred Cortot and the violinist Jacques Thibaud; they played concerts and made recordings until 1937. Casals also became interested in conducting, and in 1919 he organized, in Barcelona, the Pau Casals Orchestra and led its first concert on 13 October 1920. With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the Orquesta Pau Casals ceased its activities.

Casals was an ardent supporter of the Spanish Republican government, and after its defeat vowed not to return to Spain until democracy was restored. Casals performed at the Gran Teatre del Liceu on 19 October 1938, possibly his last performance in Spain during his exile.[11]

PresMedalFreedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom

In the last weeks of 1936 he stayed in Prades,[12] a small village in France near the Spanish border, where Casals would settle in 1939,[13] in Pyrénées-Orientales, a historically Catalan region. Between 1939 and 1942 he made sporadic appearances as a cellist in the unoccupied zone of southern France and in Switzerland. He was mocked by the Francoist press, which wrote articles despising him as "a donkey", and was fined for his political views with an amount of a million pesetas.[14] So fierce was his opposition to Francoist Spain that he refused to appear in countries that recognized the Spanish government. He made a notable exception when he took part in a concert of chamber music in the White House on 13 November 1961, at the invitation of President John F. Kennedy, whom he admired. On 6 December 1963, Casals was awarded the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom.[15]

Throughout most of his professional career, he played on a cello that was labeled and attributed to "Carlo Tononi ... 1733" but after he had been playing it for 50 years it was discovered to have been created by the Venetian luthier Matteo Goffriller around 1700. It was acquired by Casals in 1913.[16] He also played another cello by Goffriller dated 1710, and a Tononi from 1730.

Prades Festivals

In 1950 he resumed his career as conductor and cellist at the Prades Festival in Conflent, organized in commemoration of the bicentenary of the death of Johann Sebastian Bach; Casals agreed to participate on condition that all proceeds were to go to a refugee hospital in nearby Perpignan.[6]

Puerto Rico

Casals traveled extensively to Puerto Rico in 1955, inaugurating the annual Casals Festival the next year. In 1955 Casals married as his second wife long-time associate Francesca Vidal de Capdevila, who died that same year. In 1957, at age 80, Casals married 20-year-old Marta Montañez y Martinez.[17] He is said to have dismissed concerns that marriage to someone 60 years his junior might be hazardous by saying, "I look at it this way: if she dies, she dies."[18][19] Pau and Marta made their permanent residence in the town of Ceiba, and lived in a house called "El Pessebre" (The Manger).[20] He made an impact in the Puerto Rican music scene, by founding the Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra in 1958, and the Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico in 1959.

Later years

Casals appeared in the 1958 documentary film Windjammer. In the 1960s, Casals gave many master classes throughout the world in places such as Gstaad, Zermatt, Tuscany, Berkeley, and Marlboro. Several of these master classes were televised.

On 13 November 1961, he performed in the East Room at the White House by invitation of President Kennedy at a dinner given in honor of the Governor of Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Marín. This performance was recorded and released as an album.

Casals was also a composer. Perhaps his most effective work is La Sardana, for an ensemble of cellos, which he composed in 1926. His oratorio El Pessebre was performed for the first time in Acapulco, Mexico, on 17 December 1960. He also presented it to the United Nations during their anniversary in 1963. He was initiated as an honorary member of the Epsilon Iota Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity at Florida State University in 1963.[21] He was later awarded the fraternity's Charles E. Lutton Man of Music Award in 1973.

One of his last compositions was the "Hymn of the United Nations".[22] He conducted its first performance in a special concert at the United Nations on 24 October 1971, two months before his 95th birthday. On that day, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, U Thant, awarded Casals the U.N. Peace Medal in recognition of his stance for peace, justice and freedom.[23] Casals accepted the medal and made his famous "I Am a Catalan" speech,[24] where he stated that Catalonia had the first democratic parliament, long before England did.

In 1973, invited by his friend Isaac Stern, Casals arrived at Jerusalem to conduct the youth orchestra and the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra. The concert he conducted with the youth orchestra at the Jerusalem Khan Theater was the last concert he conducted in his life.[25]

Casals' memoirs were taken down by Albert E. Kahn, and published as Joys and Sorrows: Pablo Casals, His Own Story (1970).

