P5+1

The P5+1 refers to the UN Security Council's five permanent members (the P5); namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; plus Germany. The P5+1 is often referred to as the E3+3 by European countries.[1] It is a group of six world powers which, in 2006, joined together in diplomatic efforts with Iran with regard to its nuclear program.[2][3]

Iran negotiations about Iran's nuclear
The foreign ministers of the P5+1 nations, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs, and the Iranian foreign minister in November 2013, when the Joint Plan of Action, an interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear program, was adopted in Geneva.
Negotiations about Iranian Nuclear Program - the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Other Officials of the P5+1 and Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran and EU in Lausanne
The ministers of foreign affairs of France, Germany, the European Union, Iran, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as Chinese and Russian diplomats announcing an Iran nuclear deal framework in Lausanne on 2 April 2015. The framework deal became the basis for a final agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, which was agreed on 15 July 2015.

History

In June 2006, China, Russia, and the United States joined the three EU-3 countries, which had been negotiating with Iran since 2003,[4] to offer another proposal for comprehensive negotiations with Iran.

Up to then, the UN Security Council has adopted six resolutions in response to the Iranian nuclear program. The first resolution, #1696, was adopted in July 2006 and demands that Iran halt its uranium enrichment-related and reprocessing activities.

The next three years saw the adoption of three more resolutions, #1737 in December 2006, #1747 in March 2007, and #1803 in March 2008, which have imposed gradual sanctions on Iranian individuals and entities believed to be involved in Iran's nuclear and missile programs.

UN Security Council Resolution #1835, adopted in September 2008, restated the Security Council's demands made in resolution #1696 of 2006, but without imposing additional sanctions.

The last Security Council resolution, #1929, adopted in June 2010, saw the expansion of more sanctions on Iran for its lack of cooperation and its continued uranium enrichment-related and reprocessing activities

Role of Germany

Germany is the key trading partner of Iran.[5] Iran's nuclear program depends mainly upon German products and services. For example, the thousands of centrifuges used to enrich the uranium are controlled by multi-purpose automation hardware and software ("Simatic WinCC Step7") by Siemens.[6][7] Around 50 German firms have branch offices in Iran, and more than 12,000 firms have trade representatives in Iran. Many well-known German companies are involved in major Iranian infrastructure projects, especially in the petrochemical sector, like Linde, BASF, Lurgi, Krupp, Siemens, ZF Friedrichshafen, Mercedes, Volkswagen and MAN. (2008).[8]

In 2005, Germany had the largest share of Iran's export market with $5.67 billion (14.4%).[9] In 2008, German exports to Iran increased by 8.9 percent and comprised 84.7 percent of the total German–Iranian trade volume. The overall bilateral trade volume until the end of September 2008 stood at 3.23 billion euros, compared to 2.98 billion euros the previous year.[8][10] The value of trade between Germany and Iran increased from around 4.3 billion euro in 2009 to nearly 4.7 billion euro in 2010.[11]

The Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce has estimated that economic sanctions against Iran may cost more than 10,000 German jobs and have a negative impact on the economic growth of Germany. Sanctions would especially hurt medium-sized German companies, which depend heavily on trade with Iran.[8] There has been a shift in German business ties with Iran from long-term business to short-term and from large to mid-sized companies which have fewer business interests in the US and thus are less prone to U.S. political pressure.[12]

2013 interim agreement

A round of the talks between Iran and the P5+1, chaired by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton,[1][13] was held in the Kazakh city of Almaty on 26–27 February 2013. The two sides agreed to meet again in the city on 5–6 April to continue the talks after holding expert-level talks in the Turkish city of Istanbul on 17–18 March 2013.[14]

In a further meeting of the P5+1 in Geneva on 16 October 2013, Iran stated that it may allow unannounced visits to its nuclear sites as a "last step" in a proposal to resolve differences with the West. Lowering uranium enrichment levels could also be part of a final deal, according to an Iranian official.[15]

On 24 November 2013, an interim agreement was reached between the E3/EU+3 (P5+1 countries and the EU) and Iran in Geneva, Switzerland.[1][16] It is expected to lead to a six-month freeze and partial rollback of portions of Iran's nuclear program in exchange for decreased economic sanctions on Iran, as the countries work towards a long-term agreement. It represents the first formal agreement between the United States and Iran in 34 years.

