Oxford Art Online is an Oxford University Press online gateway into art research, which was launched in 2008. It provides access to several online art reference works, including Grove Art Online (originally published in 1996 in a print version, The Dictionary of Art), the online version of the Benezit Dictionary of Artists, and The Oxford Companion to Western Art. It also provides access to other Oxford art reference works, including the Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2nd edition), and The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. The site was updated on 1 December 2017 to enhance page design, search tools, linking, and media capabilities.
The Académie Royale d'Architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture), founded in 1671, was a French learned society, which had a leading role in influencing architectural theory and education, not only in France, but throughout Europe and the Americas from the late 17th century to the mid-20th.Apollodorus (painter)
Apollodorus Skiagraphos (Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ σκιαγράφος) was an influential Ancient Greek painter of the 5th century BC whose work has since been entirely lost. Apollodorus left a technique behind known as skiagraphia, a way to easily produce shadow, that affected the works not only of his contemporaries but also of later generations. This shading technique uses hatched areas to give the illusion of both shadow and volume.Auricular style
The auricular style or lobate style (Dutch: Kwabstijl, German:Ohrmuschelstil) is a style of ornamental decoration, mainly found in Northern Europe in the first half of the 17th century, bridging Northern Mannerism and the Baroque. The style was especially important and effective in silversmithing, but was also used in minor architectural ornamentation such as door and window reveals, picture frames, and a wide variety of the decorative arts. It uses softly flowing abstract shapes in relief, sometimes asymmetrical, whose resemblance to the side view of the human ear gives it its name, or at least its "undulating, slithery and boneless forms occasionally carry a suggestion of the inside of an ear or a conch shell". It is often associated with stylized marine animal forms, or ambiguous masks and shapes that might be such, which seem to emerge from the rippling, fluid background, as if the silver remained in its molten state.
In some other European languages, the style is covered by the local equivalent of the term cartilage baroque because the forms may resemble cartilage (e.g. Knorpelbarock in German, bruskbarokk in Norwegian, bruskbarok in Danish). However, those these terms may be rather widely and vaguely applied to a bewildering range of styles of Northern Mannerist and Baroque ornament. In Dutch, a "dolphin and mollusk" style is mentioned.Benezit Dictionary of Artists
The Benezit Dictionary of Artists (in French, Bénézit: Dictionnaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs) is an extensive publication of bibliographical information on painters, sculptors, designers and engravers created primarily for art museums, auction houses, historians and dealers. It was published by Éditions Gründ in Paris but has been sold to Oxford University Press.
First published in the French language in three volumes between 1911 and 1923, the dictionary was put together by Emmanuel Bénézit (1854–1920) and a team of international specialists with assistance from his son the painter Emmanuel-Charles Bénézit (1887–1975), and daughter Marguerite Bénézit. After the elder Bénézit's death the editors were Edmond-Henri Zeiger-Viallet (1895–1994) and the painter Jacques Busse (1922–2004), the younger Bénézit having already left Paris and moved to Provence. The next edition was an eight-volume set published between 1948 and 1955, followed by a ten-volume set in 1976 and a 14-volume set in 1999. In 2006, an English-language edition was published for the first time. A 14-volume set, it has more than 20,000 pages, with over 170,000 entries.Borso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Borso d'Este (1413 – August 20, 1471) was Duke of Ferrara, and the first Duke of Modena, which he ruled from 1450 until his death. He was a member of the House of Este.Divisionism
Divisionism (also called chromoluminarism) was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically.By requiring the viewer to combine the colors optically instead of physically mixing pigments, Divisionists believed they were achieving the maximum luminosity scientifically possible. Georges Seurat founded the style around 1884 as chromoluminarism, drawing from his understanding of the scientific theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Charles Blanc, among others. Divisionism developed along with another style, Pointillism, which is defined specifically by the use of dots of paint and does not necessarily focus on the separation of colors.Encyclopedia of Aesthetics
Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, published in 1998 by Oxford University Press, is an encyclopedia that covers philosophical, historical, sociological, and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide. The second edition (2014) is now available online as part of Oxford Art Online.Francesco di Antonio del Chierico
Francesco di Antonio del Chierico (1433–1484) was a manuscript illuminator of the early Renaissance period in Florence. Francesco began as a goldsmith before changing occupations to become a successful illustrator. He was one of the pupils of Fra Angelico and became famous for being Lorenzo de' Medici's favorite illuminator. He worked under some of the most prestigious patrons of the time, including Lorenzo de' Medici (otherwise known as Lorenzo the Magnificent), Piero de’ Cosimo de' Medici, Cosimo il Vecchio, and Vespasiano da Bisticci. He gained a reputation for his well executed illustrations in varying types of books ranging in size from small books of hours to large choir books. His illustrations often included intricate floral arrangements, putti, and candelabras. He decorated both the borders of manuscripts and full pages.
