PCX, standing for PiCture eXchange, is an image file format developed by the now-defunct ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, United States. It was the native file format for PC Paintbrush and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although it has since been succeeded by more sophisticated image formats, such as BMP, JPEG, and PNG. PCX files commonly stored palette-indexed images ranging from 2 or 4 colors to 16 and 256 colors, although the format has been extended to record true-color (24-bit) images as well.
|Internet media type|
|Developed by||ZSoft Corporation|
|Type of format||Lossless bitmap image format|
|Bit Depth||Planes||Number of Colors|
|4||1||16 colors from a palette|
|8||1||256 colors from a palette|
|8||1||256 shades of gray|
|4||4||4095 colors with 16 levels of transparency|
|8||3||16.7 million, 24-bit "true color"|
|8||4||16.7 million with 256 levels of transparency|
PCX was designed during the early development of PC display hardware and most of the formats it supported are no longer used, Table A shows a list of the most commonly used PCX formats. Contemporary image editing programs may not read PCX files that match older hardware.
PCX is supported by common image processing software including ACDSee, GIMP, ImageMagick, IrfanView, LView, Netpbm, PaintShop Pro, Photoshop, Visio, PMview, XnView and GraphicConverter. In version 2.1.4 FFmpeg could encode and decode the PCX pixel formats rgb24, rgb8, bgr8, rgb4_byte, bgr4_byte, gray, pal8, and monob.
There is a multi-page version of PCX, used by some computer fax and document management programs, with file extension
.dcx. A DCX file consists of a header introducing a set of following PCX files.
PCX files were designed for use on IBM-compatible PCs and always use little endian byte ordering. A PCX file has three main sections, in the following order
The PCX file header contains an identifier byte (value 10), a version number, image dimensions, 16 palette colors, number color planes, bit depth of each plane, and a value for compression method. PCX version numbers range from 0 to 5, this originally denoted the version of the PC Paintbrush program used to create the PCX file. The header always has space for 16 colors though the number of colors used depends upon the bit depth of the image. The header is 74 bytes long and the image data begins 128 bytes after the start of the file, the 54 bytes between are not used.
All PCX files use the same compression scheme and the compression value is always 1. No other values have been defined and there are no uncompressed PCX files. One source claims that 0 (uncompressed) is allowed, but not much software supports it.
|Row 0||R R R R R R R R R|
|G G G G G G G G|
|B B B B B B B B B|
|A A A A A A A A A|
|Row 1||R R R R R R R R R|
|G G G G G G G G|
|B B B B B B B B B|
|A A A A A A A A A|
|Row 2 etc.||....|
PCX image data is stored in rows or scan lines in top-down order. If the image has multiple planes, these are stored by plane within row, such that all the red data for row 0 are followed by all the green data for row 0, then all the blue data, then alpha data. This pattern is repeated for each line as shown in Table B.
When an image is less than 8 bits per pixel, each line is padded to the next byte boundary. For example, if an image has 1 plane of 1-bit data (monochrome) with a width of 22 pixels, each row will be 3 bytes long, having 24 bits per row with 2 bits unused.
PCX image data are compressed using run-length encoding (RLE), a simple lossless compression algorithm that collapses a series of three or more consecutive bytes with identical values into a two-byte pair. The two most-significant bits of a byte are used to determine whether the given data represent a single pixel of a given palette index or color value, or an RLE pair representing a series of several pixels of a single value:
Compared to the maximum run length of 128, possible with TGA RLE compression, the PCX run-length encoding offers a larger single-pixel value range, while the maximum run length is restricted to 63.
Due to the use of the two most-significant bits as flags, pixel values from 192 to 255 (with their most-significant bit already set) must be stored in an RLE byte pair, even when they only occur one or two pixels in succession, whereas color indexes 0 to 191 can be stored directly or in RLE byte pairs (whichever is more space-efficient); therefore, the actual compression ratio could be optimized with proper sorting of palette entries, though this is not feasible where the file must share its color palette with other images. For example, a palette could be optimized with the most commonly used colors occurring in palette positions 0 to 191 and the least common colors allocated to the remaining quarter of the palette.
Another inefficiency with the RLE algorithm is that it is possible to store chunks with a length of 0, which allows whitespace in the file. This allowed PCX files to be decompressed slightly faster on the processors it was originally intended for. This quirk could be used for steganography.
The PCX compression algorithm requires very little processor power or memory to apply, a significant concern with the computer systems when it was designed. As computers and display hardware grow more sophisticated, the PCX algorithm becomes less space-efficient. Compression algorithms used by newer image formats are more efficient when compressing images such as photographs, and dithered or otherwise complex graphics.
A PCX file has space in its header for a 16 color palette. When 256-color VGA hardware became available there was not enough space for the palette in a PCX file; even the 54 unused bytes after the header would not be enough. The solution chosen was to put the palette at the end of the file, along with a marker byte to confirm its existence.
If a PCX file has a 256-color palette, it is found 768 bytes from the end of the file. In this case the value in the byte preceding the palette should be 12 (0x0C). The palette is stored as a sequence of RGB triples; its usable length is defined by the number of colors in the image. Colors values in a PCX palette always use 8 bits, regardless of the bit depth of the image.
Artweaver is a raster graphics editor for Windows developed by Boris Eyrich, mainly oriented to professional and amateur artists who are familiar with commercial programs like Adobe Photoshop and especially Corel Painter.Like the latter, Artweaver is capable of simulating a wide range of classical effects (such as oil paints, acrylics, pastels, pencils, airbrushes, etc.) to create natural-looking artistic images. It also offers effect filters like sharpen, blur, emboss, and mosaic, as well as transparency and layer support in its own AWD format. Artweaver supports most common file formats, such as BMP, GIF, JPEG, PCX, TGA, TIFF, PNG, PSD, although the BMP, GIF, JPEG, and PNG formats do not have layer support. The program also has standard image editing tools like gradient, crop, fill and selection tools (including lasso and magic wand), and pen tablet support.Artweaver can also be run in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems using Wine.
Starting with version 1.0 (released September 30, 2009), Artweaver is offered in two different versions: a "Free version", which can be downloaded free of charge, and the "Artweaver Plus" version, which has a cost of €25 and offers more advanced features, like compatibility with Photoshop filters and higher maximum supported image size, among others.
Ballu Khan is an Indo-Fijianbusinessman of New Zealand citizenry. His company, Tui Management Services, is the joint owner with the Vanua Development Corporation (VDC) of Pacific Connex (PCX), which sells SAP software and has sought to enter the 3G mobile telephony market in Fiji. VDC is the commercial wing of the Native Land Trust Board (NLTB) which administers indigenous land holdings throughout Fiji. He is also a major supporter of the Ovalau Rugby Union team.
Khan is known for his close ties with the former government of Laisenia Qarase, which was deposed in the military coup of 5 December 2006. He has a tense relationship with the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, which predates the coup.
The Fiji Sun reported on 25 October 2006 that Colonel Pita Driti, the Land Force Commander, had condemned Khan for employing former Counter Revolutionary Warfare Unit (CRW) soldiers as bodyguards. The CRW was implicated in a mutiny which left eight soldiers dead on 2 November 2000. Driti and Captain Esala Teleni, the Deputy Commander of the Military, issued a veiled threat to Khan, warning that the Military was in a position to stop former CRW soldiers from working for him.
Following the coup, armed soldiers raided the PCX office and Khan's private residence on 9 December 2006, and arrested six bodyguards who had been CRW soldiers. Documents and hard drives were removed from the office, according to Colonel Driti. Khan's house was raided again on 12 December. All of these raids took place while Khan was out of Fiji.Bootsplash
A bootsplash, also known as a bootscreen, is a graphical representation of the boot process of the operating system.
A bootsplash can be a simple visualisation of the scrolling boot messages in the console, but it can also present graphics or some combinations of both.