2014 negotiations on a comprehensive agreement

U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs and the lead negotiator with Iran, Wendy Sherman, told a Senate hearing that Iran's ballistic missile program would be addressed as part of a comprehensive nuclear deal. On 10 February 2014, Iran's defense minister said they successfully test-fired two new domestically made missiles.[17] The next day, Iran laid out "red lines" related to its ballistic missile program, atomic sites and uranium enrichment ahead of talks of the next step in nuclear talks, which resumed in Vienna on 18 February. Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araqchi, also a senior Iranian nuclear negotiator, said "defense-related issues are a red line for Iran" and that Tehran "will not allow such issues to be discussed in future talks."[18]

Senior officials of the P5+1 and Iran met on 18–20 February 2014 in Vienna and agreed on a framework for future negotiations. The P5+1 and Iran planned to have monthly meetings to try and forge a final, comprehensive deal.[19][20]

Former Israeli UN Ambassador Dore Gold claimed that the comprehensive agreement being negotiated between Iran and the P5+1 focused on increased transparency instead of a reduction in nuclear capability.[21] Former U.S. State Department official and advisor on Iran's nuclear program Robert Einhorn said such an agreement would need to both increase transparency and lengthen Iran's timeline for nuclear breakout capability.[22]

2015 negotiations on last solutions and final agreement

The P5+1 and E.U. Ministers Met for the First Time Collectively on July 6 in the Palais Coburg Concert Call
Last meetings before nuclear agreement

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c E3/EU +3 nuclear negotiations with Iran: Terms of the agreement on a Joint Plan of Action, including measures to be undertaken by the European Union (Report). European Union. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  2. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura; Sciutto, Jim (16 October 2013). "'Substantive' talks over Iran's nuclear program". CNN. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  3. ^ "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue | Arms Control Association". Armscontrol.org. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  4. ^ Peter Crail, Maria Lorenzo Sobrado (1 December 2004). "IAEA Board Welcomes EU-Iran Agreement: Is Iran Providing Assurances or Merely Providing Amusement?". NTI. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Germany's Pivotal Role in the Iranian Nuclear Standoff – Carnegie Endowment for International Peace". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  6. ^ "How Digital Detectives Deciphered Stuxnet, the Most Menacing Malware in History". WIRED. 11 July 2011.
  7. ^ "Stuxnet Missing Link Found, Resolves Some Mysteries Around the Cyberweapon". WIRED. 26 February 2013.
  8. ^ a b c "German-Iranian trade up 7.8 percent". Payvand.com. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  9. ^ "The Cost of Economic Sanctions on Major Exporters to Iran". payvand.com.
  10. ^ Haaretz Service and News Agencies (5 November 2009). "Iran warns Germany: Don't let 'Zionists' harm your interests". Haaretz.com.
  11. ^ "Germany-Iran trade grows 9% in 2010". Payvand.com. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  12. ^ "'Iran-Germany trade prospering'". tehrantimes.com. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  13. ^ Laurence Norman and Jay Solomon (9 November 2013). "Iran Nuclear Talks End Without Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  14. ^ "PressTV – Positive Iran-P5+1 talks in Almaty, Israel's total defeat: Report". Press TV. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  15. ^ James Reynolds (16 October 2013). "Iran nuclear checks most detailed ever – Ashton". BBC. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  16. ^ "The Iran nuclear deal: full text". CNN. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  17. ^ Iran test-fires long-range missile, Reuters, 10 February 2014
  18. ^ Iran sets 'red lines' ahead of fresh nuclear talks, AFP, 11 February 2014
  19. ^ "Next Round of Iran Nuclear Talks to be held in Vienna from March 17". news.biharprabha.com. Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  20. ^ Framework Is Set for Iran Nuclear Talks, The Wall Street Journal; 19 February 2014
  21. ^ Gold, Dore. "Inspections: The Weak Link in a Nuclear Agreement with Iran".
  22. ^ "Experts Discuss Framework for a Final Iran Nuclear Agreement". Brookings Institution. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
Abbas Araghchi

Abbas Araghchi (Persian: ‌عباس عراقچی‎, pronunciation Persian pronunciation: [ʔæbˌbɒːse æɾɒːɣˈtʃi]; born 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian diplomat who is currently the political deputy at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran. He previously held office as the Deputy for Asia–Pacific and the Commonwealth Affairs and Legal and International Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran. He is serving as Iran's chief nuclear negotiator in talks with the P5+1.Araghchi entered the Foreign Ministry in 1989. In early 1990s, he served as chargé d'affaires of the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Organization of Islamic Conference, based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.He served as ambassador to Finland (1999-2003) and Japan (2007–2011).Prior to becoming Ambassador, Araghchi served as Director General of the Institute for Political and International Studies (IPIS). From 2004 to 2005, he was chancellor of School of International Relations.

Aftermath of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; Persian: برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک‎, romanized: barnāmeye jāme'e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), commonly known as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.

In February 2019 the International Atomic Energy Agency certified that Iran was still abiding by the deal.

Brooke D. Anderson

Ambassador Brooke D. Anderson (born 1964) is a strategy and management consultant and a Visiting Professor at Montana State University. She was previously an American diplomat who served as a U.S. ambassador at the United Nations, as Chief of Staff and Counselor for the White House National Security Council, and as Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs on the Iran Nuclear Negotiations. She has served as a trusted advisor to U.S. presidents, Cabinet Secretaries, members of Congress, presidential candidates, philanthropists and business leaders.

Catherine Ashton

Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, (born 20 March 1956 at Upholland, Lancashire) is a British Labour politician who served as the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and First Vice President of the European Commission in the Barroso Commission from 2009 to 2014.

Her political career began in 1999 when she was created a Life Peer as "Baroness Ashton of Upholland, of St Albans, in the County of Hertfordshire" by Tony Blair's Labour Government. She became the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Department for Education and Skills in 2001 and subsequently in the Ministry of Justice in 2004. She was appointed a Privy Councillor in May 2006.

Ashton became Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council in Gordon Brown’s first Cabinet in June 2007. She was instrumental in steering the EU's Treaty of Lisbon through the UK Parliament's upper chamber. In 2008, she was appointed as the British European Commissioner and became the Commissioner for Trade in the European Commission.In December 2009, she became the inaugural High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy that was created by the Treaty of Lisbon. As High Representative, Ashton served as the EU's foreign policy chief. Despite being criticised by some, particularly at the time of her appointment and in the early stages of her term of office, for her limited previous experience of international diplomacy, Ashton subsequently won praise for her work as a negotiator in difficult international situations, in particular for her role in bringing Serbia and Kosovo to an agreement in April 2013 that normalised their ties, and in the P5+1 talks with Iran which led to the November 2013 Geneva interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme.In January 2017, Ashton became Chancellor of the University of Warwick, succeeding Sir Richard Lambert and becoming Warwick's first female chancellor.

EU three

The EU three, also known as EU big three, EU triumvirate or EU trio, refers to France, Germany and Italy, a group that consists of the three large founding members of the European Union; or France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, a group of countries of the European Union, especially during the negotiations with Iran.

Erlan Idrissov

Erlan Abilfayizuly Idrissov (Kazakh: Ерлан Әбілфайызұлы Ыдырысов; born April 28, 1959, in Karkaraly, Karaganda oblast, Kazakhstan) was the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1999 to 2002 and 2012 to 2016. He previously served as Foreign Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan from 1999−2002.In June 2002 his Foreign Ministership ended. He became the Kazakh ambassador to the United Kingdom. After serving in London, Idrissov assumed the role of Ambassador to the United States in July 2007. The Ambassador has been quoted in the past as being opposed to the film Borat, but has seemed to take a softer approach to the film more recently.In September 2012, Idrissov was appointed Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan after serving as the Ambassador to the United States until October 2012.In February, 2017, Erlan Idrissov was appointed Ambassador of Kazakhstan to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. On December 28, he was dismissed as foreign minister.

