PDF/VT is an international standard published by ISO in August 2010 as ISO 16612-2. It defines the use of PDF as an exchange format optimized for variable and transactional printing. Built on top of PDF/X-4, it is the first variable-data printing (VDP) format which ensures modern International Color Consortium-based (ICC) color management through the use of ICC Output Intents. It adds the notion of encapsulated groups of graphic objects to support optimized efficient processing for repeating text, graphic or image content. Introducing the concept of document part metadata (DPM), it enables reliable and dynamic management of pages for High Volume Transactional Output (HVTO) print data, like record selection or postage optimizaton based on metadata.
While PDF/VT-1 always consists of a self-contained file, other variants of the standard support the use of external graphic content (PDF/VT-2) as well as streaming through the use of multi-part MIME packages (PDF/VT-2s). In addition to being a digital master for VDP printing, it can be shared, viewed and interactively navigated by human operators using a normal PDF reader, though completely accurate rendering requires a PDF/X-4 or PDF/VT conforming viewer.
A number of vendors announced their support for PDF/VT  upon publication of the standard in 2010. Over the subsequent few years various other PDF/VT-consuming and -producing products also reached the market:
The ubiquity of PDF, as well as the fact that PDF itself now is an ISO standard (ISO 32000-1:2008) clearly work in favor of PDF/VT. Nevertheless, it is currently difficult to predict where in the industry PDF/VT will be adopted and how fast that will happen, and how it will be positioned vis-à-vis other formats and architectures for variable data printing.
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Beth Robinson (born March 6, 1965) is an American lawyer and judge from Vermont who serves on the Vermont Supreme Court. Her nomination, made by Governor Peter Shumlin in October 2011, was confirmed by a unanimous vote of the Vermont Senate on February 7, 2012.Born in Indiana, Robinson graduated from Dartmouth College in 1986 and the University of Chicago Law School in 1989. Prior to her appointment, Robinson served as Shumlin's general counsel and had a varied legal career, including 18 years at Langrock, Sperry & Wool, a law firm with offices in Burlington and Middlebury. While there, she worked on issues of workers' compensation, personal injury, constitutional law and, most prominently, gay and lesbian rights. Robinson served as co-counsel in the case of Baker v. State, the landmark 1999 decision that led to Vermont becoming the first state to enact civil unions. She was subsequently involved in the 2009 legislative battle to enact same-sex marriage, chairing Vermont Freedom to Marry and working closely with Shumlin, a prominent supporter of same-sex marriage, who was then president pro tempore of the Vermont Senate. Robinson was also involved in Shumlin's gubernatorial campaign.
Shumlin announced on October 18, 2011 that he was appointing Robinson to fill the seat vacated by Justice Denise Johnson, who announced her retirement in August 2011. Since the Senate was not in session at the time, Robinson's appointment was considered interim until the Senate convened and acted upon her nomination. She was sworn in as an interim member of the court on November 28, 2011. The Senate voted on her nomination on February 7, 2012 and approved it by a vote of 26–0. Four of the thirty senators were absent for the vote: all four announced their support for Robinson's nomination the following day.Robinson, a resident of Ferrisburgh, is a lesbian. She and her partner Kym Boyman entered into a civil union in 2001 and got married in 2010. Robinson is one of twelve openly LGBT state supreme court justices currently serving in the United States.Document file format
A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers.
There currently exists a multitude of incompatible document file formats.
A rough consensus has been established that XML is to be the technical basis for future document file formats, although PDF is likely to remain the format of choice for fixed-layout documents. Examples of XML-based open standards are DocBook, XHTML, and, more recently, the ISO/IEC standards OpenDocument (ISO 26300:2006) and Office Open XML (ISO 29500:2008).
In 1993, the ITU-T tried to establish a standard for document file formats, known as the Open Document Architecture (ODA) which was supposed to replace all competing document file formats. It is described in ITU-T documents T.411 through T.421, which are equivalent to ISO 8613. It did not succeed.
Page description languages such as PostScript and PDF have become the de facto standard for documents that a typical user should only be able to create and read, not edit. In 2001, a series of ISO/IEC standards for PDF began to be published, including the specification for PDF itself, ISO-32000.
HTML is the most used and open international standard and it is also used as document file format. It has also become ISO/IEC standard (ISO 15445:2000).