Death

Casals died in 1973 at Auxilio Mutuo Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at the age of 96, from complications of a heart attack he had three weeks earlier.[3][26] He was buried at the Puerto Rico National Cemetery. He did not live to see the end of the Francoist State, which occurred two years later, but he was posthumously honoured by the Spanish government under King Juan Carlos I which in 1976 issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting Casals, in honour of the centenary of his birth.[27] In 1979 his remains were interred in his hometown of El Vendrell, Catalonia. In 1989, Casals was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.[28]

Legacy

Pau Casals centenary statue
Centenary statue, by Josep Viladomat, Montserrat
Museo Pablo Casals in San Juan
Pablo Casals Museum, in San Juan, Puerto Rico

The southern part of the highway C-32 in Catalonia, Spain, is named Autopista de Pau Casals.

The International Pau Casals Cello Competition is held in Kronberg and Frankfurt am Main, Germany, under the auspices of the Kronberg Academy once every four years, starting in 2000, to discover and further the careers of the future cello elite, and is supported by the Pau Casals Foundation, under the patronage of Marta Casals Istomin. One of the prizes is the use of one of the Gofriller cellos owned by Casals. The first top prize was awarded in 2000 to Claudio Bohórquez.

Australian radio broadcaster and social commentator Phillip Adams often fondly recalls Casals’ 80th birthday press conference where, after complaining at length about the troubles of the world, he paused to conclude with the observation: "The situation is hopeless. We must take the next step".[29][30][31]

American comedian George Carlin, in his interview for the Archive of American Television, refers to Casals when discussing the restless nature of an artist's persona. As Carlin states, when Casals (then aged 93) was asked why he continued to practice the cello three hours a day, Casals replied, "'I'm beginning to notice some improvement...' [A]nd that's the thing that's in me. I notice myself getting better at this," Carlin continued.

In Puerto Rico, the Casals Festival is still celebrated annually. There is also a museum dedicated to the life of Casals located in Old San Juan. On 3 October 2009, Sala Sinfónica Pau Casals, a symphony hall named in Casals' honour, opened in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The $34 million building, designed by Rodolfo Fernandez, is the latest addition to the Centro de Bellas Artes complex. It is the new home of the Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra.

In Tokyo, the Casals Hall opened in 1987 as a venue for chamber music.[32] Pau Casals Elementary School in Chicago is named in his honor.[33] I.S. 181 in the Bronx is also named after Casals.[34]

Casals' motet O vos omnes, composed in 1932, is frequently performed today.

In Pablo Larraín's 2016 film Jackie, Casals is played by Roland Pidoux.

In 2019, Casal's album Bach Six Cello Suites was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Recording Registry as "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant".[35]

