Oxalidales

The Oxalidales is an order of flowering plants, included within the rosid subgroup of eudicots. Compound leaves are common in Oxalidales and the majority of the species in this order have five or six sepals and petals. The following families are typically placed here:[2]

The Cephalotaceae family contains a single species, a pitcher plant found in Southwest Australia.

Under the Cronquist system, most of the above families were placed in the Rosales. The Oxalidaceae were placed in the Geraniales, and the Elaeocarpaceae split between the Malvales and Polygalales, in the latter case being treated as the Tremandraceae.

Oxalidales
Ceratopetalum apetalum
Ceratopetalum apetalum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Clade: Fabids
Order: Oxalidales
Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Phylogeny

The phylogeny of the Oxalidales shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website.

Malpighiales (outgroup)

Oxalidales

Huaceae

Connaraceae

Oxalidaceae

Cunoniaceae

Brunelliaceae

Cephalotaceae

Elaeocarpaceae

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Stephens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/

External links

Media related to Oxalidales at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Oxalidales at Wikispecies

Averrhoa

Averrhoa is a genus of trees in the Oxalidaceae family, of the Oxalidales order, named after Averroes, a 12th-century astronomer and philosopher from Al-Andalus.

Callicoma

Callicoma, is a plant genus that contains just one species, Callicoma serratifolia, a tall shrub or small tree which is native to Australia. Callicoma serratifolia is commonly known as black wattle. One explanation for the name is the similarity of the flowers to those of Australian Acacia, which are commonly known as wattles. Another is its use in wattle and daub huts of the early settlers. The species has a number of other common names include callicoma, butterwood, silver leaf, silver-leaf butterwood and wild quince.

Cephalotus

Cephalotus ( or ; Greek: κεφαλή "head", and οὔς/ὠτός "ear", to describe the head of the anthers) is a genus which contains one species, Cephalotus follicularis the Albany pitcher plant, a small carnivorous pitcher plant. The pit-fall traps of the modified leaves have inspired the common names for this plant, which include 'Albany pitcher plant", "Western Australian pitcher plant", "Australian pitcher plant", or "fly-catcher plant."

Ceratopetalum

Ceratopetalum is a genus of nine species of shrub and tree in the family Cunoniaceae. They are found along the eastern coast of Australia and extend north to New Guinea. Two Australian species are among the best known, one being C. apetalum or coachwood, renowned as a timber tree, and C. gummiferum, the New South Wales Christmas bush.

Selected speciesCeratopetalum apetalum D.Don (Coachwood)

Ceratopetalum corymbosum C.T.White

Ceratopetalum gummiferum Sm. (NSW Christmas bush)

Ceratopetalum hylandii Rozefelds & R.W.Barnes

Ceratopetalum iugumensis Rozefelds & R.W.Barnes

Ceratopetalum macrophyllum Hoogland

Ceratopetalum succirubrum C.T.White

Ceratopetalum tetrapterum Mattf.

Ceratopetalum virchowii F.Muell.

Connaraceae

Connaraceae is a pan-tropical plant family of 19 genera and more than 180 species of largely evergreen trees, woody shrubs and climbers.

Cunoniaceae

Cunoniaceae is a family of 27 genera and about 300 species of woody plants in the order Oxalidales, mostly found in the tropical and wet temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere.

The greatest diversity of genera are in Australia and Tasmania (15 genera), New Guinea (9 genera), and New Caledonia (7 genera). The family is also present in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Malesia, the island of the South Pacific, Madagascar and surrounding islands. the family is absent from mainland Asia except from Peninsular Malaysia, and almost absent from mainland Africa apart from two species from Southern Africa (Cunonia capensis, Platylophus trifoliatus). Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia (Southern Africa & New Caledonia), Eucryphia (Australia & South America) Weinmannia sect. Weinmannia (America and the Mascarenes).

The family includes trees and shrubs; most are evergreen but a few are deciduous. The leaves are opposite or whorled (alternate in Davidsonia), and simple or compound (pinnate or palmate), with entire or toothed margin, and often with conspicuous stipules (interpetiolar or intrapetiolar). The flowers have four or five (rarely three or up to ten) sepals and petals. The fruit is usually a woody capsule or a follicle containing several small seeds.