Unlike splash screens, bootsplash is not necessarily designed for marketing purposes, but can be to enhance the experience of the user as eye candy, or provide the user with messages (with an added advantage of color-coding facility) to diagnose the state of the system.Comparison of image viewers
This article presents a comparison of image viewers and image organizers which can be used for image viewing.DCX
DCX may refer to:
McDonnell Douglas DC-X, an unmanned prototype spacecraft
Doublecortin, protein encoded by the DCX gene
The number 610, in Roman numerals
Derivative and Commodity Exchange Nepal Ltd.
The Dixie Chicks, an alternative-country band.
Delta Chi Xi, a collegiate Greek letter organization
.dcx (DCX), a document image format, the Multipage PCXGOCR
GOCR (or JOCR) is a free optical character recognition program, initially written by Jörg Schulenburg. It can be used to convert or scan image files (portable pixmap or PCX) into text files.GSC bus
GSC is a bus used in many of the HP 9000 workstations and servers. The acronym has various explanations, including Gecko System Connect (Gecko being the codename of the 712 workstation), Gonzo System Connect and General System Connect.
GSC was a general 32-bit I/O bus, similar to NuBus or Sun's SBus, although it was also used as a processor bus with the PA-7100LC and PA-7300LC processors. Several variations were produced over time, the later ones running at 40 MHz:
The original GSC bus implemented on PCX-L and used in the Gecko (712), Mirage (715) and Electra computers. Peak Bandwidth 142MB/s w/DMA, 106 MB/s with PIO writes.GSC+, a.k.a. "Extended GSC" or "EGSC"
Enhancements added for KittyHawk/SkyHawk (U2 chip) that allow for pending transactions. GSC+ enhancements are orthogonal to the GSC-1.5X and GSC-2X enhancements.GSC-1.5X
GSC-1X with an additional variable length write transaction.GSC-2X
GSC-1.5X with a protocol enhancement to allow data to be sent at double the GCLK rate, with a peak bandwidth of 256 MB/s.HSC
High Speed Connect.Four types of GSC cards were produced: the GIO cards fit into the larger of the two IO card sockets in the 712 workstation. Several were produced, including a second RS-232 serial port, a serial/10BaseT combo, a second graphics card and a Token Ring card.
The 715/Mirage, 725, 735, 755, B-, C-, and J-class workstations, and the D- and R-class servers, used the so-called "EISA form factor". Many different types of card were produced, including Gigabit Ethernet, single and dual 100Mbit Ethernet, Ultra-2 SCSI, ATM and graphics.
The K- and T-class servers both used the "3x5" form factor, although the different brackets prevent the cards being interchangeable. Fibre channel and Gigabit Ethernet cards both exist.GeForce FX series
The GeForce FX or "GeForce 5" series (codenamed NV30) is a line of graphics processing units from the manufacturer NVIDIA.Honda PCX
The Honda PCX is a scooter developed by Honda. It was produced by Thai Honda Manufacturing. The Honda PCX was first introduced for sale in November 2009.Honda Zoomer
The Zoomer, designation NPS50, is a scooter developed by Honda and introduced in Japan and America in late 2002 for the 2003 model year. In Canada and the USA, the scooter is marketed as the Ruckus. The Zoomer differs from more traditional scooters with its rugged design, including fatter tires with deeper tread and a skeletal frame lacking an enclosed storage compartment. The NPS50 shares similar motor and drivetrain components with the CHF50.
The Zoomer sold in European countries features a compact, single point programmed fuel injection (PGMFI) system, consisting of a single fuel injector, a different fuel pump arrangement, and an oxygen sensor fitted just before the exhaust silencer.
Honda claims that the Ruckus returns 114 miles per US gallon (2.06 L/100 km; 137 mpg‑imp) in EPA tests.Imaging for Windows
Imaging for Windows from Global 360 is document imaging software. Earlier versions of Imaging for Windows were included in Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000. Global360 Imaging for Windows is the upgrade to this Imaging software, which was discontinued as of Windows XP. Its image viewing, editing and scanning functions are superseded by Windows Picture and Fax Viewer and Microsoft Paint, both of which are based on GDI+ in Windows XP. However, the multi-page picture editing functions are gone with the Imaging software.
Imaging for Windows was developed by Wang (as in Windows 95/NT 4.0), was later absorbed by Kodak (as Eastman Software, as in Windows 98/2000), then becoming eiStream Inc., later to be renamed to Global 360. Currently Imaging for Windows 4.0 is available through OpenText. Professional Edition was sold as stand alone product with support for advanced features like OCR.Imaging for Windows supports creating, annotating, viewing, and printing TIFF, BMP, and Microsoft Fax AWD image documents. Users can also view and print JPEG and PCX/DCX images.
Imaging for Windows also provides the ability to develop software using ActiveX tools. Each copy includes the Kodak/Wang Imaging OCX (ActiveX) controls - ImgEdit, ImgAdmin, ImgThumb, ImgScan and ImgOCR controls are provided.Kurzweil Music Systems
Kurzweil Music Systems is an American company that produces electronic musical instruments. It was founded in 1982 by Stevie Wonder (musician), Raymond Kurzweil (innovator) and Bruce Cichowlas (software developer).
Kurzweil was a developer of reading machines for the blind, and their company used many of the technologies originally designed for reading machines, and adapted them to musical purposes. They released their first instrument, the K250 in 1983, and have continued producing new instruments ever since. The company was acquired by Young Chang in 1990. HDC acquired Young Chang in 2006 and in January 2007 appointed Raymond Kurzweil as Chief Strategy Officer of Kurzweil Music Systems.Microsoft Paint
Microsoft Paint (formerly Paintbrush) is a simple raster graphics editor that has been included with all versions of Microsoft Windows. The program opens and saves files in Windows bitmap (BMP), JPEG, GIF, PNG, and single-page TIFF formats. The program can be in color mode or two-color black-and-white, but there is no grayscale mode. For its simplicity and that it is included with Windows, it rapidly became one of the most used applications in the early versions of Windows, introducing many to painting on a computer for the first time. It is still widely used for simple image manipulation tasks.
In July 2017, Microsoft added Paint to the list of deprecated Windows features and announced that it would become a free standalone app in Microsoft Store. However, Paint continued to be included with Windows 10 for four more builds.PA-7100
The PA-7100 is a microprocessor developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) that implemented the PA-RISC 1.1 instruction set architecture (ISA). It is also known as the PCX-T and by its code-name Thunderbird. It was introduced in early 1992 and was the first PA-RISC microprocessor to integrate the floating-point unit (FPU) on-die. It operated at 33 - 100 MHz and competed primarily with the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Alpha 21064 in the workstation and server markets. PA-7100 users were HP in its HP 9000 workstations and Stratus Computer in its Continuum fault-tolerant servers.
It was based on the PA-7000 (PCX-S) chip set, a previous PA-RISC implementation consisting of a microprocessor and FPU. The PA-7100 contains 850 000 transistors and measures 14.3 x 14.3 mm for an area of 204.49 mm². It was fabricated by HP in their CMOS26B process, a 0.8 µm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process. The PA-7100 is packaged in a 504-pin ceramic pin grid array that has a copper-tungsten heat spreader.
An improved PA-7100, the PA-7150 was introduced in 1994. It operated at 125 MHz, due to improved circuit design. It was fabricated in the same CMOS26B process as the PA-7100.
Both microprocessors were fabricated at HP's Corvallis, Oregon and Fort Collins, Colorado fabrication plants.The PA-7100LC and PA-7200 microprocessors were also based on the PA-7100.PA-RISC
PA-RISC is an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hewlett-Packard. As the name implies, it is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture, where the PA stands for Precision Architecture. The design is also referred to as HP/PA for Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture.
The architecture was introduced on 26 February 1986, when the HP 3000 Series 930 and HP 9000 Model 840 computers were launched featuring the first implementation, the TS1.PA-RISC has been succeeded by the Itanium (originally IA-64) ISA, jointly developed by HP and Intel. HP stopped selling PA-RISC-based HP 9000 systems at the end of 2008 but supported servers running PA-RISC chips until 2013.PC Paintbrush
PC Paintbrush is graphics editing software created by the ZSoft Corporation in 1984 for computers running the MS-DOS operating system.It was originally developed as a response to the first paintbrush program for the IBM PC, PCPaint, which had been released the prior year by Mouse Systems, the company responsible for bringing the mouse to the IBM PC for the first time.