Partial discography

Monument a Pau Casals a Wolfenbuettel
Pau Casals bust, Wolfenbüttel, Germany
External audio
You may hear Pablo Casals performing Antonín Dvorak's "Cello Concerto" with George Szell conducting the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra in 1937 Here
  • 1926–1928: Casals, Jacques Thibaud and Alfred Cortot – the first trios of Schubert, Schumann and Mendelssohn, the Beethoven Archduke, Haydn's G major and Beethoven's Kakadu Variations (recorded in London)
  • 1929, Brahms: Double Concerto with Thibaud and Cortot conducting Casals' own orchestra.
  • 1929: Dvorak and Brahms Concerti
  • 1929: Beethoven: Fourth Symphony (Recorded in Barcelona)
  • 1930: Beethoven: Cello Sonata Op. 69, with Otto Schulhof
  • 1936–1939: Bach: Cello Suites
  • 1936: Beethoven: Cello Sonata Op. 102 No. 1; and Brahms: Cello Sonata Op. 99, both with Mieczysław Horszowski.
  • 1936: Boccherini: Cello Concerto in B-flat; and Bruch: Kol Nidrei – London Symphony conducted by Landon Ronald.
  • 1937: Dvořák: Cello Concerto – Czech Philharmonic conducted by George Szell.
  • 1939: Beethoven: Cello Sonatas Nos. 1, 2, and 5, with Mieczysław Horszowski.
  • 1945: Elgar and Haydn Cello Concertos – BBC Symphony conducted by Sir Adrian Boult.
  • 1950: The first of the Prades Festival recordings on Columbia, including:
    • Bach: Sonatas for Viola da Gamba, BWV 1027–1029, with Paul Baumgartner
    • Schumann: Fünf Stücke im Volkston, with Leopold Mannes
    • Schumann: Cello Concerto, with Casals conducting from the cello.
  • 1951: At the Perpignan Festival, including:
    • Beethoven: Cello Sonata Op. 5 No. 2, and three sets of Variations, with Rudolf Serkin
    • Beethoven: Trios, Op. 1 No. 2, Op. 70 No. 2, Op. 97, and the Clarinet Op. 11 transcription; also
    • Schubert: Trio No. 1, D.898, all with Alexander Schneider and Eugene Istomin.
  • 1952: At Prades, including:
    • Brahms: Trio Op. 8, with Isaac Stern and Myra Hess
    • Brahms: Trio Op. 87, with Joseph Szigeti and Myra Hess
    • Schumann: Trio Op. 63, and Schubert: Trio No. 2, D.929, both with Alexander Schneider and Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Schubert: C major Quintet, with Isaac Stern, Alexander Schneider, Milton Katims, and Paul Tortelier
    • Brahms: Sextet No. 1, again with Stern, Schneider, and Katims, plus Milton Thomas and Madeline Foley
  • 1953: At Prades, including:
    • Beethoven: Cello Sonatas Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5, with Rudolf Serkin
    • Beethoven: Trios Op. 1 No. 1, and Op. 70 No. 1, with Joseph Fuchs and Eugene Istomin
    • Schumann: Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129, with Eugene Ormandy conducting the Festival orchestra
  • 1954: At Prades (all live performances), including:
    • Beethoven: Cello Sonata No. 5, and Op. 66 Variations, with Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Beethoven: Trios Op. 70 No. 1, and Op. 121a, with Szymon Goldberg and Rudolf Serkin
  • 1955: At Prades (all live performances), including:
    • Brahms: Trios Nos. 1–3, with Yehudi Menuhin and Eugene Istomin
    • Brahms: Clarinet Trio Op. 114, with clarinetist David Oppenheim and Eugene Istomin
    • Beethoven: Trio Op. 70 No. 2, with Szymon Goldberg and Rudolf Serkin
  • 1956: At Prades (all live performances), including:
    • Bach: Sonata BWV 1027 for Viola da Gamba, with Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Schumann: Trio No. 2, with Yehudi Menuhin and Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Schumann: Trio No. 3, with Sándor Végh and Rudolf Serkin
  • 1958: At Beethoven-Haus in Bonn (all live performances), including:
    • Beethoven: Sonata Op. 5 No. 1, with Wilhelm Kempff
    • Beethoven: Sonatas Op. 5 No. 2, Op. 102 No. 2, and the Horn Op. 17 transcription, with Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Beethoven: Trios Op. 1 No. 3, and Op. 97, with Sándor Végh and Mieczysław Horszowski
    • Beethoven: Trio Op. 70 No. 1, with Sándor Végh and Karl Engel
  • 1959: At Prades (all live performances), including:
  • 1961: Mendelssohn: Piano Trio No. 1 with Alexander Schneider and Mieczysław Horszowski (Recorded live 13 November 1961 at the White House)
  • 1963: Beethoven: Eighth Symphony
  • 1963: Mendelssohn: Fourth Symphony, at Marlboro
  • 1964–65: Bach: Brandenburg Concerti, at Marlboro
  • 1966: Bach: Orchestral Suites, at Marlboro
  • 1969: Beethoven: First, Second, Fourth, Sixth ("Pastorale"), and Seventh Symphonies
  • 1974: El Pessebre (The Manger) oratorio