Francesco's works are often compared to those of the Pollaiuolo brothers and Domenico Veneziano. He is most recognized for his work on the Disputationes Camaldulenses by Cristoforo Landino and in that manuscript, particularly the two profiles of Federico da Montefeltro and an unidentified figure. In his later life it is speculated that he was the master of Francesco Rosselli due to their strong stylistic similarities. There is often confusion with his name due to the many Francesco di Antonios or Francesco del Chiericos from 15th- and 16th-century Italy.Grove Art Online
Grove Art Online is the online edition of The Dictionary of Art, often referred to as the Grove Dictionary of Art, and part of Oxford Art Online, an internet gateway to online art reference publications of Oxford University Press, which also includes the online version of the Benezit Dictionary of Artists. It is a large encyclopedia of art, previously a 34-volume printed encyclopedia first published by Grove in 1996 and reprinted with minor corrections in 1998. A new edition was published in 2003 by Oxford University Press.National Association of Women Artists
The National Association of Women Artists, Inc. (NAWA) is a United States nonprofit organization for professional women fine artists. It was founded in 1889 as the Woman's Art Club of New York, at a time when women did not have parity with men in the art world, including the National Academy of Design and the Society of American Artists. In 1913 it was renamed National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors; the current name was adopted in 1941.The National Association of Women Artists has since its founding provided a forum for women artists to exhibit and promote their work and share ideas and support. It sponsors local and national exhibitions, offers awards and merit prizes, and organizes lectures and special events for its 850+ membership, and hosts ongoing exhibitions at its headquarters and gallery in NYC. There are currently two chapters in Florida and Massachusetts.
The Board and Officers of Association are voted in annually by the membership.Openwork
Openwork or open-work is a term in art history, architecture and related fields for any technique that produces decoration by creating holes, piercings, or gaps that go right through a solid material such as metal, wood, stone, pottery, cloth, leather, or ivory. Such techniques have been very widely used in a great number of cultures.
The term is rather flexible, and used both for additive techniques that build up the design, as for example most large features in architecture, and those that take a plain material and make cuts or holes in it. Equally techniques such as casting using moulds create the whole design in a single stage, and are common in openwork. Though much openwork relies for its effect on the viewer seeing right through the object, some pieces place a different material behind the openwork as a background.Paolo Veneziano
Paolo Veneziano, also Veneziano Paolo or Paolo da Venezia (born before 1333, died after 1358) was a medieval painter from Venice. He has been called 'the most important Venetian painter of the 14th
century'. Many signed and dated works of this artist are known. He was regarded as the official painter of the Venetian Republic.Regionalism (art)
American Regionalism is an American realist modern art movement that included paintings, murals, lithographs, and illustrations depicting realistic scenes of rural and small-town America primarily in the Midwest and Deep South. It arose in the 1930s as a response to the Great Depression, and ended in the 1940s due to the end of World War II and a lack of development within the movement. It reached its height of popularity from 1930 to 1935, as it was widely appreciated for its reassuring images of the American heartland during the Great Depression. Despite major stylistic differences between specific artists, Regionalist art in general was in a relatively conservative and traditionalist style that appealed to popular American sensibilities, while strictly opposing the perceived domination of French art.Romanism (painting)
Romanism is a term used by art historians to refer to painters from the Low Countries who had travelled in the 16th century to Rome. In Rome they had absorbed the influence of leading Italian artists of the period such as Michelangelo and Raphael and his pupils. Upon their return home, these Northern artists (referred to as ‘Romanists’) created a Renaissance style, which assimilated Italian formal language. The style continued its influence until the early 17th century when it was swept aside by the Baroque.By drawing on mythological subject matter, the Romanists introduced new themes in Northern art that corresponded with the interests and tastes of their patrons with a humanist education. The Romanists painted mainly religious and mythological works, often using complex compositions and depicting naked human bodies in an anatomically correct way but with contrived poses. Their style often appears forced and artificial to the modern viewer. However, the artists saw their efforts as an intellectual challenge to render difficult subjects through a struggle with form.
The term Romanism is now less commonly used as a better understanding of the work of the artists that formed part of the Romanists has highlighted the diversity rather than the commonalities in their responses to Italian art.The Three Ages of Woman (Klimt)
The Three Ages of Woman is a painting by Gustav Klimt, symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. that was completed in Austria in 1905.Thieme-Becker
Thieme-Becker is a German biographical dictionary of artists.Tobias Verhaecht
Tobias Verhaecht (1561–1631) was a Flemish painter primarily of landscapes. His style was indebted to the mannerist world landscape developed by artists like Joachim Patinir and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. He was the first teacher of Pieter Paul Rubens.Un Coup de Dés Jamais N'Abolira Le Hasard (Broodthaers)
Un Coup de Dés Jamais N'Abolira Le Hasard (A Throw of the Dice will Never Abolish Chance) is an artist's book by Marcel Broodthaers published November 1969 in Antwerp. The work is a close copy of the first edition of the French Symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé's poem of the same name, published in 1914, but with all the words removed, replaced by black stripes that correspond directly to the typographic layout used by Mallarmé to articulate the text.
Broodthaers reduces Un Coup de Dés to its structure - or to put it another way he elevates the structure of the work to a concept worthy of study in its own right, thus acknowledging Mallarmé's own fetishistic attention to this aspect of his work. Rendering the structure concrete, visible, almost tactile, Broodthaers offers a conceptual analysis of Mallarmé's poem across the distance of a nearly a century...It would be hard to imagine a more subtle treatment of Mallarmé's work, or one more capable of demonstrating its essential properties, than this reworked book by Broodthaers. — Johanna Drucker
Often included in exhibitions tracing the history of the artist's book, the work is seen as a seminal example of the European post-avant-garde. It is often referred to simply as Un Coup de Dés.William Russell Flint
Sir William Russell Flint (4 April 1880 – 30 December 1969) was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking.