PAGASA

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Filipino: Pangasiwaan ng Pilipinas sa Serbisyong Atmosperiko, Heopisiko at Astronomiko, abbreviated as PAGASA [pagˈasa], which means "hope" as in the Tagalog word pag-asa) is the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) agency of the Republic of the Philippines mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and to insure the safety, well-being and economic security of all the people, and for the promotion of national progress by undertaking scientific and technological services in meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences. Created on December 8, 1972 by reorganizing the Weather Bureau, PAGASA now serves as one of the Scientific and Technological Services Institutes of the Department of Science and Technology.

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
Pangasiwaan ng Pilipinas sa Serbisyong Atmosperiko, Heopisiko at Astronomiko
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) logo
Agency overview
FormedDecember 8, 1972
Superseding agency
  • Weather Bureau
JurisdictionPhilippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) and adjacent areas
HeadquartersScience Garden, Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City
14°38′37.1″N 121°2′39.8″E / 14.643639°N 121.044389°E
Agency executive
  • Vicente B. Malano, PhD[1], Administrator
Parent agencyDepartment of Science and Technology
Websitebagong.pagasa.dost.gov.ph

History

The Observatorio Meteorológico de Manila

Formal meteorological and astronomical services in the Philippines began in 1865 with the establishment of the Observatorio Meteorológico de Manila in Padre Faura St., Manila when Francisco Colina, a young Jesuit scholastic and professor at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila started a systematic observation and recording of the weather two or three times a day. Jaime Nonell, another Jesuit scholastic, wrote a brief treatise on these observations, which was printed by the Diario de Manila. The treatise attracted the attention of businessmen in Manila and a request was made to the Jesuit director, Fr. Juan Vidal, SJ, for regular observations for the purpose of warning the public against approaching typhoons. The businessmen financed the procurement and acquisition of an instrument called the Universal Meteorograph (an invention of another Jesuit, Fr. Angelo Seechi, SJ of the Vatican Observatory in Rome) which would greatly aid in the day and night observations of the weather.[2][3]

In 1866, Federico Faura, SJ, became the director of the Observatorio in recognition of scientific abilities. During this time, the Observatorio was engaged in the systematic observation of Philippine weather. On July 7, 1879, after data comparison with another Jesuit cleric in the West Indies, the Observatorio issued a warning indicating that a tropical cyclone was crossing Northern Luzon. The colonial government took every possible precaution based on the reliability of the warning and the slight losses from the typhoon finally and permanently cemented the reputation of the Observatorio. This was followed by a prediction in November of the same year that a tropical cyclone will pass by Manila. The Observatorio began conducting seismological and terrestrial magnetism observations in 1880. In 1885, the Observatorio started time service and a system of visual (semaphore) weather warnings for merchant shipping. In 1886, the Faura Aneroid Barometer was released. In 1887, a section devoted to the study of terrestrial magnetism was set up and six years later, the first maps of terrestrial magnetism in the Philippines was published. In 1890, the seismological service was officially established, and in 1899, the astronomical section was opened.[2][3]

This reputation reached foreign shores and other observatories began requesting for the monthly Boletin del Observatorio de Manila. The growing demands for the services of the led Observatorio led to the issuance of a Royal Decree on April 21, 1894. This effectively recognized the Observatorio as an official institution under the Jesuit order, with full support from the Spanish crown. This led to the establishment of a network of secondary stations in various points of Luzon.[2][3]

American Period: The Weather Bureau

Under the Treaty of Paris,[4] on December 10, 1898, Spain ceded the Philippine Islands to the United States. After a period of great political turbulence that climaxed in the outbreak of Philippine-American War in 1899, an Insular Government was established. On May 22, 1901, the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 131, reorganizing the Observatorio Meteorológico de Manila into the Weather Bureau under the Department of Interior. With the establishment of the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR) on January 1, 1917, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Department of Interior to DANR. With the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the DANR was reorganized into the Department of Agriculture and Commerce.[2]

For nearly 45 years, the Weather Bureau remained active and famous in international expositions and scientific expeditions, and continued to be well known for its accurate typhoon forecasts and scientific works in the field of meteorology, geomagnetism, and astronomy. The first weather map in Far East (released in 1908 by Fr. Coronas) became an important tool in tropical cyclone forecasting thereon. The Bureau's published works on meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, and astronomy were well known and had later proven to be of great value to the American forces in the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese during the Second World War.[2][3]