The appointment is widely viewed by western analysts as a sign of Nazarbayev’s intent to maintain strong relations with the west. As Foreign Minister, Idrissov has sought to improve relations with states in the South and Central Asia region. During a March 2013 visit to Tajikistan, Idrissov met with President Emomali Rahmon and Foreign Minister Hamrokhon Zarifi and signed a “Program of Cooperation” that reaffirmed bilateral commitment to cooperation in the areas of energy, migration, political and water issues. Idrissov chaired the February and April meetings in Almaty of the P5+1 talks with Iran over the country’s nuclear program, embodying Kazakhstan’s multi-vector foreign policy and desire to act as a mediator in regional disputes, as it did during the 2010 conflict in Kyrgyzstan and is now attempting to do with respect to the development of hydropower resources in Tajikistan. Idrissov visited the offices of the European Commission in Brussels in January 2013, as well as with NATO Secretary general Anders Fogs Rasmussen at the organization’s headquarters in Brussels to discuss key issues regarding security and the withdrawal of international forces from Afghanistan. During the first few months of 2013, Idrissov met with leaders in Europe, opening a new Embassy of Kazakhstan in Finland and announcing plans for a diplomatic presence in Sweden in 2013.

Geneva Accord

Geneva Accord may refer to:

Geneva Statement on Ukraine, an agreement to de-escalate the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine

Geneva interim agreement on Iranian nuclear program, an interim agreement on Iranian nuclear program between the P5+1 and Iran

Geneva Initiative (2003), a peace plan in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict also referred to as the Geneva Accord

Geneva Accord (1991), a peace plan in the Croatian War of Independence

Geneva Accords (1988), a settlement that concerned Afghanistan

Geneva Accords (1954), a plan concerning Indochina and Vietnam

German-Polish Accord on East Silesia (Geneva Accord 1922), a bilateral treaty between Germany and Poland on the division of Silesia

IRISL Group

The maritime fleet of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL Group) comprises 115 ocean-going vessels, with the total capacity of 3.3 million tons deadweight (DWT). The ownership structure of the fleet comprises 87 ocean-going vessels in IRISL and 28 different types of ships under the flag of subsidiaries, including Khazar Shipping, Valfajr as well as Iran-India Shipping Companies. They are manned by 6,000 Iranian personnel including shore staff, deck and engine officers as well as ratings, who work under the flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, international waters and various ports of the world.

IRISL has been sanctioned by the U.S., UN, EU and other parties for its role in advancing Iran's nuclear and ballistic missile programs. However, the return of the line to the world market was expected by early winter 2016, as a result of the Iran nuclear deal between Iran, the P5+1/EU3+3 powers, and the EU in August 2015. IRISL has also announced its plans to become one of the world's top ten shipping lines by 2020.

Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015

The Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (INARA) (H.R. 1191, Pub.L 114–17) is a bill that was passed by the US Congress in May 2015, giving Congress the right to review any agreement reached in the P5+1 talks with Iran aiming to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons.

The bill passed in the Senate by a 98-1 vote (only Tom Cotton voted against), and then passed in the House by a vote of 400-25 on May 14. President Barack Obama threatened to veto the bill, but eventually a version arrived that had enough support to override any veto and Obama did not try vetoing it.

Larry Klayman filed a lawsuit, alleging that the law was an unconstitutional abrogation of the Senate's Treaty Power. The lawsuit was dismissed for lack of standing.

Iran nuclear deal framework

The Iran nuclear deal framework was a preliminary framework agreement reached in 2015 between the Islamic Republic of Iran and a group of world powers: the P5+1 (the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, and China—plus Germany) and the European Union.

Negotiations for a framework deal over the nuclear program of Iran took place between the foreign ministers of the countries at a series of meetings held from March 26 to April 2, 2015 in Lausanne, Switzerland. On April 2 the talks came to a conclusion and a press conference was held by Federica Mogherini (High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy) and Mohammad Javad Zarif (Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran) to announce that the eight parties had reached an agreement on a framework deal. The parties announced, "Today, we have taken a decisive step: we have reached solutions on key parameters of a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action," which they intended to complete by June 30. Announcing the framework, Foreign Minister Zarif stated: "No agreement has been reached so we do not have any obligation yet. Nobody has obligations now other than obligations that we already undertook under the Joint Plan of Action that we adopted in Geneva in November 2013."The framework deal was embodied in a document published by the EU's European External Action Service titled Joint Statement by EU High Representative Federica Mogherini and Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif Switzerland, and in a document published by the U.S. Department of State titled Parameters for a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran's Nuclear Program.On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action between Iran and the P5+1 and EU, a comprehensive agreement based on the April 2015 framework, was announced.On May 8, 2018, United States President Donald Trump announced the United States was withdrawing from the deal.