References

  1. ^ "25 October 1971- Pau Casals made a speech in the UN,".
  2. ^ "Fundació Pau Casals".
  3. ^ a b "Casals, the Master Cellist, Won Wide Acclaim in Career That Spanned 75 Years". The New York Times. 23 October 1973.
  4. ^ "Sinfinimusic - Deutsche Grammophon". www.emiclassics.com.
  5. ^ a b Honors To Be Conferred On English Composers: Series of Concerts Devoted to modern Englishmen to be Given in London, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01
  6. ^ a b c "Classical Notes - Pablo Casals - the Musician and the Man, By Peter Gutmann". www.classicalnotes.net.
  7. ^ "Proyecto de Recuperación de la Casa Defilló" (in Spanish). Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
  8. ^ Eric Siblin,The Cello Suites: J.S. Bach, Pablo Casals, and the Search for a Baroque Masterpiece. Atlantic; 336 pages, 2010
  9. ^ "Pablo Casals - Cello". ovationpress.com.
  10. ^ Mercier, Anita Guilhermina Suggia, retrieved 2009-08-01
  11. ^ Abella, Rafael La vida cotidiana durante la guerra civil: la España republicana p. 422 (published by Editorial Planeta, 1975)
  12. ^ René Puig (Casals' doctor in Prades since the end of 1936) in "Pablo Casals", Magazine Conflent, 1965, p. 3
  13. ^ Baldock, Robert (1992). Pablo Casals. Boston: Northeastern University Press. p. 161. ISBN 1-55553-176-8.
  14. ^ 1920-2008., Benet, Josep, (1978). Catalunya sota el règim franquista (1. reedició ed.). Barcelona: Blume. ISBN 847031064X. OCLC 4777662.
  15. ^ Chronological List of Medal of Freedom at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 October 2007), retrieved 2009-08-01
  16. ^ "Cello by Matteo Goffriller, 1700c (ex-Casals)". Cozio. Retrieved 2007-01-22.
  17. ^ "Master cellist Pablo Casal marries 21-year-old pupil". The News and Courier (Charleston, South Carolina). 5 August 1957.
  18. ^ Gardner, Jasmine (20 March 2012). "Julian Lloyd Webber talks music and marriage". London Evening Standard.
  19. ^ Amis, John (6 February 1993). "Master of the Cello: Pablo Casals". The Tablet.
  20. ^ Festival Casals de Puerto Rico: Historia, retrieved 2009-08-01 (in Spanish)
  21. ^ "The Sinfonian December 2002" (PDF).
  22. ^ "United Nations – Fact Sheet # 9: "Does the UN have a hymn or national anthem?"" (PDF).
  23. ^ Pau Casals Foundation, United Nations Peace Medal
  24. ^ Video of Pablo Casals "I am a Catalan" speech, 1971 on YouTube
  25. ^ "הישראלי המאומץ – פבלו קזאלס והסימפונית". 1 July 2013.
  26. ^ "Casals Dies in Puerto Rico at 96". The New York Times. 23 October 1973. Retrieved 2015-01-23. Pablo Casals, the celebrated cellist and conductor, died today at Auxilio Mutuo Hospital of complications from a heart attack suffered three weeks ago. He was 96 years old and lived in nearby Santurce with his wife, Marta
  27. ^ El País/Sociedad Estatal de Correos y Telegrafos 2003
  28. ^ Lifetime Achievement Award, Grammy Award official web site, retrieved 2009-08-01.
  29. ^ Adams, Phillip. "Why We Need a Revolution Now" (PDF). Our Community. 2004 Communities in Control conference convened by Our Community and Catholic Social Services. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  30. ^ Adams, Phillip (2004). "The emu's bum, or "The situation is hopeless, we must take the next step"". National Library of Australia. Moonah, Tasmania: Tasmanian Peace Trust. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  31. ^ Adams, Phillip (26 September 2015). "Tweet". Twitter. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  32. ^ "Casals Hall" (PDF). Nagata Acoustics. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  33. ^ "Pablo Casals Elementary School" Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Directions - I.S. 181 Pablo Casals - X181 - New York City Department of Education". schools.nyc.gov.
  35. ^ Andrews, Travis M. (March 20, 2019). "Jay-Z, a speech by Sen. Robert F. Kennedy and 'Schoolhouse Rock!' among recordings deemed classics by Library of Congress". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2019.

Further reading

  • Pablo Casals, Robert Baldock, Northeastern University Press, Boston (1992), ISBN 1-55553-176-8
  • Pablo Casals, a Biography, H. L. Kirk, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York (1974), ISBN 0-03-007616-1
  • "Pablo Casals : l'indomptable", Biography, Henri Gourdin, Editions de Paris – Max Chaleil, Paris, (2013).
  • Conversations with Casals. With an Introduction by Pablo Casals. With an Appreciation by Thomas Mann, J. Ma. Corredor, E. P. Dutton, New York (1957)
  • Joys and Sorrows; Reflections by Pablo Casals as Told to Albert E. Kahn, Pablo Casals, Simon and Schuster, New York (1973) ISBN 0-671-20485-8
  • Pablo Casals, Lillian Littlehales, W. W. Norton, New York (1929)
  • Song of the Birds. Sayings, Stories and Impressions of Pablo Casals, Compiled, Edited and with a Foreword by Julian Lloyd Webber, Robson Books, London (1985). ISBN 0-86051-305-X
  • Just Play Naturally. An Account of Her Study with Pablo Casals in the 1950s and Her Discovery of the Resonance between His Teaching and the Principles of the Alexander Technique, Vivien Mackie (in Conversation with Joe Armstrong), Boston-London 1984–2000, Duende Edition(2006). ISBN 1-4257-0869-2.
  • Arnold Schoenberg Correspondence. A Collection of Translated and Annotated Letters Exchanged with Guido Adler, Pablo Casals, Emanuel Feuermann, and Olin Downes, Egbert M. Ennulat, The Scarecrow Press, Metuchen (1991). ISBN 0-8108-2452-3
  • The Memoirs of Pablo Casals, Pablo Casals as Told to Thomas Dozier, Life en Espanol, New York (1959).
  • Cellist in Exile. A Portrait of Pablo Casals, Bernard Taper, McGraw-Hill, New York (1962).
  • Casals, Photographed by Fritz Henle, American Photographic Book Publishing Co., Garden City (1975). ISBN 0-8174-0593-3.
  • Virtuoso, Harvey Sachs, Thames and Hudson, New York (1982), chapter six, pp. 129–151 is devoted to Pablo Casals. ISBN 0-500-01286-5.
  • "La jeune fille et le rossignol", Henri Gourdin, Editions du Rouergue, (2009) [around the arrival of Pablo Casals in Prades and the beginning of his exile from Spain].
  • La violoncelliste, Henri Gourdin, Éditions de Paris – Max Chaleil, Paris, (2012) [reconstitution of Casals' life in Prades under German occupation – 1940–1944].

Press articles

  • "La jeune fille et le rossignol", Historia, no. 739, July 2008.
  • "Un écrivain fasciné par Pau Casals", Le Violoncelle, no. 32, September 2009, pp. 16–19.
  • "La musique à l'heure de l'occupation : l'engagement politique de Pau Casals", Le Violoncelle, no. 44, September 2012, pp. 18–19.
  • "Lutherie. De la courge au Goffriller : Les violoncelles de Pau Casals", Le Violoncelle, no. 45, December 2012, pp. 24–25.
  • "Une biographie de Pau Casals", Le Violoncelle, no. 48, September 2013, pp. 14–16.
  • "Biographie : Pau Casals, l'indomptable", L'Accent Catalan, no. 80, January–February 2014, p. 33.
  • "Casals vivant", Classica, no. 159, February 2014, p. 132.
  • "Passion Casals", Diapason, no. 623, April 2014.

External links

Casals (surname)

Casals (Eastern Catalan: [kəˈzals]) is a Catalan surname, the plural form of Casal (house). Notable persons with that surname include:

Marta Casals Istomin (born 1936), wife of Pablo Casals and former president of Manhattan School of Music

Pablo Casals (1876-1973), cellist and conductor

Rosemary Casals (born 1948), American professional tennis player

Toni Casals Rueda (born 1980), Andorran ski mountaineer

"Sammy Casals", a police detective in the film Heat portrayed by Wes Studi

Casals Festival

The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals.

Casals Hall

Casals Hall (カザルスホール, Kazarusu Hōru) is a concert hall in Ochanomizu, Tokyo, Japan. It is named in honour of cellist Pablo Casals. The hall opened in 1987 as a venue for chamber music and has a shoebox-style auditorium which seats 511. Arata Isozaki was the architect, with acoustic design by Nagata Acoustics. In 1997, for the tenth anniversary celebrations, a 41 stop organ by Jürgen Ahrend was installed.The hall had originally been owned and sponsored by publishers Shufunotomo Company (主婦の友社) but economic conditions resulted in the withdrawal of funding in 2000. In 2003 Nihon University acquired the Ochanomizu Square Building, of which the hall forms part, from the company. On 31 March 2010 the university closed the hall. A campaign has been launched to reopen the hall by the Save Casals Hall Committee, with pianist Iwasaki Shuku (岩崎淑) the chair and Marta Casals Istomin, Pablo Casals' widow, an honorary adviser.

Cello Concerto in D minor (Cassadó)

Gaspar Cassadó's Cello Concerto in D minor was first performed in 1926 by Cassadó and Pablo Casals, to whom the work was dedicated.This piece, like the Suite for Cello Solo, has folk music elements: Spanish, Oriental, and Impressionistic. Gaspar Cassadó studied composition with Maurice Ravel. Ravelian "carnival music" can be heard in the second theme of the first movement. The second movement is a theme and variations. An attacca leads to a pentatonic Rondo.

City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra

The City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra is an orchestra in Sheffield, England. It has about 90 players whose age range from 13 to 21 years, with half still being at school with the rest at college, many of them training as professional musicians. The orchestra assembles three times a year during holiday periods for concentrated training courses with tutors and conductors of professional standing. They have worked with many distinguished soloists including Natalie Clein, Matthew Barley and Leonel Morales.

The C.S.Y.O. is the only UK youth orchestra to be a triple winner in the Sainsbury’s Youth Orchestra Series (the major UK youth orchestra competition), and in the finals on two other occasions.