Second World War

On October 4, 1943, with the establishment of the Second Philippine Republic as a puppet state of Japan during its occupation, the Weather Bureau was transferred to the Department of Public Works and Communications. The Bureau was removed from the direction of the Jesuits and for the first time, the Bureau had an all-Filipino staff headed by Mr. Maximo Lachica, head of the Department of Geodetic Engineering of the University of the Philippines. The Japanese occupation period marked limited activity in the Central Office. However, in the field, Bureau personnel were instrumental in bringing accurate weather information over enemy-occupied territory to the combined liberation forces of the American and Filipino soldiers. On February 1945, the Second World War brought the operations of the Weather Bureau to a catastrophic halt when its offices were destroyed during the Battle of Manila. Nothing but the burnt-out shell of its astronomical dome in Padre Faura St, bore testimony to its once glorious past. All the instruments, records, mass of scientific knowledge accumulated through the decades were lost. After the war, the Observatorio ceased to function as the Weather Bureau. The former would later resume independent operations in 1951 as the Manila Observatory.[2][3]

Postwar Era (1945-1972): Rebirth

The rebirth of the Weather Bureau began on July 24, 1945 when it was reestablished by seven constituent personnel under the leadership of Edilberto Parulan as Officer-in-Charge. In 1946, pursuant to the Tydings War Damage Act (Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946), a US Weather Bureau mission was sent to Manila by the United States government to undertake a survey of the needs of the Weather Bureau. As a result, the Bureau was able to acquire meteorological equipment and technical assistance from the United States that paved the way for the establishment of standard weather services patterned after similar meteorological institutions in more technically-advanced countries. Furthermore, the Weather Bureau was transferred to the Department of Commerce and Industry. The Bureau's functions were then carried out by five divisions (Synoptic, Climatological, Geophysical, Astronomical, and Administrative).[2]

In 1947, the central office of the Weather Bureau was moved to Marsman Building (opposite Pier 15 at the Port Area of Manila), while the Forecasting Center was transferred to the old Balagbag terminal (site of the first terminal of the Manila International Airport) and became the Manila Main Meteorological Office (MMMO). The first post-war geophysical observatory of the Bureau was established in 1949 behind the campus of the University of the Philippines in Diliman. In 1948, a set of electromagnetic photorecording seismographs was installed in order to improve its seismological services. On April 5, 1949, the Philippines was admitted into the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), with the Weather Bureau as its National Meteorological Service.[2] In the same year, temperature, relative humility and pressure observations in the upper atmosphere were made twice daily by the Laoag, Cebu and Zamboanga field stations.

In 1950, a teletype service connected MMMO to Clark Air Force Base, US Naval Station Sangley Point and the Bureau of Telecommunications (precursor to the current National Telecommunications Commission. Moreover, Exchange of weather reports with foreign countries, aircraft-in-flight and four aeronautical stations in the country – Laoag, Legazpi, Cebu & Zamboanga began at this year. Private radio systems and the then National Civil Defense Administration also helped to facilitate the reception of data and dissemination of the forecasts and warnings. In 1954, radio transmissions of time signals (which were done seven times daily) began in the geophysical observatory (which was now called Astronomical Observatory at this time).[2]

Weather surveillance radar was first installed in the Philippines in 1963 atop the Central Office of the Bureau (but this was destroyed beyond repair by a fire in 1978).In 1965, on its centenary, half of the weather stations across the country were already linked with each other by single side-band radio transceivers, forming an independent meteorological communication system. In 1968, the Philippines joined the Typhoon Committee formed by the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE, now Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific or ESCAP) and the WMO.[5] The following year saw the transfer of the central office from the Marsman Building to 1424, Quezon Boulevard Extension in Quezon City. The same year also ushered the 5-year "WMO Training and Research Project, Manila". Composed of the Institute of Meteorology in the Weather Bureau and the Department of Meteorology in the University of the Philippines, the project aimed to meet the training needs of the country's meteorological personnel and to carry out research in various fields of meteorology. The Institute provided technical in-service training in various levels while the Department offered a post-graduate course leading to a Master of Science degree in Meteorology. With the implementation of the project, the acquisition of an IBM 1130 was realized and computerization in the Bureau came of age. A telemetry system in the Marikina River Basin was then set up which led to the Bureau's initial efforts in flood forecasting.[2]

Satellite meteorology came to the Philippines in 1970 when an Automatic Picture Transmission system was set-up to intercept phototransmission of the upper atmosphere by weather satellites. The first post-war major research initiative of the Bureau was launched in the same year. Called the "Typhoon Research Project, its launch in 1970 was made possible through the financial assistance of the National Science Development Board. In 1971, upon invitation of the Philippines, the ECAFE/WMO Joint Unit was reallocated in Manila and was rechristened as the Typhoon Committee Secretariat. In the same year, the linking of five weather surveillance radars installed across different parts of the country and the Manila radar station (it was not yet destroyed until 1978) paved the way for the Weather Radar Surveillance Network of the Bureau.[2]