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; Persian: برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک‎, romanized: barnāmeye jāme'e eqdāme moshtarak (برجام, BARJAM)), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on July 14, 2015, between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.

Formal negotiations toward JCPOA began with the adoption of the Joint Plan of Action, an interim agreement signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in November 2013. Iran and the P5+1 countries engaged in negotiations for the next 20 months and in April 2015 agreed on a framework for the final agreement. In July 2015 Iran and the P5+1 confirmed agreement on the plan along with the "Roadmap Agreement" between Iran and the IAEA.Under JCPOA, Iran agreed to eliminate its stockpile of medium-enriched uranium, cut its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 98%, and reduce by about two-thirds the number of its gas centrifuges for 13 years. For the next 15 years Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3.67%. Iran also agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks. To monitor and verify Iran's compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, Iran will receive relief from U.S., European Union, and United Nations Security Council nuclear-related sanctions.

On 13 October 2017 U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would not make the certification provided for under U.S. domestic law, but stopped short of terminating the deal.IAEA inspectors spend 3,000 calendar days per year in Iran, installing tamper-proof seals and collecting surveillance camera photos, measurement data and documents for further analysis. IAEA Director Yukiya Amano stated (in March 2018) that the organization has verified that Iran is implementing its nuclear-related commitments. On 30 April 2018 the United States and Israel said that Iran had not disclosed a past covert nuclear weapons program to the IAEA, as required by the 2015 deal.

On 8 May 2018 President Trump announced United States withdrawal from JCPOA. Following the U.S.'s withdrawal, the EU enacted an updated blocking statute on 7 August 2018 to nullify US sanctions on countries trading with Iran. In November 2018 U.S. sanctions came back into effect intended to force Iran to dramatically alter its policies, including its support for militant groups in the region and its development of ballistic missiles.In February 2019 the IAEA certified that Iran was still abiding by the deal.

Joint Plan of Action

On 24 November 2013, the Joint Plan of Action (برنامه اقدام مشترک), also known as the Geneva interim agreement (Persian: توافق هسته‌ای ژنو‎), was a pact signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in Geneva, Switzerland. It consists of a short-term freeze of portions of Iran's nuclear program in exchange for decreased economic sanctions on Iran, as the countries work towards a long-term agreement. It represented the first formal agreement between the United States and Iran in 34 years. Implementation of the agreement began 20 January 2014.The Joint Plan of Action and the negotiations under it which followed eventually led to an April 2015 framework agreement and then a July 2015 final agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.

List of Iranian nuclear negotiators

This is a list of chief nuclear negotiators of Iran since 2003.

Mohammad Javad Zarif

Mohammad Javad Zarif (Persian: محمدجواد ظریف‎; Persian pronunciation: [mohæmːædʒːæˌvɒːde zæˌɾiːfe]; born 7 January 1960) is an Iranian career diplomat and academic. He has been foreign minister of Iran since 2013.

Before assuming his current position, he held various significant diplomatic and cabinet posts. He is a visiting professor at the School of International Relations and University of Tehran, teaching diplomacy and international organizations. He was the Permanent Representative of Iran to the United Nations from 2002 to 2007.During his tenure as foreign minister, he led the Iranian negotiation with P5+1 countries which produced the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on 14 July 2015, lifting the economic sanctions against Iran on 16 January 2016. On 25 February 2019, Zarif resigned from his post as foreign minister. His resignation was rejected by President Rouhani and he continues as foreign minister.

Zarif has held other domestic and international positions. He served as adviser and senior adviser to the Foreign Minister, Deputy Foreign Minister in Legal and International affairs, member of the UN Eminent Persons Group on Dialogue Among Civilizations, Head of the UN Disarmament Commission in New York, member of the Eminent Persons Group on global governance, and Vice President for International Affairs of the Islamic Azad University.