In 1984, Mouse Systems had released PCPaint to compete with Apple Paint on the Apple II computer and was already positioned to compete with MacPaint on Apple Computer's new Macintosh platform. Unlike MacPaint, PCPaint enabled users to work in color.
When Paintbrush was released the following year, PCPaint had already added 16-color support for the PC's 64-color Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), and Paintbrush followed with the PC's advantage of EGA support as well. (The EGA supported 64 colors, of which any 16 could be on the screen at a time in normal use.)
Also following the lead of Mouse Systems and PCPaint, one of the first pieces of software on the PC to use a computer mouse pointing device, the earliest versions of Paintbrush were distributed by Microsoft, with a mouse included. Both Microsoft and their competitor, Mouse Systems, bundled their mice with Mouse Systems' PCPaint in 1984. At Christmas 1984, amidst record sales volumes in the home computer market, Microsoft had created a "sidecar" bundle for the PCjr, complete with their mouse, but with their competitor's product, PCPaint. With the release of Paintbrush the following year, Microsoft no longer needed to sell the software of their competitor in the PC mouse hardware market in order to have the same market advantage.
Microsoft's mechanical mice outsold Mouse Systems' optical mice after a few years, but PCPaint outsold Paintbrush until the late 1980s.
Unlike most other applications before and since, Paintbrush version numbers were recorded with Roman numerals.
Along with the release of Paintbrush, ZSoft, following in the footsteps of PCPaint's Pictor PIC format, the first popular image format for the PC, created the PCX image format.RoboBraille
RoboBraille is a web and email service capable of converting documents into a range of accessible formats including Braille, mp3, e-books and Daisy. The service can furthermore be used to convert otherwise inaccessible documents such as scanned images and pdf files into more accessible formats. RoboBraille has been in operation since 2004 and currently serves thousands of user requests each month from users across the world. The service is available for free for strictly individual, non-commercial use. Institutional use by academic institutions is available through SensusAccess.
The RoboBraille service is developed jointly by the National Danish Center for Visual Impairment for Children and Youth and Sensus ApS. RoboBraille is available free of charge for individual, non-commercial users and users need not register to use the service. Commercial use in any form is prohibited. The development and operation of RoboBraille has been funded by the Danish Government, the European Commission and private foundations. Many organisations have contributed to the development of the RoboBraille service including Royal National College for the Blind based in Hereford, United Kingdom, St Joseph's School for the Blind, Ireland, the National Council for the Blind of Ireland, Irish Republic, Associazione Nazionale Subvedenti, Italy, CIDEF, Portugal, Hilfsgemeinschaft der Blinden und Sehschwachen Österreichs, Austria, Medison, Poland, The Lithuanian Association of the Blind and Visually Handicapped, Lithuania, Association Valentin Haüy, France, and the Pancyprian Organization of the Blind, Cyprus.
In November 2012, the RoboBraille service received the WISE 2012 award from Qatar Foundation in recognition of its contribution to inclusive and barrier-free education. In January 2010, the RoboBraille services received the prestiguous BETT Award . The service has previously received the BETT Award for best Special Education Needs solution (2010), Access IT Award for Learning for most affordable eLearning solution (2009), The National eWell-Being Award for ”Reaching the Digitally Excluded” (2009), the European Commission eInclusion Award for e-Accessibility Award (2008), the Well-Tech Award for Innovation and Accessibility (2008) and the British Computer Society's Social Contribution Award (2007).
RoboBraille offers four main categories of services:
Braille services: Translation to and from Braille (contracted, un-contracted) in Bulgarian, Danish, British English, American English, Hungarian, Italian, French, Greek, German, Icelandic, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Supported document types include text files (DOS and Windows), Microsoft Word documents (doc, docx, Word xml), HTML documents, rtf files, tiff, gif, jpg, bmp, pcx, dcx, j2k, jp2, jpx, djv and all types of pdf documents. Before the Braille document is returned to the user, it may be converted to a particular Braille character set based on user settings. Documents can also be returned in Unicode Braille or formatted in either text format or PEF (Portable Embosser Format).