The default binary file format used by Microsoft Word (.doc) has become widespread de facto standard for office documents, but it is a proprietary format and is not always fully supported by other word processors.Harlequin RIP
The Harlequin RIP is a raster image processor first released in 1990 under the name "ScriptWorks" running as a command-line application to render PostScript language files under Unix. It was developed by Harlequin, a software company based in Cambridge, England.History of the Portable Document Format (PDF)
The Portable Document Format was created in the early 1990s by Adobe Systems, and remained proprietary format until it was released as an open standard in 2008. Since then, it is under control of an International Organization for Standardization Committee of volunteer industry experts.
PDF was developed in the early 1990s as a way to share documents, including text formatting and inline images, among computer users of disparate platforms who may not have access to mutually-compatible application software. It grew out of a system called "Camelot" developed by Adobe's co-founder John Warnock. PDF was one among a number of competing formats such as DjVu, Envoy, Common Ground Digital Paper, Farallon Replica and even Adobe's own PostScript format. In those early years before the rise of the World Wide Web and HTML documents, PDF was popular mainly in desktop publishing workflows.
PDF's adoption in the early days of the format's history was slow. Adobe Acrobat, Adobe's suite for reading and creating PDF files, was not freely available; early versions of PDF had no support for external hyperlinks, reducing its usefulness on the Internet; the larger size of a PDF document compared to plain text required longer download times over the slower modems common at the time; and rendering PDF files was slow on the less powerful machines of the day.
Adobe distributed its Adobe Reader (now Acrobat Reader) program free of charge from version 2.0 onwards, and continued supporting the original PDF, which eventually became the de facto standard for fixed-format electronic documents.In 2008 Adobe Systems' PDF Reference 1.7 became ISO 32000:1:2008. Thereafter, further development of PDF (including PDF 2.0) is conducted by ISO's TC 171 SC 2 WG 8 with the participation of Adobe Systems and other subject matter experts.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 16000-17999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.Media Standard Print
Media Standard Print is a publication of the Bundesverband Druck und Medien (bvdm, German Printing and Media Industries Federation, Berlin), available on its website. The standard contains instructions on how to produce data and proofs that are to be sent to a printer. It is based on ProcessStandard Offset and therefore on the ISO Standards ISO 12647 and ISO 15930. As such, it serves as the foundation for smooth cooperation between customer, prepress service provider and printer during media production, covering data formats, colour formats, printing conditions, workflows, means of proofing, standards, black composition and much more.
Only those printing conditions adopted in ISO 12647-2 to -6 are permitted. In terms of data formats, only PDF files (ideally PDF/X-4 or PDF/X-1a) and TIFFs should be used for the delivery of individual images. Open files should be avoided. ICC profiles and the reference printing condition must be embedded with media neutral data or made available to the recipient.
A Media Standard Print conforming contract proof must contain the FOGRA media wedge, the measurement record, the colour profiles used, the time and date of the proof. The print of the media wedge should be measured. Colour measurement should be carried out in accordance with ISO 13655:2009 in measurement mode M1 on a white backing and the visual evaluation of the proof including its comparison with printed copies should be under a standard illuminant in accordance with ISO 3664:2009 (confirmed 2015).
Media Standard Print proposes three possible workflows: a 'media neutral' one, a 'media specific' one and a 'classic media specific' one. The media neutral workflow (RGB colours, Lab colours and so on; PDF/X-4) offers advantages if it has not yet been decided what press will be used for printing, allowing the black composition to be adjusted. The disadvantage of the ‘media neutral’ workflow is a degree of rendering uncertainty, since the gamut mapping should be carried out using the unstandardized perceptual Rendering intent. However, in practice this has turned out to be of little relevance. The media specific workflow (CMYK and spot colours; PDF/X-1a) offers a degree of production security, especially against unexpected conversions (RGB black in vector elements to CMYK deep black). Experts do not currently agree over which variant to prefer. As experience is gained, the majority of users are opting for the media neutral workflow, which entails considerably less effort during the design process. What remains to be seen is how fast this switch will take place.PDF
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as an open format, ISO 32000, in 2008, and no longer requires any royalties for its implementation.Today, PDF files may contain a variety of content besides flat text and graphics including logical structuring elements, interactive elements such as annotations and form-fields, layers, rich media (including video content) and three dimensional objects using U3D or PRC, and various other data formats. The PDF specification also provides for encryption and digital signatures, file attachments and metadata to enable workflows requiring these features.PDF/A
PDF/A is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for use in the archiving and long-term preservation of electronic documents. PDF/A differs from PDF by prohibiting features unsuitable for long-term archiving, such as font linking (as opposed to font embedding) and encryption. The ISO requirements for PDF/A file viewers include color management guidelines, support for embedded fonts, and a user interface for reading embedded annotations.PDF/E
ISO 24517-1:2008 is an ISO Standard published in 2008.
