The P-700 Granit (Russian: П-700 "Гранит"; English: granite) is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets.
| P-700 Granit|
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-19 'Shipwreck')
|Type||Long-range Cruise missile|
Submarine-launched cruise missile, anti-ship missile
|Place of origin||Soviet Union/Russia|
|In service||Since 1983|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russia|
|Designer||OKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey|
|Mass||7,000 kg (15,400 lb)|
|Length||10 m (33 ft)|
|Diameter||0.85 m (33 in)|
|Warhead||High explosive or nuclear|
|Warhead weight||750 kg (1,653 lb) HE (unknown composition, probably RDX or similar) or 500 kt fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon|
|Blast yield||500 kt|
|Engine||turbojet and ramjet probable|
|625 km (388 mi)|
|Speed||Mach 1.6 (low altitude)|
Mach 2.5+ (high altitude)
|Inertial guidance, active radar homing with home-on-jam, and Legenda satellite targeting system (believed to be nonfunctional after the fall of the USSR)|
|Oscar class submarines|
Kirov & Admiral Kuznetsov class ships
The P-700 was designed in the 1970s to replace the P-70 Ametist and P-120 Malakhit, both effective missiles but with too short a range in the face of improving weapons of U.S. Navy carrier battle groups. The missile was partially derived from the P-500 Bazalt.
Built by Chelomei/NPO Mashinostroenia, the bulging 10 m missile has swept-back wings and tail, weighs around 7,000 kilograms and can be fitted with either a 750 kg HE warhead, a FAE warhead, or a 500 kt thermonuclear warhead. A stubby cylindrical solid-fuel rocket is fitted to the rear for launch; this booster stage is released when the missile enters sustained flight. For many years it was believed that this missile used a turbojet engine during the sustained flight; after the Russian and the Western media gained access to its performance characteristics, it was understood that its propulsion system was a ramjet.
The P-700 has a distinctive annular air intake in the nose. Maximum speed is believed to be between Mach 1.6 to Mach 2.5. Range estimates vary between 400 km to 500 km to 550–625 km. The guidance system is mixed-mode, with inertial guidance, terminal active radar homing guidance and also anti-radar homing. Mid-course correction is probable.
The missile, when fired in a swarm (group of 4–8) has a unique guidance mode. One of the weapons climbs to a higher altitude and designates targets while the others attack. The missile responsible for target designation climbs in short pop-ups, so as to be harder to intercept. The missiles are linked by data connections, forming a network. If the designating missile is destroyed the next missile will rise to assume its purpose. Missiles are able to differentiate targets, detect groups and prioritize targets automatically using information gathered during flight and types of ships and battle formations pre-programmed in an onboard computer. They will attack targets in order of priority, highest to lowest: after destroying the first target, any remaining missiles will attack the next prioritized target. Such description received some doubts. The missile has a means of countering the attacking anti-missiles. Also, the on-board computer carries data designed to counter an enemy's electronic warfare and to evade counter-measures.
The P-700 was derived from the P-500 Bazalt missile with a turbojet. The P-700 was in turn developed into the P-800 Oniks, which uses ramjet propulsion, and the BrahMos missile, a joint Indian/Russian modernization of the P-800.
Unusually for an aircraft carrier, the Kuznetsov-class also carried 12 Granit launchers. This gave the Admiral Kuznetsov an additional primary attack capability, but also had the political advantage of classing the vessel as an aircraft cruiser instead.[i] Unconfirmed reports say that the missiles were removed in 2000, to provide more aircraft hangar space.
It is currently in service with the Russian Northern Fleet on the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov and Pyotr Velikyi, and with the Russian Northern and Pacific fleets as part of the armoury for the Oscar-class cruise missile submarines.
The Kursk carried 24 missiles when it sank following a torpedo explosion during an exercise on 12 August 2000. The Russian navy was extremely concerned about possible NATO attempts to recover a missile and guarded the site of the wreck throughout the recovery effort. The missiles were recovered intact following a $65 million salvage operation.
The size of the missile limits the platforms on which it can operate and be launched from. It has only been deployed from Oscar-class submarines, Kirov-class battlecruisers, and the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier. Ships of all three types will have their Granit missiles replaced with new launch cells to carry smaller Oniks and Kalibr cruise missiles in greater numbers.
The P-1000 missile was partially derived from the P-500 and P-700. Its maximum speed is claimed to be between Mach 1.5 - Mach 2.5 depending on altitude, and its range is claimed to be between 700 and 1000 km (800). Warhead: 500 kg. Years of production 1985-1992. The body of the missile resembles that of the P-500, but it has the ability of the P-700 to overcome defensive countermeasures. Long range missile can achieve the target only at low altitudes (up to 25 meters or lower) approximation (in which case the maximum range is less than 500 km).