Negotiations leading to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

This article discusses the negotiations between the P5+1 and Iran that led to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (Persian: برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک‎), is an agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran and the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council – China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States, – plus Germany and the European Union). The agreement is a comprehensive agreement on the nuclear program of Iran.The agreement is based on the 24 November 2013 Geneva interim framework agreement, officially titled the Joint Plan of Action (JPA). The Geneva agreement was an interim deal, in which Iran agreed to roll back parts of its nuclear program in exchange for relief from some sanctions and that went into effect on 20 January 2014. The parties agreed to extend their talks with a first extension deadline on 24 November 2014 and a second extension deadline set to 1 July 2015.Based on the March/April 2015 negotiations on Iran nuclear deal framework, completed on 2 April 2015, Iran agreed tentatively to accept significant restrictions on its nuclear program, all of which would last for at least a decade and some longer, and to submit to an increased intensity of international inspections under a framework deal. These details were to be negotiated by the end of June 2015. On June 30 the negotiations on a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action were extended under the Joint Plan of Action until 7 July 2015. The agreement was signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015.

Nuclear program of Iran

The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants. In 1970, Iran ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), making its nuclear program subject to the IAEA's verification.

Iran's nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program. The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the last Shah of Iran. Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran was cut off. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country's nuclear development should continue. Negotiations took place with France in the late 1980s and with Argentina in the early 1990s, and agreements were reached. In the 1990s, Russia formed a joint research organization with Iran, providing Iran with Russian nuclear experts and technical information.

In the 2000s, the revelation of Iran's clandestine uranium enrichment program raised concerns that it might be intended for non-peaceful uses. The IAEA launched an investigation in 2003 after an Iranian dissident group revealed undeclared nuclear activities carried out by Iran. In 2006, because of Iran's noncompliance with its NPT obligations, the United Nations Security Council demanded that Iran suspend its enrichment programs. In 2007, the United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) stated that Iran halted an alleged active nuclear weapons program in fall 2003. In November 2011, the IAEA reported credible evidence that Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at designing a nuclear bomb until 2003, and that research may have continued on a smaller scale after that time. On 1 May 2018 the IAEA reiterated its 2015 report, saying it had found no credible evidence of nuclear weapons activity in Iran after 2009.Iran's first nuclear power plant, the Bushehr I reactor, was completed with major assistance from the Russian government agency Rosatom and officially opened on 12 September 2011. The Russian engineering contractor Atomenergoprom said the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant would reach full capacity by the end of 2012. Iran has also announced that it is working on a new 360 Megawatt Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant, and that it will seek more medium-sized nuclear power plants and uranium mines in the future.As of 2015, Iran's nuclear program has cost $100 billion in lost oil revenues and lost foreign direct investment because of international sanctions ($500 billion, when including other opportunity costs).As of February 2019, the IAEA certified that Iran was still abiding by the international Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action of 2015.

Reactions to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; Persian: برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک‎, romanized: barnāmeye jāme'e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1835

UN Security Council Resolution 1835 was adopted unanimously by United Nations Security Council on 27 September 2008. The resolution was in response to the 15 September report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that stated that Iran had not suspended uranium-enrichment-related activities. The resolution reaffirmed four previous Security Council resolutions: 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), and 1803 (2008).

United States withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

On May 8, 2018, the United States withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.Unofficially known as the "Iran Deal" or the "Iran Nuclear Deal", the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action is an agreement on Iran's nuclear program reached in July 2015 by Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany) and the European Union. In a joint statement responding to the U.S. withdrawal, the leaders of France, Germany and the United Kingdom stated that United Nations Security Council resolution endorsing the nuclear deal remained the "binding international legal framework for the resolution of the dispute".The withdrawal caused concerns in Iran due to its impact on the economy. The withdrawal was praised by American conservatives in the United States, who saw the deal as weak. Others in the US, including former president Barack Obama and his vice president Joe Biden, criticized the decision, while various European countries that were signatories, including the UK, France, and Germany, expressed regret at the decision.On 17 May 2018 the European Commission announced its intention to implement the blocking statute of 1996 to declare the US sanctions against Iran illegal in Europe and ban European citizens and companies from complying with them. The commission also instructed the European Investment Bank to facilitate European companies' investment in Iran.

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