Over the past few years the orchestra has performed in the Pablo Casals International Festival in Spain 2008, southern Poland in 2007, Croatia in 2002 and again at the Pula International Music Festival performing Swan Lake with the Bolshoi Ballet in 2005, invited to play at the inaugural concert of the 4th International Piano Festival in Granada, Spain in 2004, for the Lord Mayor of London at the Barbican concert hall in London, given highly acclaimed performances at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 1994, 1999 and 2003, represented the UK at the Second Festival of European Youth Orchestras in Florence, Italy in 2000. The orchestra was asked to record the backing track at Abbey Road Studios, London, to a commercial recording of John Lennon’s last song. Prior to this the orchestra has toured in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Benelux countries, Switzerland, Norway, France, Spain and Poland. During summer 2009 the orchestra toured in the Leipzig area of Germany.

El Masnou

El Masnou (pronounced [əl məzˈnɔw]; Catalan for "the new farmhouse") is a municipality in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coast between Montgat and Premià de Mar, to the north-east of the city of Barcelona, in the comarca (county) of el Maresme. The town is both a tourist centre and a dormitory town in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area.

The main N-II road and a RENFE railway line run through the town, while a local road links it with the A-19 autopista at

Alella.

The town center has buildings in a wide range of styles: neoclassical, modernista, noucentista

and simply eclectic. The municipal museum has collections of archeology and of Catalan ceramics, and there is also a private

museum of pharmacy and medicine. A Roman village called Cal Ros de les Cabres was one of the first settlements located on the site of the current

town.

The agriculture of El Masnou is mainly of flowers, especially carnations, and the industry has a predominance of textile, with several industries about ceramics, glass and pharmaceutical products.

Famous Catalan Cellist Pablo Casals lived in El Masnou, and current basketball star Ricky Rubio is a native. Also, Bruno, a professional footballer who plays for Brighton & Hove Albion, was born in El Masnou.

Other famous people who were born in El Masnou are:

Antoni Llampallas Alsina (1855-1923) Attorney and delegate to the Union Catalanista in the House of Manresa (1892).

Fèlix Oliver (Masnou, 1856 - Montevideo (Uruguay), 1932), a pioneer of cinema in Uruguay.

Jordi Pagans i Monsalvatje (1932): One of the most important Catalan contemporary figurative painters. Cousin of the renowned classical music composer Xavier Montsalvatge i Bassols. In his paintings the influence of the Empordà coast, especially the people of Cadaqués, can be seen clearly.

Lluís Millet i Pagès (1867-1941): musician, founder of the Catalan choir.

Pau Estape i Maristani: mayor of El Masnou.

Inbal Segev

Inbal Segev (Hebrew: ענבל שגב‎) is a cellist who grew up in Israel. Segev began her studies in Israel at the age of 5. With the recommendation of Isaac Stern, she came to the United States to continue her studies at the age of 16. She debuted with the Israel Philharmonic and the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Zubin Mehta. Her Carnegie Hall debut was held on December 7, 1997, where she performed the Carnegie Hall premiere of Trois strophes sur le nom de Sacher for solo cello by Henri Dutilleux.Segev won prizes at the International Pablo Casals Cello Competition in Kronberg (2000), The Juilliard Concerto competition (1998), the International Paulo Cello Competition in Helsinki (1996), and the Washington International Competition (1995).

Segev has released a number of recordings, including Nigun on Vox Records.Segev holds a bachelor's degree from the Juilliard School and a master's degree from Yale School of Music, where her teachers included Joel Krosnick, Harvey Shapiro and Aldo Parisot. She also studied with Bernard Greenhouse, who was a student of Pablo Casals. Segev's cello was made by Francesco Rugeri in 1673.

Segev resides in New York with her husband and 3 children.

Karen Tuttle

Karen Tuttle (March 28, 1920 – December 16, 2010) was an American viola teacher, famous for her "coordination" technique, which emphasizes being comfortable while playing the instrument.

She was originally a violinist who chose to become a violist when she wanted to study with William Primrose, whose technique and ease in playing the viola she greatly admired.

Her coordination technique is often considered to be an analysis of Primrose's technique.

She was a frequent participant at the Marlboro Music Festival in Vermont.

In 1955, she was invited by Pablo Casals to perform chamber music with him at the Pablo Casals Festival in Prades, where she returned for at least seven subsequent festivals.

She made her Carnegie Hall recital debut in February 1960.

Her recital was reviewed by Harold Schonberg, a leading reviewer for the New York Times. He wrote, "About as large an audience as Carnegie Recital Hall has ever held jammed it yesterday evening at 5:30 to hear Karen Tuttle's recital.

The violist, with Artur Balsam at the piano, gave a concert that seemed to be attended by every string player in town.".She was a member of the Galimir, Gotham, and Schneider Quartets, as well as the American String Trio.