The P-900 Alfa (or also P-900A Alfa) П-900 3М51 Альфа Alfa AFM-L, GRAU designation 3M51, is an anti-ship missile (with LACM capabilities) developed from SS-N-30 (3M14), P-800 Oniks and P-700 Granit.
The missile has a Granit type engine. It can be operated on new Yasen-class submarine, and can be loaded on ships. Coastal versions of the anti-ship missile are under development. The missile is developed at NPO Mashinostroyeniya.3M-51 Alfa is also designated as Novator KTRV, Morinform Agat, 3M54, 3M54E and P-900 types.The new cruise missile was designed for use in the Russian Navy. Modernization of Kirov-class battlecruiser, other new battlecruisers, destroyers and cruisers may include 3M-51 Alfa that can be refitted on ships with existing Zircon, Grom Meteorit, GELA, P1200 Bolid or P-1000 Vulkan missile launchers.Despite a secrecy surrounding the new missile, it can be presumed that it holds promise as an exportable weapons system.Anti-radiation missile
An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission source. Typically, these are designed for use against an enemy radar, although jammers and even radios used for communications can also be targeted in this manner.Granit
Granit may refer to:
Granite, a type of rock
Granit (company), a construction company in the Republic of Macedonia
Granit (beer), a Swedish lager beer
Le Granit Regional County Municipality, Quebec, a regional county municipality in the Estrie region of eastern Quebec, Canada
Lannion – Côte de Granit Airport in France
Granit, Bulgaria, a village in southern Bulgaria
Granit oak in Granit, Bulgaria
2ES10 Granit, a Russian locomotive
P-700 Granit, a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missileKirov-class battlecruiser
The Kirov class, Soviet designation Project 1144 Orlan (sea eagle), is a class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers of the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world. Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, and of similar size to a World War 2 era battleships. The Soviet classification of the ship-type is (Russian: тяжёлый атомный ракетный крейсер, "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser"). The ships are often referred to as battlecruisers by Western defence commentators due to their size and general appearance.The appearance of the Kirov class played a key role in the recommissioning of the Iowa-class battleships by the United States Navy in the 1980s.The Kirov class hull design was also used for the Soviet nuclear-powered command and control ship SSV-33 Ural.Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier
The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier, Soviet designation Project 11435, is a class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers (heavy aircraft cruiser in Soviet classification) operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump to launch high-performance conventional aircraft in a STOBAR configuration. The design represented a major advance in Soviet fleet aviation over the Kiev-class carriers, which could only launch VSTOL aircraft. Two ships were originally laid down at the Nikolayev South Shipyard in the Ukrainian SSR, followed by the first of the Ulyanovsk-class nuclear-powered supercarriers.
The plans were disrupted by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Only the lead ship Admiral Kuznetsov had been commissioned when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, and the ship now serves in the Russian Navy. Her sister ship Varyag remained in Ukraine unfinished and unmaintained for a decade before being sold and towed to China for use as a floating casino. Instead, the ship was eventually completed and commissioned in 2012 as the Chinese navy's first aircraft carrier, the Type 001 aircraft carrier Liaoning. A third ship is being built by China to a modified Type 001A design and is expected to be commissioned in 2019. It began sea trials on May 13, 2018.List of NATO reporting names for surface-to-surface missiles
NATO reporting name for SS series surface-to-surface missiles, with Soviet designations:
SS-1 "Scunner" (R-1) and "Scud" (R-11/R-300)
SS-2 "Sibling" (R-2)
SS-3 "Shyster" (R-5/R-5M)
SS-4 "Sandal" (R-12)
SS-5 "Skean" (R-14)
SS-6 "Sapwood" (R-7)
SS-7 "Saddler" (R-16)
SS-8 "Sasin" (R-9/R-9A)
SS-9 "Scarp" (R-36)
SS-10 "Scrag" (GR-1)
SS-11 "Sego" (UR-100)
SS-12 "Scaleboard" (9M76)
SS-13 "Savage" (RT-2)
SS-14 "Scapegoat" and "Scamp" (RT-15)
SS-15 "Scrooge" (RT-20)
SS-16 "Sinner" (15Zh42)
SS-17 "Spanker" (MR-UR-100)
SS-18 "Satan" (R-36M)
SS-19 "Stiletto" (UR-100N)
SS-20 "Saber" (RT-21M/15Zh45)
SS-21 "Scarab" (9M79)