Audio services: All document types listed in the previous section may be converted into mp3 files. Furthermore, RoboBraille is capable of converting well-structured Word documents (doc, docx, xml) into Daisy Talking Books complete with audio. Similarly, RoboBraille can convert docx documents containing math (composed in MathType) into Daisy books with spoken math. The audio conversion services currently include high-quality voices for the following languages: Arabic, Arabic/English bilingual, Bulgarian, Danish, Dutch (male, female), English/American, English/British, French, German, Greenlandic, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian Spanish/Castilian and Spanish/Latin American.
E-Book services: Most document types listed above may be converted into the popular EPUB and Mobi Pocket (Amazon Kindle) e-book formats. The service also supports conversion of documents into the EPUB3 format, including EPUB3 books with media overlay. Furthermore, EPUB may be converted to Mobi Pocket and vice versa. To accommodate users with low vision, the base line of the body text in an e-book may be raised to allow for more appropriate text scaling in mainstream e-book readers.
Accessibility services: Otherwise inaccessible documents such as image files in gif, tiff, jpg, bmp, pcx, dcx, j2k, jp2, jpx, djv and image-only pdf, as well as all types of pdf files can be converted to more accessible formats including tagged pdf, doc, docx, Word xml, xls, xlsx, csv, text, rtf and html. Word and rtf files are converted into text or tagged pdf files subject to the format specified by the user in the subject line, e.g., txt or pdf. PowerPoint files are converted into tagged pdf, web projects or rtf files.In addition to the traditional email-interface, RoboBraille is available via the web form at http://www.robobraille.org/STDU Viewer
STDU Viewer is computer software, a compact viewer for many computer file formats: Portable Document Format (PDF), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), DjVu, comic book archive (CBR or CBZ), FB2, ePUB, XML Paper Specification (XPS), Text Compression for Reader (TCR), Mobipocket (MOBI), AZW, multi-page TIFF, text file (TXT), PalmDoc (PDB), Windows Metafile (EMF), Windows Metafile (WMF), bitmap (BMP), Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), JPEG-JPG, Portable Network Graphics (PNG), Photoshop Document (PSD), PiCture eXchang (PCX-DCX). It works under Microsoft Windows, and is free for non-commercial use.STDU viewer is developed in the programming language C++.Tandon Corporation
Tandon Corporation was a disk drive and PC manufacturer founded in 1975 (incorporated in 1976 as Tandon Magnetics Corp.) by Sirjang Lal Tandon a former mechanical engineer. The company originally produced magnetic recording read/write heads for the then-burgeoning floppy-drive market. Due to the labor-intensive nature of the product, production was carried out in low-wage India which was the key to the company's competitiveness. In the late 1970s, Tandon developed direct equivalents to Shugart floppy drives, and is credited with the invention of DS/DD (double-sided, double-density) versions which became its primary product in the early 1980s.
In 1979, Tandon introduced the TM-100 diskette drive, a 5.25" unit with 40 track support as opposed to the Shugart SA-400's 35 tracks. When Tandy introduced the TRS-80 Model III in 1980, they equipped the computer with TM-100s. The following year, Tandon obtained an even more lucrative contract when IBM released its Personal Computer. Until 1985, Tandon were the sole supplier of floppy drives for IBM PCs, initially the same single-sided unit used in the TRS-80, then the newer double-sided TM-100-2. Tandon would become the world's largest independent producer of disk drives for personal computers and word processors. In the mid-1980s, Tandon introduced a line of hard disk drives, making several models of the same basic design with a P shaped top cover and a pinion rack stepper motor off to the side. They also introduced portable hard disk drives that could be easily removed from personal computers. A major decline in North American computer sales during 1984–85 as well as competition from Japanese and Taiwanese manufacturers proved difficult for the company. Tandon sold its original data-storage business to Western Digital for nearly $80 million in 1988, and brought in former IBM and other computer industry executives in an attempt to remake the company as a leading producer of personal computers. By 1989, nearly all (90 percent) of its personal computer sales were in Europe, and its stock price had fallen from a 1983 peak of $34.25 to $0.50.