The family has a rich fossil record in Australia and fossil representatives are known in the Northern Hemisphere. Platydiscus peltatus was found in Upper Cretaceous rocks from Sweden and is likely a member of the Cunoniaceae. An earlier possible fossil member is from the Albian. Tropidogyne, found in Indochinese amber, has flowers that strongly resemble the extant Ceratopetalum.

Davidsonia

Davidsonia is a genus containing three rainforest tree species, that are commonly known as the Davidson or Davidson's plum. The fruits superficially resemble the European plum, but are not closely related. All species have an edible sour fruit with burgundy coloured flesh and are highly regarded as gourmet bushfood.

Davidsonia jerseyana, Davidson's plum or Mullumbimby plum, is a slender small tree, generally 5 metres high, native to lowland subtropical rainforests of New South Wales. It is considered an endangered species in the wild, but is widely cultivated for its pleasantly sour fruit that is used in jam, wine, ice-cream and sauces.

Davidsonia johnsonii, smooth Davidson's plum, is a small tree with a spreading canopy and smooth leaves, native to New South Wales and southeast Queensland. It is also considered an endangered species in the wild but is not widely cultivated because of its infertile seeds. It is propagated vegetatively from cuttings or root division.

Davidsonia pruriens, Ooray or Queensland Davidson's plum, is a taller tree than the other two species, reaching up to 12 metres high. It is also slender and has larger fruit which are produced in large clusters from the trunk or branches.Small-scale plantations in New South Wales and Queensland supply the demand, mainly from Davidsonia jerseyana and Davidsonia pruriens.

Davidsonia pruriens

Davidsonia pruriens, also known as ooray, Davidson's plum, or Queensland Davidson's plum, is a medium-sized rainforest tree of northern Queensland, Australia.The leaves are large and compound. The edible dark burgundy colored fruit is produced in large clusters from the branches or the trunk, depending on the type. There are at least two distinct forms, with a suggestion that one of these is an undescribed species.The indigenous name - ooray - is being increasingly used by growers and processors.

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeaocarpaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family contains approximately 615 species of trees and shrubs in 12 genera. The largest genera are Elaeocarpus, with about 350 species, and Sloanea, with about 150.

The species of Elaeocarpaceae are mostly tropical and subtropical, with a few temperate-zone species. Most species are evergreen. They are found in Madagascar, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, West Indies, and South America.

The plants are hermaphrodite or dioecious and bear flowers clustered in inflorescences.

A phylogeny of the family, based on DNA sequences was published in 2006.Alkaloids Katavic 2005

Elaeocarpus angustifolius

Elaeocarpus angustifolius is a rainforest tree in the Elaeocarpaceae family, bearing bitter edible fruit. It is commonly known as blue marble tree, and also as blue fig or blue quandong, although it is not closely related to figs. The junior synonym Elaeocarpus grandis, from a later description of the species by Ferdinand von Mueller, is also frequently found. A large tree up to 50 metres tall, usually with elaborate buttressed roots.

It is found in the eastern Australian States Queensland and New South Wales and New Caledonia.

The fruit of this species is round and blue, between 20 and 30 mm across, and has a seed with deep convolutions in its shell.

These are eaten whole by cassowaries, woompoo pigeon and spectacled flying foxes, which pass the nut undamaged.The species is well regarded for its timber and as a key in regenerating rainforest. The seeds are used in Hinduism as prayer beads by the name Rudraksha.

Elaeocarpus bancroftii

Elaeocarpus bancroftii is a species of plant native to Queensland in Australia. Common names include Kuranda quandong, ebony heart, grey nut, nut tree, nutwood and Johnstone River almond.The species was first formally described by botanists Ferdinand von Mueller and Frederick Manson Bailey in 1886, based on plant material collected on the Johnstone River.The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia records that "The cotyledons or " kernels " have a good flavour, and are eaten by the settlers. Other species of Elaeocarpus have fruits which are more or less useful in this respect. Johnstone River, Queensland."

Eucryphia

Eucryphia is a small genus of trees and large shrubs native to the south temperate regions of South America and coastal eastern Australia. Sometimes placed in a family of their own, the Eucryphiaceae, more recent classifications place them in the Cunoniaceae. There are seven species, two in South America and five in Australia, and several named hybrids. They are mostly evergreen though one species (E. glutinosa) is usually deciduous.

The leaves are opposite, and either simple or pinnate with 3-13 leaflets. The flowers are produced in late summer or autumn, are showy and sweetly scented, 3–6 cm diameter, with four creamy-white petals, and numerous stamens and styles. The fruit is a woody capsule 1-1.5 cm long containing several seeds, and maturing in 12–15 months.