Marcos Era: From Weather Bureau to PAGASA

In 1972, at the height of martial law of President Ferdinand Marcos, the Weather Bureau was abolished and a new agency, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was established pursuant to the Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Science Act of 1972 (Presidential Decree No. 78, s. 1972) as part of the Integrated Reorganization Plan (Presidential Decree No. 1, s. 1972) of the Philippine Government. This new agency was placed under the authority of the Department of National Defense (DND).[6]

Four organization units initially comprised PAGASA. The National Weather Service undertakes the preparation and subsequent prompt issuance of forecasts and warnings of weather and flood conditions. The National Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Data Service undertakes the acquisition, collection, quality control, processing, and archiving of atmospheric and allied data. The National Geophysical and Astronomical Service undertakes observations and studies of seismological and astronomical phenomena, as well as provides the official time for the country. The National Institute of Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Sciences is responsible for the training of scientists and technical personnel with respect to atmospheric, geophysical and astronomical sciences. In 1977, the Typhoon Moderation Research and Development Office and the National Flood Forecasting Office were placed under administrative supervision of PAGASA, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1149, s. 1977.[7]

PAGASA saw a lot of accomplishments during the Marcos regime. In 1973, the Pampanga River Basin Flood Forecasting and Warning Project, a joint undertaking of the PAGASA and the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communications, was inaugurated, and upon recommendations of a survey mission, the Japanese Government provided the equipment and training of personnel for the project. Early in 1974, PAGASA, in cooperation with the Office of Civil Defense, put up a radio station with callsign DZCA. Through a network of automatic stations situated at strategic points along the Pampanga River and its major tributaries, data on the rise and fall of the river levels are sent to the Flood Forecasting Center in the Central Office via existing telemetry system. Impressed with the success of the Flood Forecasting System in the Pampanga River Basin, President Marcos instructed PAGASA to explore the possibility of putting up a similar system in the Agno, Bicol and Cagayan River Basins.The UNESCO-sponsored Regional Seismological Network in Southeast Asia set up an office in the PAGASA Geophysical Observatory in 1974. It sought to standardize the training of personnel and seismological equipment, as well as to improve the accuracy of determining the epicenters of earthquakes in the region. Subsequently, in 1977, a strong motion accelerograph network was put up in Metro Manila. The network was designed to record strong earthquake vibrations in the area. On April 18, 1979, the Science Garden Planetarium was opened to the public. Equipped with a Minolta planetarium projector, it has a seating capacity of 90 people. In June 1981, the Bicol flood forecasting sub-system based on the Pampanga River system was inaugurated. In May of the following year, all three sub-systems (Agno, Bicol and Cagayan) became fully operational. On the same occasion, the Ground Receiving Station for the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite was inaugurated, bringing the satellite meteorology of the Philippines to a giant leap forward.

In April 1983, Flood Forecasting and Warning System for Dam Operations was jointly undertaken by PAGASA, National Power Corporation, and National Irrigation Administration, with financial assistance in the form of loans from the Japanese Government. Phase 1 of the project covered Angat and Pantabangan Dams, while Phase II covered the Magat, Binga, and Ambuklao Dams, as well as the Data Information Center for the project.

The subsequent efforts of the government to centrally direct the integration of all government scientific and technological efforts led to the transfer of PAGASA to the National Science and Technology Authority through Executive Order No. 984, s. 1984.[8] The reorganization also transferred the seismological services of PAGASA to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology (PHIVOLC), now Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS).[9]

Post-1986: PAGASA Today

Following the reestablishment of the democratic government after the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos (see People Power Revolution) in 1986, President Corazon C. Aquino ordered the reorganization of the National Science and Technology Authority (now called Department of Science and Technology) and all agencies under its authority, pursuant to Executive Order 128, s. 1987[10] Five major branches (Weather, Flood Forecasting, Climatology & Agrometeorology, Astronomical, Geophysical & Space Science, and National Disaster Reduction) and three support divisions (Administrative, Finance & Management, and Engineering & Maintenance) now constitute PAGASA. This organizational structure remained until October 2008, when the agency went under a Rationalization Program pursuant to Executive Order 366, s. 2004 issued by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.[11] The Rationalization Program of the government was aimed at making the government focus its efforts on vital/core functions and enhance effectiveness and efficiency of public service.[2]

On January 15, 2003, PAGASA transferred its Central Office from 1424 Quezon Avenue to its permanent headquarters at the Science Garden, located along Agham Road in Diliman, Quezon City. Meanwhile, scientific and technical operations are currently being undertaken in its Weather and Flood Forecasting Center, a facility located just in front of its current headquarters.[2]

On November 3, 2015, Republic Act No. 10692, or the PAGASA Modernization Act of 2015 was signed into law by President Benigno Aquino III. The government will initially spend three billion pesos from the PAGCOR revenues (with a three-year span) for the modernization fund of the state weather bureau, that includes the upgrading and acquisition of equipment, new salary scheme for the employees, manpower training for future weathercasters and the creation of PAGASA Data Center, among other plans.[12]

Tropical cyclones

PAGASA Philippine Area of Responsibility - en
The Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) for tropical cyclone warnings

PAGASA monitors tropical cyclone activity and issues warnings if they fall within the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). This area is bound by an imaginary line drawn along the following coordinates:

25°N 120°E, 25°N 135°E, 5°N 135°E, 5°N 115°E, 15°N 115°E, 21°N 120°E and back to the beginning.[13]

Tropical cyclone bulletins are issued by PAGASA every three hours for all tropical cyclones within this area that are currently affecting the country, six hours when cyclones are anticipated to make landfall within the Philippines, or twelve hours when cyclones are not affecting land.

As of May 20, 2015, PAGASA used to classify tropical cyclones into five categories:

  • Tropical Depression - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 30 to 60 km/h
  • Tropical Storm - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 61 to 88 km/h
  • Severe Tropical Storm - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 89 to 117 km/h
  • Typhoon - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of more than 118 km/h
  • Super Typhoon - maximum 10-minute sustained winds of more than 220 km/h.[14]

Tornadoes

On August 27, 2007, PAGASA announced that it was putting up a tornado warning system, days after several more powerful and destructive tornadoes damaged houses in Central Luzon. On August 23, 2007, a second tornado destroyed 30 houses in 4 villages in San Miguel, Bulacan, the first tornado having damaged 27 houses in San Rafael, Bulacan on August 8, 2007.[15]

However, as of present time, the weather bureau has yet to provide such warnings.

Climatology

The climate of the Philippines is discussed in detail on the Climatology page of the PAGASA website.

PAGASA lists patterns of temperature, humidity, rainfall, seasons, and four climate Types, for the Philippines.

Climate Types are:

  • Type 1 – Two pronounced seasons: Dry from November to April, Wet rest of the year.
  • Type 2 – No dry season, but with heavier rainfall from November to January.
  • Type 3 – Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year.
  • Type 4 – Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

Criticism

On August 6, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III announced the removal of Prisco Nilo as the administrator of PAGASA. PAGASA was directly under Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Undersecretary for Research and Development (R&D) Graciano Yumul.[16] A special order from DOST Secretary Mario Montejo, dated August 5, 2010, designated Yumul as the new PAGASA administrator. Nilo was criticized for lack of modern equipment, forecast inaccuracies, slow voluntary response and the aftermath of Typhoon Ondoy in September 2009, and Typhoon Basyang in July 2010.

Doppler weather radar, weather stations and other equipment

PAGASA installed its first Doppler weather radar station in Baler, Aurora and another in Baguio. The new weather radars can monitor the typhoon and its movements, amount of rainfall either moderate or heavy and real-time atmospheric forecasts using a visual radar monitor, an example was that of Typhoon Basyang in 2010. Data are used for warnings (such as rainfall) through Project NOAH since June 2012.

PAGASA Doppler Radar Network
Location of Doppler weather radar installations in the Philippines as of 2018.
Black circles: Operational
Red circles: Not in operation due to structural damage
Blue circles: Under construction
Green circles: Proposed new radar locations

PAGASA has installed at least ten Doppler weather radars in the country, currently operational stations are as follows:

Moreover, the weather bureau is now constructing at least two more Doppler weather radar stations in Busuanga (Palawan) and Zamboanga City,.[17] It aims to have thirteen operational radar stations nationwide by the end of 2013.[18]

Before Nilo's leave, an automated rain gauge was also installed in a telecommunications cellsite in Montalban, Rizal (in cooperation with Smart Communications) to monitor excess rainfall as a warning signal to avert the effects of flashfloods and landslides by using cellphones, the weather bureau plans to adopt its swift transfer of data from ground forecasting stations to main headquarters utilizing its automated data acquisition system modeled after Japan Meteorological Agency's AMeDAS in the near future as a solution to forecast inaccuracy and their problems. The Japan International Cooperation Agency will provide modernization programs to enhance the services of PAGASA include meteorology and flood forecasting, and tornado warnings as precautionary measures. Seven new Doppler weather radars placed in different locations are scheduled to operate in June 2011.

In addition, the weather bureau introduced its Landslide Early Warning Sensor (LEWS) (recently invented by the University of the Philippines) to reduce landslide casualties in case of landslides. Using this new device, the sensor picks out signals in the form of computer data to show soil and ground movements and is transferred to the ground station immediately in an event of a landslide, and in order to launch forced evacuation. PAGASA hopes to install 10 sensors in five landslide prone areas by 2012, when it is tested and ready to bury on ground.

Another innovation to flood alerts was the adoption of an Automated Weather Station (AWS) designed to monitor amounts of rainfall and flood levels in case of an incoming warning, the AWS can be controlled by a computer even it is unmanned and a siren to evacuate people for emergencies. Few of the AWS units are installed in few points of the country and many more units will be installed to extend its coverage.

In 2011, Taiwan donated fifteen weather stations to the Philippines' Department of Science and Technology, and it has been reported that "The Philippines weather bureau will also share information from the new weather stations with Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, helping expand the range of Taiwan's weather forecasts."[19] PAGASA and the Philippines Department of Science and Technology work jointly in the implementation of weather stations.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ "LIST: Duterte appointees who took oath on Sept 12, 2016". Rappler. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "About PAGASA". PAGASA-Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration. Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e "History". Manila Observatory. Manila Observatory. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  4. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898". The Avalon Project. New Haven, Connecticut: Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. 2008. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  5. ^ "The Committee Chronology - 1964-1968". Typhoon Committee. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee.
  6. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 78, s. 1972". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Malacañang Records Office. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 1149 s. 1977". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Malacañang Records Office. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  8. ^ "Executive Order 984, s. 1984". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Malacañang Records Office. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  9. ^ "About PHIVOLCS". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  10. ^ "Executive Order No. 128, s. 1987". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Presidential Management Staff. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Executive Order No. 366, s. 2004" (PDF). DBM - Department of Budget and Management. Department of Budget and Management. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  12. ^ Casayuran, Mario (2015-11-08). "Gov't to spend P3B for PAGASA modernization, salary hike". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  13. ^ "World Meteorological Organization - WMO" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-19. Retrieved 2013-08-22.
  14. ^ Locsin, Joel (November 1, 2014). "For improved response? PAGASA to adopt 'super typhoon' category in 2015". GMA News Online. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  15. ^ "PAGASA to put up tornado warning system". GMA News Online. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  16. ^ "Aquino sacks PAGASA chief". GMA News Online. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  17. ^ "Weather bureau to install Doppler Radar". Sun.Star. 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  18. ^ Teves, Catherine (2012-03-24). "PAGASA to install more radars this year —— Bayanihan". Bayanihan. Retrieved 2013-08-22.
  19. ^ "Philippines activates 15 weather stations donated by Taiwan". Wantchinatimes.com (English news website of the Taiwan-based China Times News Group). September 17, 2011. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  20. ^ "Launching of Automated Weather Station". Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. June 30, 2011. Archived from the original on September 24, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.

External links

2008 Pacific typhoon season

The 2008 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 2008, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the International Date Line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 2008 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical storms formed in the entire Western North Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions formed in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones (including tropical depressions) that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.

2009 Pacific typhoon season

The 2009 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season that spawned only 22 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. It was also recognized as the deadliest season in the Philippines for decades. The first half of the season was very quiet whereas the second half of the season was extremely active. The season's first named storm, Kujira, developed on May 3 while the season's last named storm, Nida, dissipated on December 3.

During August, Typhoon Morakot, devastated Taiwan killing nearly 800 people and was known for the deadliest typhoon to impact the country. Typhoons Ketsana and Parma both affected the Philippines bringing extreme flooding which killed more than 600 people with damages over US$300 million from both storms. Typhoon Nida during late November reached 1-minute winds of 285 km/h (180 mph), which is the most intense in the basin since Typhoon Paka in 1997.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2014 Pacific typhoon season

The 2014 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season, featuring 23 tropical storms, 11 typhoons, and 8 super typhoons. The season's peak months August and September saw minimal activity caused by an unusually strong and a persistent suppressing phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The season ran throughout 2014, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season began with the development of Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18, and ended after Tropical Storm Jangmi which dissipated on January 1 of the next year.

The season was not as active, deadly and costly as the previous typhoon season, but was notable for producing a series of powerful super typhoons. In fact, this season saw the most storms reaching Category 5 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson scale (seven–Neoguri, Rammasun, Halong, Genevieve, Vongfong, Nuri and Hagupit) since 1997. Two of those were notable; Rammasun became one of only three Category 5 typhoons recorded in the South China Sea with the others being Typhoon Pamela in 1954 and Typhoon Meranti in 2016. The typhoon killed about 200 people and caused roughly US$8 billion worth of damage in China and the Philippines. Genevieve, a long-lasting system, was the first since 1999 for a system to exist in all three Northern Pacific basins.The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E–115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2019 Pacific typhoon season

The 2019 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 2019, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, reached tropical storm status on January 1, becoming the earliest-forming tropical storm of the western Pacific Ocean on record, breaking the previous record that was held by Typhoon Alice in 1979. The season's first typhoon, Wutip, reached typhoon status on February 20. Wutip further intensified into a super typhoon on February 23, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record, and the strongest tropical cyclone recorded in February in the Northern Hemisphere.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E–115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

Climate of the Philippines

The Philippines has five types of climates: tropical rainforest, tropical monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical and oceanic (both are in higher-altitude areas) characterized by relatively high temperature, oppressive humidity and plenty of rainfall. There are two seasons in the country, the wet season and the dry season, based upon the amount of rainfall. This is also dependent on location in the country as some areas experience rain all throughout the year (see Climate types). Based on temperature, the warmest months of the year are March through October; the winter monsoon brings hotter air from November to February. May is the warmest month, and January, the coolest.Weather in the Philippines is monitored and managed by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA).

EDSA station (Line 8)

EDSA Station is a proposed station of the Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 8 located beneath the EDSA-Quezon Avenue Crossing in Diliman, Quezon City. The station shall be an interchange with the Line 3 and Line 9 at Line 3 Quezon Avenue station and Line 9 Quezon Avenue station which shall be nearby this station. Close landmarks include the headquarters of ABS-CBN, one of the Philippines' media companies, located at Sergeant Esguerra Street, near Quezon Avenue, a few government buildings like the PAGASA Complex, Office of the Ombudsman, Court of Tax Appeals and the Lung Center of the Philippines. The station is also nearby Eton Centris.

List of retired Philippine typhoon names

Since 1963, there have been three agencies who have named tropical cyclones within the north western Pacific Ocean which has often resulted in a cyclone having two names. From 1945 to 2000 the US Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center assigned names to tropical cyclones before the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), took over the naming of tropical cyclones in 2000. Both agencies assigned names to tropical cyclones when they intensified into a tropical storm.

Since 1963 the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) has assigned local names to a tropical cyclone should it move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N-25°N even if the cyclone has had an international name assigned to it. All three agencies that have assigned names to tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific have retired the names of significant tropical cyclones, with PAGASA retiring names if a cyclone has caused at least ₱1 billion in damage and or have caused at least 300 deaths within the Philippines.

Since 1963 the naming lists have been revised in 1979, 1985, 2001 and 2005 for various reasons including to help minimize confusion in the historical records and to remove the names that might have negative associations with real persons. Within this list all information with regards to intensity is taken from while the system was in the Philippine area of responsibility and is thus taken from PAGASA's archives, rather than the JTWC or JMA's archives.

PAGASA Planetarium

The PAGASA Planetarium is a planetarium within the grounds of the PAGASA Science Garden situated along Agham Road in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is operated and owned by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA).

The planetarium was built in September 1977. The facility is managed by PAGASA's Astronomy Research and Development Section (AsRDS) and Atmospheric, Geophysical and Space Sciences Branch (AGSSB). The planetarium has a maximum capacity of 100 people.In 1999, the AsRDS acquired a mobile planetarium which can be transported in areas outside Manila upon request. The mobile planetarium has a maximum capacity of 50 people.Minor renovations were done in 2005 which includes the replacement of chairs which were in poor condition.

Pacific typhoon climatology

The following is a list of Pacific typhoon seasons. The seasons are limited to the north of the equator between the 100th meridian east and the 180th meridian.

Radyo Pilipinas Worldwide

DZRP - Radyo Pilipinas Worldwide (also known as Voice of the Philippines, then known as Radyo Pagasa) is a short-wave radio station broadcasting outside the Philippines. Owned by the Philippine Broadcasting Service under the Presidential Communications Group, the station is operated from Mondays to Sundays 11:30 PM to 12:00 NN PST (15:30-04:00 UTC) on various shortwave frequencies, with internet live streaming across all schedules. It broadcasts in Filipino and English languages. Radyo Pilipinas uses the relay transmitter tower of Voice of America in Tinang, Concepcion, Tarlac for its broadcast purposes.

As PBS made a rebranding of its flagship network Radyo ng Bayan and station DZSR into Radyo Pilipinas by 2017, the shortwave station remains unchanged but added "Worldwide" to its name to avert confusion.

Thitu Island

Thitu Island (Tagalog: Pag-asa, literally "hope"; simplified Chinese: 中业岛; traditional Chinese: 中業島; pinyin: Zhōngyè Dǎo; Vietnamese: Đảo Thị Tứ; Pangasinan: Ilalo), having an area of 37.2 hectares (92 acres), is the second largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands and the largest of the Philippine-administered islands. It lies about 480 kilometres (300 mi) west of Puerto Princesa City. Its neighbours are the North Danger Reef to the north, Subi Reef to the west, and the Loaita and Tizard Banks to the south.

Though administered as part of Kalayaan, Palawan, Philippines, it is also claimed by China, Taiwan and Vietnam.

Timeline of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all the storm formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, as well as dissipation during the 2008 Pacific typhoon season. The 2008 Pacific typhoon season officially started on January 1, 2008 and ended on January 1, 2009. The first tropical cyclone of the season formed on January 13. The timeline also includes information which was not operationally released, meaning that information from post-storm reviews by the various warning agencies, such as information on a storm that was not operationally warned on, has been included.

During the year, a total of 40 systems were designated as Tropical Depressions by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), who run the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Tokyo, Japan. The JMA assigns names to Tropical Depressions should they intensify into a tropical storm. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) also assigns local names to tropical depressions which form within their area of responsibility. These names aren’t in common use outside of PAGASA's "Area of Responsibility". The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other National Meteorological and Hydrological Services also issue warnings for the North-Western Pacific Ocean. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center warnings are referred to numerically to avoid confusion, as the JTWC sometimes recognises a storm at a different intensity compared to the JMA.

For the PAGASA, 21 systems formed or entered in their area during 2008, which 10 of them directly made landfall over the Philippines

Tropical Depression Auring (2009)

Tropical Depression Auring formed as a tropical disturbance late on December 30, 2008, to the southeast of Manila in the Philippines. Over the next few days the disturbance gradually developed before early on January 3, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), reported that the disturbance had intensified into the first tropical depression of the season with PAGASA assigning the name Auring to the depression. As the Depression was moving into a high level of vertical wind shear, it did not develop any further and late on January 5 as the baroclinic zone approached Auring, it was downgraded to an area of low pressure by the PAGASA before the JMA followed suit the next day as it was declared as dissipated by the JTWC.

Heavy rain from Auring produced severe flooding in the eastern Philippines. Two people were killed and nine others were left missing. A total of 305 homes were destroyed and another 610 were damaged. In addition, an estimated 53 hectares (130.9 acres) of rice and 3.5 hectares (8.6 acres) of corn were damaged. About 43,851 people were affected by the depression and damages were estimated at PHP 23 million ($498,318 USD).

Typhoon Fengshen (2008)

Typhoon Fengshen, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Frank, was the sixth named storm and the fourth typhoon recognised by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center recognised Fengshen as the seventh tropical depression, the sixth tropical storm, and fifth typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season.

Fengshen made a direct hit on the Philippines and China, causing severe damage and resulted in at least 1,371 deaths and leaving 87 people missing. Most of the deaths occurred in the Philippines, including 846 of the 922 people on board the Princess of the Stars who were killed when the ship capsized.

Typhoon Hagupit (2008)

Typhoon Hagupit, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Nina, is recognised as the 14th Tropical Storm, the 12th Severe Tropical Storm and the 10th Typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Japan Meteorological Agency who are the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for the North Western Pacific. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center have also recognised Hagupit as the 11th typhoon, 16th tropical storm, and the 18th tropical depression of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season.

The name Hagupit was one of the ten original names submitted to the WMOs Typhoon Committee for use from January 1, 2000 by the Philippines. It was last used in the 2002 Pacific typhoon season to name a tropical storm and is Filipino for a lash.At least 67 people were killed by Hagupit. Damage was estimated at around $1 billion (2008 USD).