SS-22 "Scaleboard" (9M76)
SS-23 "Spider" (9M714)
SS-24 "Scalpel" (RT-23)
SS-25 "Sickle" (RT-2PM)
SS-27 "Sickle-B" (RT-2UTTH) (Topol-M)
SS-28 "Saber 2" (15Zh53)
SS-X-29 (RS-24) (Yars)
SS-X-30 Sarmat/"Unknown" (RS-28)
SS-X-32 (BZhRK Barguzin)US DoD designations for SS-N series naval surface-to-surface missiles (fired from ships and submarines), with Soviet designations:
SS-N-1 "Scrubber" (4K40) (P-1)
SS-N-2 "Styx" (4K51) (P-15)
SS-N-3 "Sepal" (R-35/4K44/3M44) and "Shaddock" (4K95) (P-5)
SS-N-5 "Sark" (R-21)
SS-N-6 "Serb" (R-27)
SS-N-7 "Starbright" (4M66) (P-70 Ametist)
SS-N-8 "Sawfly" (R-29)
SS-N-9 "Siren" (4K85) (P-120 Malakhit)
SS-N-12 "Sandbox" (4K77/4K80) (P-500 Bazalt)
SS-N-14 "Silex" (83R/84R/85R)
SS-N-15 "Starfish" (82R)
SS-N-16 "Stallion" (86R/88R)
SS-N-17 "Snipe" (R-31)
SS-N-18 "Stingray" (R-29R)
SS-N-19 "Shipwreck" (3M45) (P-700 Granit)
SS-N-20 "Sturgeon" (R-29RD)
SS-N-21 "Sampson" (RK-55)
SS-N-22 "Sunburn" (3M80) (P-270 Moskit)
SS-N-23 "Skiff" (R-29RM) Sineva
SS-N-24 "Scorpion" (3M25) Kh-80 (AS-19 Koala) (P-750 Meteorit)
SS-N-25 "Switchblade" (3M24) Kh-35 (AS-20 Kayak) Uran
SS-N-26 "Strobile" (3M55) (P-800 Oniks 'Yakhont')
SS-N-27 "Sizzler" (3M54) Kalibr ("Club" is the export version.)
SS-NX-28 - no name yet - (R-39) Grom
SS-N-29 - no name yet - RPK-9 Medvedka (89R)
SS-N-30 - no name yet - (3M14) Land attack missile ("Club" is the export version.)
SS-NX-32 - no name yet - RSM-56 Bulava (3M30)See also: NATO reporting nameNPO Mashinostroyeniya
NPO Mashinostroyeniya (Russian: НПО машиностроения) is a rocket design bureau based in Reutov, Russia. During the Cold War it was responsible for several major weapons systems, including the UR-100N Intercontinental ballistic missile and the military Almaz space station program.
India is Mashinostroyeniya's second largest customer after the Russian Federation for sale of P-70 Ametist, BrahMos, BrahMos-II and P-800 Oniks.Oscar-class submarine
The Oscar class, Soviet designations Project 949 Granit and Project 949A Antey, (NATO reporting names Oscar I and Oscar II respectively), are cruise missile submarines (SSGNs) designed in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. They are currently in service with the Russian Navy with some of the vessels planned to be modernized into the Project 949AM to extend their servicelife and increase combat capabilities.
The Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service until the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines were converted to carry cruise missiles in 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in displacement and length. Only the Soviet Typhoon-class, Russian Borei-class and the American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) are larger.P-800 Oniks
The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO reporting codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned. It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.Russian battlecruiser Kirov
Kirov is the lead ship of the Kirov class of nuclear-powered missile cruisers. Originally built for the Soviet Navy, it was one of the biggest and most important surface combatants of the Russian Navy. It is similar in displacement to a World War I battleship. Although commissioned as a missile cruiser, Kirov's size and weapons complement have given her the unofficial designation of a battlecruiser throughout much of the world. The appearance of the Kirov class was a significant factor in the U.S. Navy recommissioning the Iowa class. She was named after a Project 26 cruiser (named after Sergey Kirov, a Bolshevik hero).Russian submarine Chelyabinsk (K-442)
The K-442 Chelyabinsk is an Oscar class SSGN within the Russian Navy. The submarine is currently located at the Rybachiy Nuclear Submarine Base, in Vilyuchinsk, near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and belongs to the Russian Pacific Fleet.Russian submarine Krasnodar (K-148)
Krasnodar (K-148) was a Russian Oscar-class submarine which was launched in March 1985 and decommissioned in late 2012. The retired nuclear submarine was renamed "Submarine 617". On March 17, 2014 a fire broke out on or near the vessel during its scrapping at the Nerpa Russian Naval Shipyard near the administratively closed city Snezhnogorsk. A spokesperson for the shipyard reported that the fire was quickly extinguished, without injuries or radioactive releases.Russian submarine Krasnoyarsk (K-173)
Russian submarine K-173 Krasnoyarsk is an Oscar-class submarine which was commissioned on 31 December 1986, and entered service with the Russian Navy. Krasnoyarsk has been removed from active service.
On 29 April 2016, the boat caught fire whilst being scrapped at Vilyuchinsk and was scuttled to extinguish the fire.Russian submarine Kursk (K-141)
K-141 Kursk (Russian: Атомная Подводная Лодка «Курск» (АПЛ «Курск»), transl. Atomnaya Podvodnaya Lodka "Kursk" (APL "Kursk"), meaning "Nuclear-powered submarine Kursk") was an Oscar II-class nuclear-powered cruise-missile submarine of the Russian Navy.
On 12 August 2000, K-141 Kursk was lost when it sank in the Barents Sea, killing all 118 personnel on board.Russian submarine Tver (K-456)
The K-456 Tver is a Russian Oscar class SSGN of the Russian Navy. It was commissioned in 1991 as part of the Russian Northern Fleet and was transferred to the Russian Pacific Fleet in September 1993. The submarine is currently based at the Rybachiy Nuclear Submarine Base, in Vilyuchinsk, near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
Until 28.01.2011 was called "Vilyuchinsk." The new name of "Tver"SS-N-3 Shaddock
The P-5 "Pyatyorka" (Russian: П-5 «Пятёрка»; "Pyatyorka", "fiver" in English), also known by the NATO codename SS-N-3C Shaddock, is a Cold War era turbojet-powered cruise missile of the Soviet Union, designed by the Chelomey design bureau. The missile entered service in 1959. Pyatyorka is a common name for the missile as the "digit 5", corresponding to the R-7 Semyorka, the digit 7.
The basic version of the missile was an inertially-guided submarine-launched cruise missile to threaten the US coast. The missile could be armed with either a 1000 kg high explosive or a 200 or 350 kt nuclear warhead.
It had a speed of about 0.9 Mach, range of 500 km and CEP of about 3000 m. The later variant had a range of possibly up to 1000 km.
The first missiles were installed in Project 644, Whiskey Twin Cylinder and Project 665, Whiskey Long Bin submarines.
Versions of P-5 were later developed equipped with radar homing to be used as anti-ship missiles. The last anti-ship versions were retired from active service about 1990, replaced by the P-500 Bazalt and P-700 Granit.
There were actually three versions of turbojet-powered, cruise missiles that were called "SS-N-3" by Western intelligence sources, with multiple variants. The earliest, P-5 was called SS-N-3c, and later versions SS-N-3a and SS-N-3b.
The various Russian designations are believed to be P-5 "Pyatyorka", P-6, P-7, and P-35 Progress. Some sources indicate that missiles 'P-10' and 'P-25' may also have existed.
NATO called the submarine-launched radar-homing versions of the P-6 SS-N-3A 'Shaddock'. These were carried by Echo II- and Juliett-class submarines for targeting US aircraft carriers. The Echo I-class submarines were incapable of accommodating the targeting radar for the anti-ship version, and were not equipped with missiles after the land-attack variant was withdrawn, probably in the mid-1960s when sufficient nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) became available.
Russian sources indicate that there was only submarine-launched version of P-5. The surface-launched, radar-homing version called P-35 was used by Kynda- and Kresta I-class guided-missile cruisers. The P-7 was possibly a longer-ranged version of the P-5, or a further development of the P-6.
There were also land-based versions of these missiles transported in and launched from an eight-wheel truck (ZIL-135KM) as coastal defense missiles. These were designated SPU-35V "Redut" or NATO "SSC-1 Sepal". Yugoslavia deployed this system on the island of Vis.Shipwreck (disambiguation)
A shipwreck is the term for a sunken or derelict ship.
Shipwreck may also refer to:
Arts and entertainment:
Shipwreck (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe
Shipwreck (film), a 1931 short film
Shipwreck, an alternate title for the 1978 movie The Sea Gypsies
Shipwreck, a 1994 album by Chris Connelly
"Shipwreck!", an episode of the anime series The Little PrinceOther uses:
P-700 Granit, Soviet and Russian anti-ship missile with the NATO reporting name "Shipwreck"
Alvin "Shipwreck" Kelly (1885 or 1893-1952), American pole sitter
John Shipwreck Kelly (American football) (1910-1986), American National Football League player, banker and real estate investor
Shipwreck Bay, New ZealandSubmarine-launched cruise missile
A submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) is a cruise missile that is launched from a submarine (especially a SSG or SSGN). Current versions are typically standoff weapons known as land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional or nuclear payloads. Anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) are also used, and some submarine-launched cruise missiles have variants for both functions.Submarine-launched missile
A submarine-launched missile is a missile that can be launched from a submarine. They include ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and cruise missiles (SLCMs). SLBMs are launched vertically; some other types are fired through the submarine's torpedo tubes.
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|Surface-to-air missiles |
|Surface-to-surface missiles |