In 1994 she was recognized by ASTA with the Artist Teacher Award. Curtis Institute of Music awarded her an honorary doctorate in 2005.She taught at the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Curtis Institute of Music, Mannes College and at Juilliard, and several of her students now teach at prominent universities and music conservatories: Christine Rutledge, Sheila Browne, Caroline Coade, Susan Dubois, Edward Gazouleas, Jeffrey Irvine, Kim Kashkashian, Michelle LaCourse, Katherine Murdock, Ashan Pillai, Lawrence Power, Lynne Ramsey, André Roy, Karen Ritscher, Carol Rodland, Kate Hamilton, Masumi Per Rostad, Jennifer Stumm, and Stephen Wyrczynski. There is a "Karen Tuttle Coordination Workshop" held each summer in the USA.

Ms. Tuttle died on December 16, 2010 after a long illness.

Magda Tagliaferro

Magdalena Maria Yvonne Tagliaferro (19 January 1893 – 9 September 1986) was a Brazilian-born pianist of French parents.

Magdalena Tagliaferro was born in Petrópolis, Brazil. Her father, who had studied piano with Raoul Pugno in Paris, was a voice and piano professor in São Paulo Conservatory. He was her first teacher.The cellist Pablo Casals heard Tagliaferro play in São Paulo when she was eleven, and he encouraged her to study at the Conservatoire de Paris. She went to Paris with her parents. Her father arranged for her to play for Pugno, who was impressed and recommended her to Antonin Marmontel at the Conservatoire. She entered the Conservatoire in 1906 in Marmontel's class and was awarded the Premier Prix (the highest examination award for performance) in 1907. Subsequently, she studied with Alfred Cortot and the two remained friends for the rest of his life. She developed a reputation for striving towards the realization of the musical ideals exemplified by Cortot: a perfect union of clarity and tenderness, inner strength and emotion and classical balance in shaping the works being interpreted.During her studies at the Conservatoire, the director, Gabriel Fauré invited her on a short tour with him. Later, she performed many of his compositions. During her career, her recital engagements took her to the musical center of more than 30 countries in Europe, Africa, America, and Asia. She was also very active as a soloist, performing with many leading orchestras and performed with many distinguished conductors, including Felix Weingartner, Issay Dobrowen, Pierre Monteux, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Hans Knappertsbusch, Paul Paray, Vincent d'Indy and Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht. Other solo artists, such as Cortot, Jacques Thibaud, George Enescu, Jules Boucherit and Pablo Casals performed with her in joint recitals. Composers sought her for premieres of their works, sometimes specifically intending that Tagliaferro be the first artist to perform their compositions. She, in turn, applied herself to performing new works by composers such as Reynaldo Hahn, Jean Rivier, Gabriel Pierné and Heitor Villa-Lobos.

Tagliaferro also had a distinguished career as a pedagogue. She taught at the Paris Conservatoire from 1937 to 1939, where Polish pianist Władysław Kędra was among her students, invited by her when she heard him play as she judged the III International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw, Poland in February–March, 1937. She also created her own school in Paris and later in Rio de Janeiro and in São Paulo. She gave numerous masterclasses in many countries and created a piano competition. Her many students included Pnina Salzman, Jeanne Demessieux, Lycia de Biase Bidart, Flavio Varani, Cristina Ortiz, Maria Teresa Naranjo Ochoa, Jorge Luis Prats and James Tocco.

Tagliaferro maintained a critically acclaimed capacity for beautifully crafted playing into her nineties. She died at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Marta Casals Istomin

Marta Casals Istomin (born November 2, 1936), who uses the surnames of her first husband, Pablo Casals, and her second husband, Eugene Istomin, is a musician from Puerto Rico, and the former president of the Manhattan School of Music.

Michel Lethiec

Michel Lethiec is a French classical clarinetist.

Michel Lethiec has played with the Sinfonia Finlandia, the St. Petersburg Philharmonic, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse, the Salzburg Mozarteum, the Prague Radio Orchestra, and the Philharmonique de Radio France. He has premiered works by several composers, including Krzysztof Penderecki and John Corigliano. He has been teaching music at the Paris Conservatory until 2016. He is also artistic director of the Pablo Casals Festival.

Miklós Perényi

Miklós Perényi (born 5 January 1948) is a Hungarian cellist. He was born in Budapest into a musical family and studied at the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest with Ede Banda and Enrico Mainardi. He continued his studies at the Accademia Santa Cecilia, graduating in 1962. In 1963 he won a prize at the Pablo Casals International Violoncello Competition in Budapest.In 1965 and 1966 he studied with Pablo Casals in Zermatt and Puerto Rico and afterward performed at Marlboro Festival for four consecutive years. In 1974 he became a lecturer and in 1980 a professor at the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music, but while teaching continued to perform internationally. He has been a regular guest of the Theatre de la Ville in Paris for solo works and chamber music performances.

O vos omnes

O vos omnes is a responsory, originally sung as part of Roman Catholic liturgies for Holy Week, and now often sung as a motet. The text is adapted from the Latin Vulgate translation of Lamentations 1:12. It was often set, especially in the sixteenth century, as part of the Tenebrae Responsories for Holy Saturday. Some of the most famous settings of the text are by Tomás Luis de Victoria (two settings for four voices: 1572 and 1585), Carlo Gesualdo (five voices: 1603; six voices: 1611), and Pablo Casals (mixed choir: 1932), having been recorded on CD by Jayme Amatnecks.

Orquestra Pau Casals

The Orquestra Pau Casals (Spanish: Orquesta Pau Casals) was established by Pablo Casals (sometimes known as Pau Casals) in the early 1920s in Barcelona, with the debut performance taking place October 13, 1920. There had been other orchestras in Barcelona, but none that played with any enduring success. The orchestra was managed by a group of Casals' friends including Felip Capdevila and Casals' second wife Francesca.

Pablo Casals Festival

The Pablo Casals Festival is a music festival created by the cellist and conductor Pablo Casals in 1950.

Piano Trio (Fauré)

Gabriel Fauré's Piano Trio in D minor, Op. 120 is one of the composer's late chamber works. The first public performance was given by the pianist Tatiana de Sanzévitch, with Robert Krettly and Jacques Patté, in May 1923 for the Société Nationale de Musique in honour of the composer's 78th birthday. The following month it was performed by the celebrated trio of Alfred Cortot, Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals. The work is dedicated to Mme Maurice Rouvier, widow of the former prime minister.

Pilar Defilló Amiguet

Pilar Defilló Amiguet (November 11, 1853 - March 11, 1931) was a Puerto Rico-born Catalan musician, known as the mother of Enric and Pablo Casals.Daughter of Joseph Defilló Tusquellas (c.1815 - Mayagüez, 1859) and Raimunda Amiguet Ferrer, both Catalans, she emigrated with her mother to El Vendrell, Tarragona, in 1871, where she married Carles Casals Ribes after having been an outstanding pupil of his. Her father had belonged to the Secret Abolitionist Society run by Ramón Emeterio Betances, a friend of the family's.On May 8, 2015, the birthplace of Pilar Defilló at 21 Calle Mendez Vigo in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, which had been built in 1841 and recently had been restored, opened as the Casa Museo Pilar Defilló, a cultural museum devoted to Pablo Casals.

Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival

The Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival is a six-week-long summer Festival of chamber music held annually in July and August and located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. It was founded in 1972 and presented its first series of concerts in 1973. Well-known musicians and young performers appear each season in concerts presented in the St. Francis Auditorium and the restored Lensic Theater.

In its inaugural year Pablo Casals acted as honorary president. The Festival has contributed to the contemporary chamber music repertoire by commissioning 38 pieces from well-known composers, including Aaron Copland, Ned Rorem, Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, and John Harbison. The festival's executive director is Steven Ovitsky. Marc Neikrug has been artistic director since the late 1990s.

Participating musicians in the festival's history included Walter Trampler and Andre-Michel Schub.A radio series from the festival is broadcast by the WFMT Radio Network.

Sony Classical Records

Sony Classical Records (also known simply as Sony Classical) is an American record label founded in 1924 as Columbia Masterworks Records, a subsidiary of Columbia Records. In 1948, it issued the first commercially successful long-playing 12" record. Over the next decades its artists included Isaac Stern, Pablo Casals, Glenn Gould, Eugene Ormandy, Vangelis, Elliot Goldenthal, Leonard Bernstein and John Williams. Columbia Records used the Masterworks brand name not only for classical and Broadway records, but also for spoken-word albums such as Edward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly's successful I Can Hear It Now series. Parent CBS also featured the Masterworks name on its consumer electronics equipment.

In 1980, the Columbia Masterworks label was renamed as CBS Masterworks Records, but in 1990, after CBS Records was acquired by Sony, it was renamed Sony Classical Records; its logo echoes the "Magic Notes" logo that was Columbia's emblem until 1954. During the 1990s, the label attracted controversy under the leadership of Peter Gelb, as it emphasized crossover music over mainstream classical releases, failing to make available much of its archive of great recordings. Going "back to the future", the Masterworks name lives on in its series of Broadway cast albums released through Masterworks Broadway Records, and as the name of Sony Music Entertainment's classical music division, Sony Masterworks. The Sony Classical label is listed today as a sister label of Masterworks.

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