PDF/UA (PDF/Universal Accessibility) is the informal[1] name for ISO 14289, the International Standard for accessible PDF technology. A technical specification intended for developers implementing PDF writing and processing software, PDF/UA provides definitive terms and requirements for accessibility in PDF documents and applications.[2] For those equipped with appropriate software, conformance with PDF/UA ensures accessibility for people with disabilities who use assistive technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, joysticks and other technologies to navigate and read electronic content.[3]

On February 18, 2015 the US Access Board announced its Proposed Rule for US federal policy on accessibility, commonly known as Section 508. The proposed rule identifies PDF/UA as equivalent to WCAG 2.0 for "appropriate content".[4]

PDF/Universal Accessibility
Filename extension.pdf
Type code'PDF ' (including a single space)
Magic number%PDF
Developed byISO
Initial release15 July 2012
Latest release
Part 1:2014
(18 December 2014)
Extended fromPDF
StandardISO 14289


PDF/UA is not a separate file-format but simply a way to use the familiar PDF format invented by Adobe Systems and now standardized as ISO 32000.[5]

In general PDF/UA requires Tagged PDF (ISO 32000-1, 14.8), but adds a variety of qualitative requirements, especially regarding semantic correctness of the tags employed:[6][7]

PDF/UA complements WCAG 2.0,[8] and should be used to make PDF files that also conform with WCAG 2.0.[9]

The 2014 update to PDF/UA, published in December 2014, is the first fully accessible standard ISO has ever published; the PDF file distributed by ISO itself conforms to PDF/UA.[10]

Requirements for conforming PDF files (Clause 7)

  • Complete tagging of "real content" in logical reading order
  • Tags must correctly represent the document's semantic structures (headings, lists, tables, etc.)
  • Problematic content is prohibited, including illogical headings, the use of color/contrast to convey information, inaccessible JavaScript, and more
  • Meaningful graphics must include alternative text descriptions
  • Security settings must allow assistive technology access to the content
  • Fonts must be embedded, and text mapped to Unicode

Requirements for conforming PDF processors (Clause 8)

  • The ability to fully process tags and artifacts in PDF files
  • The ability to announce relevant actions to users
  • The ability to process and represent digital signatures, annotations and Optional Content
  • The ability to navigate the document by a variety of means

Requirements for conforming assistive technology (AT) (Clause 9)

  • The ability to represent information provided by a PDF/UA conforming reader to the AT user
  • The ability to navigate the document by a variety of means

The formal name of PDF/UA is "ISO 14289-1 Document management applications -- Electronic document file format enhancement for accessibility -- Part 1: Use of ISO 32000-1 (PDF/UA-1)".[11]

Audience & Benefits

While the PDF/UA specification is written for software developers, PDF/UA support is of interest to persons with disabilities who require or benefit from assistive technology when reading electronic content. With PDF/UA conforming files, readers and assistive technology, users are guaranteed – so far as the PDF format itself can provide – equal access to information.

The benefits of PDF/UA extend beyond people with disabilities. With support for PDF/UA, reader software will be able to reliably reflow text onto small screens, provide powerful navigation options, transform text appearance, improve search engine functionality, aid in the selection and copying of text, and more.


The PDF/UA project began in 2004 as an AIIM Standards Committee. The PDF/UA wiki, operated by AIIM, contains agendas, meeting-minutes and public-access documents pertaining to the development of PDF/UA.

Chaired since 2005 by Duff Johnson, in 2009 AIIM's PDF/UA Committee became the U.S. Committee for ISO/AWI (Accepted Work Item) 14289 with Cherie Ekholm of Microsoft as International Project Leader.

The US Committee continued as the main driver of the standard's development through the WD, CD, DIS and FDIS Phases of ISO standards development, with review, comment and balloting by the member bodies of ISO TC 171.

ISO 14289-1:2012 (PDF/UA) was published in July, 2012. A minor update (ISO 14289-1:2014) was published in December 2014. The document is available directly from the ISO's webstore.[12]

In October 2012 the US Library of Congress added PDF/UA to their list of archivable file formats.[13] The LoC's guidance states that PDF/UA is "...a preferred format for page-oriented content by the Library of Congress."