The nectar of two of the species provides important sources of honey. Eucryphia lucida from Tasmania is the main source of a very distinctively flavoured honey known as Leatherwood (the common name for the species). Some of this honey may come from the other Tasmanian species, E. milliganii. In Chile, Ulmo honey (again after the local species name) comes from E. cordifolia. Remarkably, Leatherwood Honey and Ulmo honey are very similar in flavour, even though the two species have probably been separated for more than 45 million years.

The generic name is derived from the Greek for "well hidden".

Huaceae

Huaceae is a family of plant in the rosids group, which has been classed in the orders Malpighiales, Malvales, and Violales or in its own order Huales. The APG II system placed it in the clade eurosids I, whereas the APG III system of 2009 and APG IV (2016) place it within the Oxalidales. The family is endemic to central Africa. It contains four species in the following two genera:

Afrostyrax

Hua

Oxalidaceae

The Oxalidaceae, or wood sorrel family, are a small family of five genera of herbaceous plants, shrubs and small trees, with the great majority of the 570 species in the genus Oxalis (wood sorrels). Members of this family typically have divided leaves, the leaflets showing "sleep movements", spreading open in light and closing in darkness.

The genus Averrhoa of which starfruit is a member, is usually included in this family (e.g. APG IV, 2016), but some botanists place it in a separate family Averrhoaceae.

Oxalis

Oxalis is a large genus of flowering plants in the wood-sorrel family Oxalidaceae comprising about 570 species. The genus occurs throughout most of the world, except for the polar areas; species diversity is particularly rich in tropical Brazil, Mexico and South Africa.

Many of the species are known as wood sorrels (sometimes written "woodsorrels" or "wood-sorrels") as they have an acidic taste reminiscent of the sorrel proper (Rumex acetosa), which is only distantly related. Some species are called yellow sorrels or pink sorrels after the color of their flowers instead. Other species are colloquially known as false shamrocks, and some called sourgrasses. For the genus as a whole, the term oxalises is also used.

Oxalis corniculata

Oxalis corniculata, the creeping woodsorrel, also called procumbent yellow sorrel or sleeping beauty, resembles the common yellow woodsorrel, Oxalis stricta. It is a somewhat delicate-appearing, low-growing, herbaceous plant in the family Oxalidaceae. It has a narrow, creeping stem that readily roots at the nodes. The trifoliate leaves are subdivided into three rounded leaflets and resemble a clover in shape. Some varieties have green leaves, while others, like Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea, have purple. The leaves have inconspicuous stipules at the base of each petiole.

The fruit is a narrow, cylindrical capsule, 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 in) long, and noteworthy for its explosive discharge of the contained seeds, 1 mm (0.04 in) long.

Rosales

Rosales is an order of flowering plants. It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales. It contains about 7700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank. The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families.The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. In their APG III system of plant classification, they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right. The relationships of these families were uncertain until 2011, when they were resolved in a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear genes and ten chloroplast genes.Well-known members of Rosales include: roses, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, apples and pears, plums, peaches and apricots, almonds, rowan and hawthorn, jujube, elms, banyans, figs, mulberries, breadfruit, nettles, hops, and cannabis.

Sloanea

Sloanea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Elaeocarpaceae, comprising about 150 species.Species include:

Sloanea acutiflora Uittien

Sloanea assamica Rehder & E. Wilson

Sloanea australis Benth. & F.Muell., an Australian rainforest tree

Sloanea berteroana Choisy ex DC.

Sloanea caribaea Krug & Urb. ex Duss

Sloanea gracilis Uittien

Sloanea lepida Tirel

Sloanea shankii Standl. & L.O.Williams

Sloanea suaveolens Tirel

Sloanea tomentosa Rehder & E. Wilson

Sloanea woollsii F.Muell., an Australian rainforest tree

Sloanea woollsii

Sloanea woollsii, commonly known as yellow carabeen, is a large tree species with plank buttresses that is native to northeastern NSW and eastern Queensland, Australia. Its southern distributional limit is near the town of Bulahdelah (32° S) at Tallowwood Forest Park and O'Sullivans Gap Reserve.

Sloanea woollsii is one of the commonest tree species in subtropical rainforests of Australia growing up to 55 metres tall. It is a typical long-lived (up to 800 years), slow growing and shade tolerant climax species.

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