Document management—Engineering document format using PDF—Part 1: Use of PDF 1.6 (PDF/E-1)This standard defines a format (PDF/E) for the creation of documents used in geospatial, construction and manufacturing workflows and is based on the PDF Reference version 1.6 from Adobe Systems. The specification also supports interactive media, including animation and 3D.
PDF/E is a subset of PDF, designed to be an open and neutral exchange format for engineering and technical documentation.PDF/X
PDF/X is a subset of the PDF ISO standard. The purpose of PDF/X is to facilitate graphics exchange, and it therefore has a series of printing related requirements which do not apply to standard PDF files. For example, in PDF/X-1a all fonts need to be embedded and all images need to be CMYK or spot colors. PDF/X-3 accepts calibrated RGB and CIELAB colors, while retaining most of the other restrictions of PDF/X-1a.
PDF/X files must not only follow certain restrictions, they also must contain a special file identification, inside the PDF, which says which PDF/X version they are. This means that a file can only conform to a single specific PDF/X standard, even if all other requirements are met.
The printing conditions or output intent need to be specified in the file. This can be specified in the form of standard profiles using codes, like "CGATS TR 001 SWOP".
In a PDF/X file that has color managed data each color managed graphic gets its own color profile, so even though the file as a whole is CMYK, individual graphics may be RGB (with calibration information).
Various boxes must be defined. The MediaBox which defines the size of the entire document, either the ArtBox or the TrimBox, which define the extent of the printable area. If the file is to be printed with bleed, a BleedBox, which must be larger than the TrimBox/ArtBox, but smaller than the MediaBox, must be defined.
Active content is not allowed in a PDF/X file. This means that standard PDF features like forms, signatures, comments and embedded sounds and movies are not allowed in PDF/X. Features that are forbidden in the PDF/X standard can sometimes be used, if they do not affect the rendering of the file. This allows for things like annotations outside the BleedBox.
PDF/X-6 is in development which will be the new print production standard built upon PDF 2.0.Second Vermont Republic
The Second Vermont Republic (SVR, 2VR) is a secessionist group within the U.S. state of Vermont which seeks to restore the formerly independent status of the Vermont Republic (1777–91). It describes itself as "a nonviolent citizens' network and think tank opposed to the tyranny of Corporate America and the U.S. government, and committed to the peaceful return of Vermont to its status as an independent republic and more broadly the dissolution of the Union." The organization was founded in 2003 by Thomas Naylor (1936–2012), a former Duke University economics professor and co-author of the 1997 book Downsizing the U.S.A. A 2010 TIME article featured the Second Vermont Republic as one of the "Top 10 Aspiring Nations".Variable data printing
Variable data printing (VDP) (also known as variable information printing (VIP) or variable imaging (VI)) is a form of digital printing, including on-demand printing, in which elements such as text, graphics and images may be changed from one printed piece to the next, without stopping or slowing down the printing process and using information from a database or external file. For example, a set of personalized letters, each with the same basic layout, can be printed with a different name and address on each letter. Variable data printing is mainly used for direct marketing, customer relationship management, advertising, invoicing and applying addressing on selfmailers, brochures or postcard campaigns.Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences is one of eight colleges at Virginia Tech with a three-part mission of learning, discovery, and engagement and it is one of the best agriculture programs in the nation. It has more than 3,100 undergraduate and graduate students in a dozen academic departments. In 2013, the National Science Foundation ranked Virginia Tech No. 6 in the country for agricultural research expenditures, much of which originated from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.As part of Virginia Tech’s land-grant mission, the college administers Virginia Cooperative Extension in partnership with Virginia State University.
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