Adobe Systems, the largest implementer of interactive PDF software, has announced its intention[14] to support PDF/UA.

In December 2014 ISO published ISO 14289-1:2014, a minor revision of the original 2012 document.[15]

In March 2016 AIIM and ANSI published PDF/UA as an American National Standard:.[16]

AIIM's US Committee for PDF/UA has published the following documents in support of PDF/UA:

  • Achieving WCAG 2.0 with PDF/UA[17]
  • PDF/UA-1 Technical Implementation Guide: Understanding ISO 14289-1 (PDF/UA-1)[18]
  • PDF/UA-1 Technical Implementation Guide: Understanding ISO 32000-1 (PDF 1.7)[19]

Ongoing ISO and AIIM Committee Activities

Work on ISO 14289-2 (PDF/UA-2) is ongoing. PDF/UA-2 will be based on PDF 2.0.

Committee Organization & Leadership

AIIM's US Committee for PDF/UA led development of the document from 2004 until 2010, when the draft became an ISO NWI. Both US and ISO Committees maintain their work on AIIM's PDF Standards wiki.[20]

Participation by subject matter experts, software developers and other interested parties is invited and encouraged.

PDF Association Activities

The PDF Association helps promote PDF/UA in a variety of ways.

PDF/UA Competence Center

In 2011 the PDF Association created the PDF/UA Competence Center as a way for vendors to develop educational resources and share experiences regarding implementation of PDF/UA.[21] The Matterhorn Protocol (see below) is a product of the PDF/UA Competence Center.

NVDA goes PDF/UA Project

In 2012 and 2013 the PDF Association helped raise money and awareness for NV Access's NVDA to further development of the world's first PDF/UA conforming screen reader.[22]

The Matterhorn Protocol

In August 2013 the PDF Association's PDF/UA Competence Center published the Matterhorn Protocol, a set of 31 checkpoints and 136 failure conditions to help software developers make it easier for document authors to create fully accessible PDF files and forms.[23]

The PDF/UA Reference Suite

In June 2014 the PDF Association's PDF/UA Competence Center published the first iteration of the PDF/UA Reference Suite, a set of reference-quality documents conforming to PDF/UA-1.[24]

The Tagged PDF Best Practice Guide

In December 2015 the PDF Association's PDF/UA Competence Center unveiled the first public draft of its Tagged PDF Best Practice Guide.[25] Publication is expected by the summer of 2016.

Seminars, Books and Brochures

The PDF Association conducted numerous educational seminars on PDF/UA throughout Europe, North America and Australia in 2012 and 2013. A book, "PDF/UA in a Nutshell",[26] was produced in both English and German. An informational brochure[27] was also produced in both languages.


  1. ^ The US Committee for PDF/UA
  2. ^ What is PDF/UA about anyway?
  3. ^ PDFlib whitepaper: "A Technical Introduction to PDF/UA (PDF)
  4. ^ Board Proposes Updated ICT Accessibility Requirements
  5. ^ A new standard for PDF accessibility: PDF/UA
  6. ^ PDF/UA in a Nutshell
  7. ^ The PDF/UA standard for universal accessibility
  8. ^ WCAG 2.0 PDF Techniques
  9. ^ WCAG 2.0 and PDF/UA - your questions answered
  10. ^ PDF/UA-1:2014 now published!
  11. ^ ISO 14289 from iso.org
  12. ^ [1] ISO 14289 available from ISO.org
  13. ^ PDF/UA on the Library of Congress's Digital Preservation website, checked 2013-10
  14. ^ Adobe Systems' Statement on WCAG 2.0 and PDF/UA
  15. ^ ISO 14289 on iso.org
  16. ^ AIIM / ANSI / ISO 14289-1:2016
  17. ^ Achieving WCAG 2.0 with PDF/UA
  18. ^ PDF/UA-1 AIIM's Technical Implementation Guide to PDF/UA
  19. ^ PDF/UA-1 Technical Implementation Guide: Understanding ISO 32000-1 (PDF 1.7)
  20. ^ PDF Standards Wiki
  21. ^ PDF/UA Competence Center
  22. ^ NVDA goes PDF/UA! The PDF Association Steps Up to Fund Development of the World's First PDF/UA Conforming Screen Reader
  23. ^ "The Matterhorn Protocol". PDF Association. Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  24. ^ "The PDF/UA Reference Suite". PDF Association. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
  25. ^ PDF/UA Competence Center Tagged PDF Best Practice Guide
  26. ^ The PDF Association's PDF/UA in a Nutshell
  27. ^ PDF Association brochures

External links

Alabama Crimson Tide women's basketball

The Alabama Crimson Tide women's basketball program represents the University of Alabama in the sport of women's basketball. The team competes in the Southeastern Conference and National Collegiate Athletic Association. They are coached by sixth-year head coach Kristy Curry.

Automotive Industry Standards

The Automotive Industry Standards are the automotive technical specifications of India.They are based on the UNECE norms.

Demographics of Azerbaijan

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Azerbaijan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Diphtheria vaccine

Diphtheria vaccine is a vaccine against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacterium that causes diphtheria. Its use has resulted in a more than 90% decrease in number of cases globally between 1980 and 2000. The first dose is recommended at six weeks of age with two additional doses four weeks apart, after which it is about 95% effective during childhood. Three further doses are recommended during childhood. It is unclear if further doses later in life are needed.The diphtheria vaccine is very safe. Significant side effects are rare. Pain may occur at the injection site. A bump may form at the site of injection that lasts a few weeks. The vaccine is safe in both pregnancy and among those who have a poor immune function.The diphtheria vaccine is delivered in several combinations. Some combinations (Td and DT vaccines) include tetanus vaccine, others (known as DPT vaccine or DTaP vaccine depending on the pertussis antigen used) comes with the tetanus and pertussis vaccines, and still others include additional vaccines such as Hib vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, or inactivated polio vaccine. The World Health Organization has recommended its use since 1974. About 84% of the world population is vaccinated. It is given as a intramuscular injection. The vaccine needs to be kept cold but not frozen.The diphtheria vaccine was developed in 1923. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale price in the developing world of a version that contains tetanus toxoid is between 0.12 and 0.99 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it is less than 25 USD.

Document file format

A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers.

There currently exists a multitude of incompatible document file formats.

A rough consensus has been established that XML is to be the technical basis for future document file formats, although PDF is likely to remain the format of choice for fixed-layout documents. Examples of XML-based open standards are DocBook, XHTML, and, more recently, the ISO/IEC standards OpenDocument (ISO 26300:2006) and Office Open XML (ISO 29500:2008).

In 1993, the ITU-T tried to establish a standard for document file formats, known as the Open Document Architecture (ODA) which was supposed to replace all competing document file formats. It is described in ITU-T documents T.411 through T.421, which are equivalent to ISO 8613. It did not succeed.

Page description languages such as PostScript and PDF have become the de facto standard for documents that a typical user should only be able to create and read, not edit. In 2001, a series of ISO/IEC standards for PDF began to be published, including the specification for PDF itself, ISO-32000.

HTML is the most used and open international standard and it is also used as document file format. It has also become ISO/IEC standard (ISO 15445:2000).

The default binary file format used by Microsoft Word (.doc) has become widespread de facto standard for office documents, but it is a proprietary format and is not always fully supported by other word processors.

Health in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka scores higher than the regional average in healthcare having a high Life expectancy and a lower maternal and infant death rate than its neighbors. In 2018 life expectancy was 72.1 for men and 78.5 for women ranking the country 70th in the world.


iText is a library for creating and manipulating PDF files in Java and .NET.

iText was written by Bruno Lowagie. The source code was initially distributed as open source under the Mozilla Public License or the GNU Library General Public License open source licenses. However, as of version 5.0.0 (released Dec 7, 2009) it is distributed under the Affero General Public License version 3. A fork of the LGPL/MPL licensed version of iText is currently actively maintained as the OpenPDF library on GitHub. iText is also available through a proprietary license, distributed by iText Software NV.

iText provides support for most advanced PDF features such as PKI-based signatures, 40-bit and 128-bit encryption, color correction, Tagged PDF, PDF forms (AcroForms), PDF/X, color management via ICC profiles and barcodes, and is used by several products and services, including Eclipse BIRT, Jasper Reports, JBoss Seam, Windward Reports, and pdftk.


Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Initially, a person who is infected does not have symptoms and typically remains this way for 5 to 20 years. Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, which can lead to the loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.Leprosy is spread between people, although extensive contact is necessary. Spread is thought to occur through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of a person infected by leprosy. It is not spread during pregnancy to the unborn children or through sexual contact. Leprosy occurs more commonly among those living in poverty. Genetic factors also play a role in susceptibility. The two main types of disease - paucibacillary and multibacillary - differ in the number of bacteria present. A person with paucibacillary disease has five or fewer poorly pigmented numb skin patches while a person with multibacillary disease has more than five. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding acid-fast bacilli in a biopsy of the skin or by detecting the bacteria's DNA using polymerase chain reaction.Leprosy is curable with multidrug therapy. Treatment of paucibacillary leprosy is with the medications dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine for six months. Treatment for multibacillary are the same medication for 12 months. A number of other antibiotics may also be used. These treatments are provided free of charge by the World Health Organization. At the end of 2016, there were 173,000 leprosy cases globally, down from some 5.2 million in the 1980s. The number of new cases in 2016 was 216,000. Most new cases occur in 16 countries, with India accounting for more than half. In the past 20 years, 16 million people worldwide have been cured of leprosy. About 200 cases are reported per year in the United States.Leprosy has affected humanity for thousands of years. The disease takes its name from the Greek word λέπρᾱ (léprā), from λεπῐ́ς (lepís; "scale"), while the term "Hansen's disease" is named after the Norwegian physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen. Separating people by placing them in leper colonies still occurs in places such as India, China, and Africa. However, most colonies have closed, since leprosy is not very contagious. Social stigma has been associated with leprosy for much of history, which continues to be a barrier to self-reporting and early treatment. Some consider the word "leper" offensive, preferring the phrase "person affected with leprosy". It is classified as a neglected tropical disease. World Leprosy Day was started in 1954 to draw awareness to those affected by leprosy.

Obesity in the Pacific

Pacific island nations and associated states make up the top seven on a 2007 list of heaviest countries, and eight of the top ten. In all these cases, more than 70% of citizens age 15 and over are obese. A mitigating excuse argument is that the BMI measures used to appraise obesity in Caucasian bodies may need to be adjusted for appraising obesity in Polynesian bodies, which typically have larger bone and muscle mass than Caucasian bodies.Obesity in Pacific islands is a growing health concern with health officials stating that it is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the Pacific Rim.


The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as an open format, ISO 32000, in 2008, and no longer requires any royalties for its implementation.Today, PDF files may contain a variety of content besides flat text and graphics including logical structuring elements, interactive elements such as annotations and form-fields, layers, rich media (including video content) and three dimensional objects using U3D or PRC, and various other data formats. The PDF specification also provides for encryption and digital signatures, file attachments and metadata to enable workflows requiring these features.


PDF/A is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for use in the archiving and long-term preservation of electronic documents. PDF/A differs from PDF by prohibiting features unsuitable for long-term archiving, such as font linking (as opposed to font embedding) and encryption. The ISO requirements for PDF/A file viewers include color management guidelines, support for embedded fonts, and a user interface for reading embedded annotations.


ISO 24517-1:2008 is an ISO Standard published in 2008.

Document management—Engineering document format using PDF—Part 1: Use of PDF 1.6 (PDF/E-1)This standard defines a format (PDF/E) for the creation of documents used in geospatial, construction and manufacturing workflows and is based on the PDF Reference version 1.6 from Adobe Systems. The specification also supports interactive media, including animation and 3D.

PDF/E is a subset of PDF, designed to be an open and neutral exchange format for engineering and technical documentation.


PDF/X is a subset of the PDF ISO standard. The purpose of PDF/X is to facilitate graphics exchange, and it therefore has a series of printing related requirements which do not apply to standard PDF files. For example, in PDF/X-1a all fonts need to be embedded and all images need to be CMYK or spot colors. PDF/X-3 accepts calibrated RGB and CIELAB colors, while retaining most of the other restrictions of PDF/X-1a.

PDF/X files must not only follow certain restrictions, they also must contain a special file identification, inside the PDF, which says which PDF/X version they are. This means that a file can only conform to a single specific PDF/X standard, even if all other requirements are met.

The printing conditions or output intent need to be specified in the file. This can be specified in the form of standard profiles using codes, like "CGATS TR 001 SWOP".

In a PDF/X file that has color managed data each color managed graphic gets its own color profile, so even though the file as a whole is CMYK, individual graphics may be RGB (with calibration information).

Various boxes must be defined. The MediaBox which defines the size of the entire document, either the ArtBox or the TrimBox, which define the extent of the printable area. If the file is to be printed with bleed, a BleedBox, which must be larger than the TrimBox/ArtBox, but smaller than the MediaBox, must be defined.

Active content is not allowed in a PDF/X file. This means that standard PDF features like forms, signatures, comments and embedded sounds and movies are not allowed in PDF/X. Features that are forbidden in the PDF/X standard can sometimes be used, if they do not affect the rendering of the file. This allows for things like annotations outside the BleedBox.

PDF/X-6 is in development which will be the new print production standard built upon PDF 2.0.

Public toilet

A public toilet is a room or small building with toilets (or urinals) that does not belong to a particular household. Rather, the toilet is available for use by the general public, customers, travellers, employees of a business, school pupils, prisoners etc. Public toilets are commonly separated into male and female facilities, although some are unisex, especially for small or single-occupancy public toilets. Increasingly, public toilets are accessible to people with disabilities. Public toilets are known by many other names depending on the country. Examples are: restroom, washroom, bathroom, water closet (W.C.), comfort room, ladies'/women's room and gents'/men's room.

Some public toilets are free of charge while others charge a fee. In the latter case they are also called pay toilets and sometimes have of a coin-operated turnstile.

Local authorities or commercial businesses may provide public toilet facilities. Some are unattended while others are staffed by an attendant. In many cultures, it is customary to tip the attendant, especially if they provide a specific service, such as might be the case at upscale nightclubs or restaurants.

Public toilets are typically found in many different places: inner-city locations, offices, factories, schools, universities and other places of work and study. Similarly, museums, cinemas, bars, restaurants, entertainment venues usually provide public toilets. Railway stations, filling stations, and long distance public transport vehicles such as trains, ferries, and planes usually provide toilets for general use. Portable toilets are often available at large outdoor events. In many Asian, African, and countries heavily influenced by Muslim cultures, public toilets are of the squat type, as this is regarded as more hygienic for a shared facility.

Rhetorical question

A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may be intended to start a discussion or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the intended message.

A common example is the question "Can't you do anything right?" This question, when posed, is intended not to ask about the listener's ability but rather to insinuate the listener's lack of ability.

Toxicity class

Toxicity class refers to a classification system for pesticides that has been created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization. It addresses the acute toxicity of agents such as soil fumigants, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, miticides, molluscicides, nematicides, or rodenticides.

Type 69 tank

The Type 69 (Chinese: 69式; pinyin: Liùjiǔ shì) and Type 79 (Chinese: 79式; pinyin: Qījiǔ shì) are Chinese main battle tanks. Both were developments of the Type 59 (based on the Soviet T-54A) with technologies derived from T-62. They were the first main battle tanks developed independently by China. Their lineage can be seen through the distinct gap between the first and second road wheels. Other improvements included a new engine, ballistic computers, and laser rangefinders. The more advanced Type 79 variant was equipped with a 105 mm rifled gun which was also found on the Type 80 tank.

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Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

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ISO standards by standard number

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