PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open-access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open-access journals and other scientific literature under an open-content license. It launched its first journal, PLOS Biology, in October 2003 and publishes seven journals, as of October 2015.[1][2] The organization is based in San Francisco, California, and has a European editorial office in Cambridge, England. The publications are primarily funded by payments from the authors.

Public Library of Science
PLOS logo 2012
FounderPatrick O. Brown and Michael Eisen
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters locationLevi's Plaza
San Francisco, California
Key peopleAlison Mudditt
Publication typesAcademic journals
Nonfiction topicsScience


Open Access PLoS
The Open Access logo
The first video published alongside a PLOS article: a model of how the human transferrin receptor assists transferrin in releasing iron[3]

The Public Library of Science began in 2000 with an online petition initiative by Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, formerly director of the National Institutes of Health and at that time director of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center; Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University; and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.[4][5] The petition called for all scientists to pledge that from September 2001 they would discontinue submission of articles to journals that did not make the full text of their articles available to all, free and unfettered, either immediately or after a delay of no more than 6 months. Although tens of thousands signed the petition, most did not act upon its terms; and in August 2001, Brown and Eisen announced that they would start their own non-profit publishing operation.[6] In December 2002, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation awarded PLOS a $9 million grant, which it followed in May 2006 with a $1 million grant to help PLOS achieve financial sustainability and launch new free-access biomedical journals.[7]

The PLOS organizers turned their attention to starting their own journal, along the lines of the UK-based BioMed Central, which has been publishing open-access scientific articles in the biological sciences in journals such as Genome Biology and the Journal of Biology since late 1999.

As a publishing company, the Public Library of Science officially launched its operation on 13 October 2003, with the publication of a print and online scientific journal entitled PLOS Biology, and has since launched seven more journals. One, PLOS Clinical Trials, has since been merged into PLOS ONE. Following the merger, the company started the PLOS Hub for Clinical Trials to collect journal articles published in any PLOS journal and relating to clinical trials.

The PLOS journals are what is described as "open-access content"; all content is published under the Creative Commons "attribution" license. The project states (quoting the Budapest Open Access Initiative) that: "The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited."

In 2011, the Public Library of Science became an official financial supporting organization of Healthcare Information For All by 2015,[8] a global initiative that advocates unrestricted access to medical knowledge, sponsoring the first HIFA2015 Webinar in 2012.[9]

In 2012 the organization quit using the stylization "PLoS" to identify itself and began using only "PLOS".[10]

In 2016, PLOS confirmed that their chief executive officer Elizabeth Marincola would be leaving for personal and professional reasons at the end of that year.[11] In May 2017, PLOS announced that their new CEO will be Alison Mudditt with effect from June.[12]

Financial model

To fund the journals, PLOS charges an article processing charge to be paid by the author or the author's employer or funder. In the United States, institutions such as the National Institutes of Health and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have pledged that recipients of their grants will be allocated funds to cover such author charges. The Global Participation Initiative (GPI) was instituted in 2012, by which authors in "group-one countries" are not charged a fee, and those in group-two countries are given a fee reduction. (In all cases, decisions to publish are based solely on editorial criteria.) PLOS was launched with grants totaling US$13 million from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Sandler Family Supporting Foundation.[13] PLOS confirmed in July 2011 that it no longer relies on subsidies from foundations and is covering its operational costs itself.[14][15] Since then PLOS' balance sheet has improved from $20,511,000 net assets in 2012–2013 to $36,591,000 in 2014–2015.[16][17]


  • PLOS Biology, ISSN 1544-9173; October 2003
  • PLOS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1676; October 2004
  • PLOS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-7374; June 2005
  • PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7404; July 2005
  • PLOS Pathogens, ISSN 1549-1676; September 2005
  • PLOS Clinical Trials ISSN 1555-5887; May 2006, later merged into PLOS ONE
  • PLOS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203; December 2006
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2735; October 2007
  • PLOS Hub for Clinical Trials, third quarter 2007
  • PLOS Currents, ISSN 2157-3999; August 2009

Other partners

In April 2017, PLOS was one of the founding partners in the Initiative for Open Citations.[18]


PLOS has its main headquarters in Suite 225 in the Koshland East Building in Levi's Plaza in San Francisco.[19] The company was previously located at 185 Berry Street.[20] In June 2010, PLOS announced that it was moving to a new location in order to accommodate its rapid growth. The move to the Koshland East Building went into effect on 21 June 2010.[21]

See also


  1. ^ "Journals". Retrieved 2012-04-17.
  2. ^ Ownes, Simon (2015-07-13). "Why Academic Journals Are Teaming Up With Reddit". Media Shift. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
  3. ^ Giannetti, A. M.; Snow, P. M.; Zak, O.; Björkman, P. J. (2003). "Mechanism for Multiple Ligand Recognition by the Human Transferrin Receptor". PLoS Biology. 1 (3): e1. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0000051. PMC 300677. PMID 14691533.
  4. ^ "History". Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  5. ^ "Professor Michael Eisen: A Pioneer of Open Access Science". The Tower. 2014. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
  6. ^ Brower, V. (2001). "Public library of science shifts gears: As scientific publishing boycott deadline approached, advocates of free scientific publishing announce that they will create their own online, free-access archive". EMBO Reports. 2 (11): 972–973. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve239. PMC 1084138. PMID 11713184.
  7. ^ "Public Library of Science to launch new free-access biomedical journals with $9 million grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation". Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  8. ^ "How organisations support HIFA2015". Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  9. ^ "HIFA2015 Webinars". Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  10. ^ David Knutson (23 July 2012). "New PLOS look". PLOS BLOG. Public Library of Science. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  11. ^ "PLOS on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  12. ^ "PLOS Appoints Alison Mudditt Chief Executive Officer | STM Publishing News". Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  13. ^ Declan Butler (June 2006). "Open-access journal hits rocky times". Nature. 441 (7096): 914. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..914B. doi:10.1038/441914a. PMID 16791161.
  14. ^ "2010 PLOS Progress Update | The Official PLOS Blog". 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
  15. ^ Sugita, Shigeki (2014). "How far has open access progressed?". SPARC Japan. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
  16. ^ "2012-2013 Progress Update" (PDF). PLOS. 2013-09-19. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  17. ^ "2014-2015 Progress Update" (PDF). PLOS. 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
  18. ^ "Press". Initiative for Open Citations. 6 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  19. ^ "Contact". PLoS. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
  20. ^ "Contact". Internet Archive Wayback Machine. PLoS. 2008-03-10. Archived from the original on 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
  21. ^ Allen, Liz (2010-06-16). "PLoS San Francisco office is moving | The Official PLOS Blog". PLOS. Retrieved 2012-03-04.


External links


This article is about a group of ray-finned fish called Acanthomorpha or acanthomorphs. Acanthomorph is also a descriptive name for a spiny-walled subgroup of the microscopic fossils called acritarchs.Acanthomorpha (meaning "thorn-shaped" in Greek) is an extraordinarily diverse taxon of teleost fishes with spiny-rays. The clade contains about one third of the world's modern species of vertebrates: over 14,000 species.A key anatomical innovation in acanthomorphs is hollow and unsegmented spines at the anterior edge of the dorsal and anal fins. A fish can extend these sharp bony spines to protect itself from predators, but can also retract them to decrease drag when swimming. Another shared feature is a particular rostral cartilage, associated with ligaments attached to the rostrum and premaxilla, that enables the fish to protrude its jaws considerably to catch food.Rosen coined the name in 1973 to describe a clade comprising Acanthopterygii, Paracanthopterygii, and also ctenothrissiform fossils from the Cretaceous Period, such as Aulolepis and Ctenothrissa. Those fossils share several details of the skeleton, and especially of the skull, with modern acanthomorphs. Originally based on anatomy, Acanthomorpha has been borne out by more recent molecular analyses.


Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms include fever and joint pain. These typically occur two to twelve days after exposure. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash. Symptoms usually improve within a week; however, occasionally the joint pain may last for months. The risk of death is around 1 in 1,000. The very young, old, and those with other health problems are at risk of more severe disease.The virus is spread between people by two types of mosquitos: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. They mainly bite during the day. The virus may circulate within a number of animals including birds and rodents. Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus. The symptoms can be mistaken for those of dengue fever and Zika fever. After a single infection it is believed most people become immune.The best means of prevention is overall mosquito control and the avoidance of bites in areas where the disease is common. This may be partly achieved by decreasing mosquitoes' access to water and with the use of insect repellent and mosquito nets. There is no vaccine and no specific treatment as of 2016. Recommendations include rest, fluids, and medications to help with fever and joint pain.While the disease typically occurs in Africa and Asia, outbreaks have been reported in Europe and the Americas since the 2000s. In 2014 more than a million suspected cases occurred. In 2014 it was occurring in Florida in the continental United States but as of 2016 there were no further locally acquired cases. The disease was first identified in 1952 in Tanzania. The term is from the Kimakonde language and means "to become contorted".

Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, ecological, behavioral, and social systems. The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in biology, applied mathematics, statistics, biochemistry, chemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, computer science and evolution.Computational biology is different from biological computing, which is a subfield of computer science and computer engineering using bioengineering and biology to build computers, but is similar to bioinformatics, which is an interdisciplinary science using computers to store and process biological data.


Euarchontoglires (synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.


Exafroplacentalia or Notolegia is a clade of placental mammals proposed in 2001 on the basis of molecular research.Exafroplacentalia places Xenarthra as a sister group to the Boreoeutheria (comprising Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires), thus making Afrotheria a primitive group of placental mammals (the group name roughly means "those which are not African placentals").

Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents. While Google does not publish the size of Google Scholar's database, scientometric researchers estimated it to contain roughly 389 million documents including articles, citations and patents making it the world's largest academic search engine in January 2018. Previously, the size was estimated at 160 million documents as of May 2014. Earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80–90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million. This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the web.

Google Scholar has been criticized for not vetting journals and including predatory journals in its index.

International Society for Computational Biology

Founded in 1997, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) is a scholarly society for researchers in computational biology and bioinformatics working towards advancing understanding of living systems through computation and for communicating scientific advances worldwide.

Society membership reflects commitment toward the advancement of computational biology. The ISCB is an international non-profit organization whose members come from the global bioinformatics and computational biology communities. The ISCB serves its global membership by providing high-quality meetings, publications, and reports on methods and tools; by disseminating key information about bioinformatics resources and relevant news from related fields; and by actively facilitating training, education, employment, career development, and networking. The society also advocates and provides leadership for resources and policies in support of scientific endeavors and to benefit society at large.

ISCB seeks to communicate the significance of computational biology to the larger scientific community, to governmental organizations, and to the general public; the society serves its members locally, nationally, and internationally; it provides guidance for scientific policies, publications, meetings, and distributes information through multiple platforms. ISCB organizes the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference every year, a growing number of smaller, more regionally or topically focused annual and bi-annual conferences, and has three official journals: ISCB Community Journal, PLOS Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. The society awards three scientific achievement awards annually: the Overton Prize, the ISCB Innovator Award, and the ISCB Senior Scientist Awards. The society elects ISCB Fellows annually, to honor members that have distinguished themselves through outstanding contributions to the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The ISCB also awards the ISCB Outstanding Contributions Award to recognize members of the community who have significantly contributed to the success of the organization.

List of open-access journals

This is a list of open-access journals by field. The list contains notable journals which have a policy of full open access. It does not include delayed open access journals, hybrid open access journals, or related collections or indexing services.

True open-access journals can be split into two categories :

diamond or platinum open-access journals, which charge no additional publication, open access or article processing fees

gold open-access journals, which charge publication fees (also called article processing charges, APCs).The list below is focused on open-access journals with no fees. However, some fields like biology and medicine have a stronger tradition of article processing charge, the corresponding journals below then have a footnote indicating such fees.

Molecular communication

Molecular communications systems use the presence or absence of a selected type of molecule to digitally encode messages. The molecules are delivered into communications media such as air and water for transmission. The technique also is not subject to the requirement of using antennas that are sized to a specific ratio of the wavelength of the signal. Molecular communication signals can be made biocompatible and require very little energy

Neglected tropical diseases

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. They are caused by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. These diseases are contrasted with the big three infectious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria), which generally receive greater treatment and research funding. In sub-Saharan Africa, the effect of these diseases as a group is comparable to malaria and tuberculosis. NTD co-infection can also make HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis more deadly.In some cases, the treatments are relatively inexpensive. For example, the treatment for schistosomiasis is US$0.20 per child per year. Nevertheless, in 2010 it was estimated that control of neglected diseases would require funding of between US$2 billion and US$3 billion over the subsequent five to seven years. Some pharmaceutical companies have committed to donating all the drug therapies required, and mass drug administration (for example mass deworming) has been successfully accomplished in several countries. However, preventive measures are often more accessible in the developed world, but not universally available in poorer areas.Within developed countries, neglected tropical diseases affect the very poorest in society. In the United States, there are up to 1.46 million families including 2.8 million children living on less than two dollars a day. In countries such as these, the burdens of neglected tropical diseases are often overshadowed by other public health issues. However, many of the same issues put populations at risk in developed as developing nations. For example, other problems can stem from poverty which expose individuals to the vectors of these disease, such as lack of adequate housing.Twenty neglected tropical diseases are prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO), though other organizations define NTDs differently. Chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses, scabies and other ectoparasites and snakebite envenoming were added to the list in 2017. These diseases are common in 149 countries, affecting more than 1.4 billion people (including more than 500 million children) and costing developing economies billions of dollars every year. They resulted in 142,000 deaths in 2013—down from 204,000 deaths in 1990. Of these 20, two were targeted for eradication (dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) by 2015 and yaws by 2020), and four for elimination (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and lymphatic filariasis by 2020).

PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a monthly Peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology. Publication began on October 13, 2003. It was the first journal of the Public Library of Science. The editor-in-chief is Emma Ganley.

In addition to research articles, the journal publishes magazine content aimed to be accessible to a broad audience. Article types in this section are: Essays, Unsolved Mysteries, Editorials, and Synopses.

PLOS Computational Biology

PLOS Computational Biology is a peer-reviewed computational biology journal established in 2005 and published by the nonprofit Public Library of Science in association with the International Society for Computational Biology. The founding Editor in Chief was Philip Bourne, and the current Editor in Chief is Ruth Nussinov. Its impact factor (2017) has dropped below 4.0 for the first time.

PLOS Currents

PLOS Currents is a group of scientific journals published by the Public Library of Science. Submitted articles are reviewed by "moderators" (a select group of researchers in the journal's field) and are peer-reviewed. Articles are open access, archived in PubMed Central, and indexed in PubMed as well as Scopus.

PLOS Genetics

PLOS Genetics is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal established in 2005 and published by the Public Library of Science. The founding editor-in-chief was Wayne N. Frankel (Columbia University Medical Center). The current editors-in-chief are Gregory S. Barsh (HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology and Stanford University School of Medicine) and Gregory P. Copenhaver (The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). The journal covers research on all aspects of genetics and genomics.

PLOS Medicine

PLOS Medicine (formerly styled PLoS Medicine) is a peer-reviewed weekly medical journal covering the full spectrum of the medical sciences. It began operation on October 19, 2004, as the second journal of the Public Library of Science (PLOS), a non-profit open access publisher. All content in PLOS Medicine is published under the Creative Commons "by-attribution" license. To fund the journal, the publication's business model requires in most cases that authors pay publication fees. The journal was published online and in a printed format until 2005 and is now only published online. The journal's acting chief editor is Clare Stone, who replaced the previous chief editor, Larry Peiperl, in 2018.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal devoted to the study of neglected tropical diseases, including helminth, bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal infections endemic to tropical regions. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is abstracted and indexed in PubMed and the Web of Science. It is the seventh and youngest member of the Public Library of Science family of open access journals.

Established in 2007 by founding editor Peter Hotez, with US$1.1 million in grant support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases was created to be "both catalytic and transformative in promoting science, policy, and advocacy for these diseases of the poor."As with all journals of the Public Library of Science, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is financed by charging authors a publication fee, while advertising from companies that sell drugs or medical devices are not accepted. As of July 2008 the journal charges authors US$2,200 to publish an article. It will waive the fee for authors who do not have the funds. The usage and reproduction of PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases articles are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution License, version 2.5.


PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006. The journal covers primary research from any discipline within science and medicine. The Public Library of Science began in 2000 with an online petition initiative by Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, formerly director of the National Institutes of Health and at that time director of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center; Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University; and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. All submissions go through a pre-publication review by a member of the board of academic editors, who can elect to seek an opinion from an external reviewer. According to the journal, papers are not to be excluded on the basis of lack of perceived importance or adherence to a scientific field. In January 2010, the journal was included in the Journal Citation Reports and received its first impact factor of 4.411. PLOS One papers are published under Creative Commons licenses.

PLOS Pathogens

PLOS Pathogens is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal. All content in PLOS Pathogens is published under the Creative Commons "by-attribution" license.

PLOS Pathogens began operation in September 2005. It was the fifth journal of the Public Library of Science (PLOS), a non-profit open-access publisher. For a detailed timeline of PLOS publications see the PLOS history page.

Scientific Reports

Scientific Reports is an online open access, scientific mega journal published by Nature Research, covering all areas of the natural sciences. The journal aims to assess solely the scientific validity of a submitted paper, rather than its perceived importance, significance or impact.On 23 August 2016, a blog post on the Scholarly Kitchen mentioned that the journal was likely to become the largest one in the world, overtaking PLOS ONE. This indeed occurred in September 2016 and was later confirmed in the first quarter of 2017.

Projects +
Concepts and
Projects and

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.