Typhoon Kujira (2009)

Typhoon Kujira, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Dante, was first reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) on April 28. It was the fourth depression and the first typhoon of the season. The disturbance dissipated later that day however it regenerated early on April 30 within the southern islands of Luzon. It was then designated as a Tropical Depression during the next morning by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), with PAGASA assigning the name Dante to the depression. However the JTWC did not designate the system as a depression until early on May 2 which was after the depression had made landfall on the Philippines. Later that day Dante was upgraded to a Tropical Storm and was named as Kujira by the JMA. The cyclone started to rapidly intensify becoming a typhoon early on May 4, and then reaching its peak winds of 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min), 215 km/h (135 mph) (1-min) later that day after a small clear eye had developed.

Torrential rains produced by Typhoon Kujira in the Bicol Peninsula triggered severe flooding and mudslides which killed 28 people and one missing.

Typhoon Nuri (2008)

Typhoon Nuri, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Karen, was the 12th named storm and the seventh typhoon that was recognised by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center recognised it as the 13th tropical depression, the 12th tropical storm and the 8th typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season. The name Nuri was submitted to the World Meteorological Organisation's Typhoon Committee by Malaysia in 2003 after the name Rusa was retired in 2002. The name Nuri is Malay for a blue crowned parroquet, a type of parrot. The name Karen was assigned by PAGASA to a tropical depression for the second time, the other time being in 2004 to Typhoon Rananim.Typhoon Nuri formed as a tropical depression on August 17 with the JMA then designating it as Tropical Storm Nuri the next day. It reached typhoon status later that day. Nuri then made landfall in the Philippines as a typhoon on August 20 leaving at least 10 people dead and 11 injured. Nuri then emerged into the South China Sea the next day and started moving towards Southern China. As Nuri moved closer towards Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Observatory issued its Increasing Gale or Storm Signal No. 9 for the first time since Typhoon Dujuan in 2003. Typhoon Nuri then made a direct hit on Hong Kong as a typhoon. The JMA issued its final warning on August 23 as Typhoon Nuri was moving into Southern China.

Typhoon Sinlaku (2008)

Typhoon Sinlaku, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Marce, was a typhoon which affected the Philippines, Taiwan, China and Japan. It was recognised as the 13th named storm and the ninth typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

The name Sinlaku was one of the ten original names submitted to the WMOs Typhoon Committee for use from January 1, 2000 by Micronesia. It was last used in the 2002 Pacific typhoon season to name a tropical storm and is the name of a goddess worshipped on the island of Kosrae in Micronesia. Note that the name is apparently shortened (a seemingly routine practice of making names easier to read to Westerners) from the original "Sin Laku."

Typhoons in the Philippines

Approximately twenty tropical cyclones enter the Philippine area of responsibility yearly, an area which incorporates parts of the Pacific Ocean, South China Sea and the Philippine Archipelago (with the exception of Tawi-Tawi province). Among these cyclones, ten will be typhoons, with five having the potential to be destructive ones. The Philippines is "the most exposed country in the world to tropical storms" according to a Time Magazine article in 2013. In the Philippine languages, tropical cyclones are generally called bagyo.Typhoons can hit the Philippines any time of year, with the months of June to September being most active, with August being the most active individual month and May the least active. Typhoons move east to west across the country, heading north as they go. Storms most frequently make landfall on the islands of Eastern Visayas, Bicol region, and northern Luzon whereas the southern island and region of Mindanao is largely free of typhoons. Climate change is likely to worsen the situation with the extreme weather events including typhoons posing various risks and threats to the Philippines.The deadliest overall tropical cyclone to affect the Philippines is believed to have been the Haiphong typhoon which is estimated to have killed up to 20,000 people as it passed over the country in September 1881. In modern meteorological records, the deadliest storm was Typhoon Yolanda (international name Haiyan), which became the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone ever recorded as it crossed the Visayas in central Philippines on November 7–8, 2013. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 14–18, 1911 cyclone which dropped over 2,210 millimetres (87 in) of rainfall within a 3-day, 15-hour period in Baguio. Tropical cyclones usually account for at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines while being responsible for less than 10 percent of the annual rainfall in the southern islands. PAGASA Senior Weather Specialist Anthony Lucero told the newsite Rappler that the number of destructive typhoons have increased recently but it is too early to call it a trend.Tropical cyclones entering the Philippine Area of Responsibility are given a local name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), which also raises public storm signal warnings as deemed necessary.Preparation and response to typhoons is coordinated by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). Each Philippine province and local government in the Philippines has a corresponding Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (DRRMO). Each provincial and local government is required to set aside 5% of its yearly budget for disaster risk reduction, preparations, and response.The frequency of typhoons in the Philippines have made the typhoons a significant part of everyday ancient and modern Filipino culture.

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