An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal. Oxen are commonly castrated adult male cattle; castration makes the animals easier to control. Cows (adult females) or bulls (intact males) may also be used in some areas.
Oxen are used for plowing, for transport (pulling carts, hauling wagons and even riding), for threshing grain by trampling, and for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes. Oxen may be also used to skid logs in forests, particularly in low-impact, select-cut logging.
Oxen are usually yoked in pairs. Light work such as carting household items on good roads might require just one pair, while for heavier work, further pairs would be added as necessary. A team used for a heavy load over difficult ground might exceed nine or ten pairs.
Oxen are thought to have first been harnessed and put to work around 4000 BC.
Working oxen are taught to respond to the signals of the teamster, bullocky or ox-driver. These signals are given by verbal command and body language, reinforced by a goad, whip or a long pole (which also serves as a measure of length: see rod). In pre-industrial times, most teamsters were known for their loud voices and forthright language.
Verbal commands for draft animals vary widely throughout the world. In North America, the most common commands are:
In the New England tradition, young castrated cattle selected for draft are known as working steers and are painstakingly trained from a young age. Their teamster makes or buys as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes for each animal as it grows. The steers are normally considered fully trained at the age of four and only then become known as oxen.
A tradition in south eastern England was to use oxen (often Sussex cattle) as dual-purpose animals: for draft and beef. A plowing team of eight oxen normally consisted of four pairs aged a year apart. Each year, a pair of steers of about three years of age would be bought for the team and trained with the older animals. The pair would be kept for about four years, then sold at about seven years old to be fattened for beef – thus covering much of the cost of buying that year's new pair. Use of oxen for plowing survived in some areas of England (such as the South Downs) until the early twentieth century. Pairs of oxen were always hitched the same way round, and they were often given paired names. In southern England it was traditional to call the near-side (left) ox of a pair by a single-syllable name and the off-side (right) one by a longer one (for example: Lark and Linnet, Turk and Tiger).
Ox trainers favor larger animals for their ability to do more work. Oxen are therefore usually of larger breeds, and are usually males because they are generally larger. Females can also be trained as oxen, but as well as being smaller, are often more valued for producing calves and milk. Bulls are also used in many parts of the world, especially Asia and Africa.
Working oxen usually require shoes, although in England not all working oxen were shod. Since their hooves are cloven, two shoes are required for each hoof, as opposed to a single horseshoe. Ox shoes are usually of approximately half-moon or banana shape, either with or without caulkins, and are fitted in symmetrical pairs to the hooves. Unlike horses, oxen are not easily able to balance on three legs while a farrier shoes the fourth. In England, shoeing was accomplished by throwing the ox to the ground and lashing all four feet to a heavy wooden tripod until the shoeing was complete. A similar technique was used in Serbia and, in a simpler form, in India, where it is still practiced. In Italy, where oxen may be very large, shoeing is accomplished using a massive framework of beams in which the animal can be partly or completely lifted from the ground by slings passed under the body; the feet are then lashed to lateral beams or held with a rope while the shoes are fitted.
Such devices were made of wood in the past, but may today be of metal. Similar devices are found in France, Austria, Germany, Spain, Canada and the United States, where they may be called ox slings, ox presses or shoeing stalls. The system was sometimes adopted in England also, where the device was called a crush or trevis; one example is recorded in the Vale of Pewsey. The shoeing of an ox partly lifted in a sling is the subject of John Singer Sargent's painting Shoeing the Ox, while A Smith Shoeing an Ox by Karel Dujardin shows an ox being shod standing, tied to a post by the horns and balanced by supporting the raised hoof.
Oxen can pull heavier loads, and pull for a longer period of time than horses depending on weather conditions. On the other hand, they are also slower than horses, which has both advantages and disadvantages; their pulling style is steadier, but they cannot cover as much ground in a given period of time. For agricultural purposes, oxen are more suitable for heavy tasks such as breaking sod or plowing in wet, heavy, or clay-filled soil. When hauling freight, oxen can move very heavy loads in a slow and steady fashion. They are at a disadvantage compared to horses when it is necessary to pull a plow or load of freight relatively quickly.
For millennia, oxen also could pull heavier loads because of the use of the yoke, which was designed to work best with the neck and shoulder anatomy of cattle. Until the invention of the horse collar, which allowed the horse to engage the pushing power of its hindquarters in moving a load, horses could not pull with their full strength because the yoke was incompatible with their anatomy.
Well-trained oxen are also considered less excitable than horses.
The shoeing of the oxen
The Apollo asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after 1862 Apollo, discovered by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth in the 1930s. They are Earth-crossing asteroids that have an orbital semi-major axis greater than that of the Earth (> 1 AU) but perihelion distances less than the Earth's aphelion distance (q < 1.017 AU).As of December 2018 the number of known Apollo asteroids is 10,485, making the class the largest group of near-Earth objects (cf. the Aten, Amor and Atira asteroids), of which 1,409 are numbered (asteroids are not numbered until they have been observed at two or more oppositions), and 1,648 are identified as potentially hazardous asteroids.The closer their semi-major axis is to Earth's, the less eccentricity is needed for the orbits to cross. The February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor that exploded over the city of Chelyabinsk in the southern Urals region of Russia, injuring an estimated 1000 people with flying glass from broken windows, was an Apollo class asteroid.Chinese zodiac
The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle. The 12-year cycle is an approximation to the 11.85-year orbital period of Jupiter. Based in China, the zodiac and its variations remain popular in many Asian countries and regions, such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Thailand.Identifying this scheme using the generic term "zodiac" reflects several superficial similarities to the Western zodiac: both have time cycles divided into 12 parts, each labels at least the majority of those parts with names of animals, and each is widely associated with a culture of ascribing a person's personality or events in his or her life to the supposed influence of the person's particular relationship to the cycle.
Nevertheless, there are major differences between the two: the animals of the Chinese zodiac are not associated with constellations spanned by the ecliptic plane. The Chinese 12-part cycle corresponds to years, rather than months. The Chinese zodiac is represented by 12 animals, whereas some of the signs in the Western zodiac are not animals, despite the implication of the etymology of the word zodiac.Goad
The goad is a traditional farming implement, used to spur or guide livestock, usually oxen, which are pulling a plough or a cart; used also to round up cattle. It is a type of long stick with a pointed end, also known as the cattle prod.
The word is from Middle English gode, from Old English gād.
In Oedipus the King, the play by Sophocles, Laius, the biological father of Oedipus, tried to kill his son with a goad when they accidentally met at a juncture of three roads. They did not know at the time that they were father and son. Oedipus explains to Jocasta, his mother and wife, what took place: "When in my journey I was near those three roads, there met me a herald, and a man seated in a carriage drawn by colts, as thou hast described; and he who was in front, and the old man himself, were for thrusting me rudely from the path. Then, in anger, I struck him who pushed me aside. -- the driver; and the old man, seeing it, watched the moment when I was passing, and, from the carriage, brought his goad with two teeth down full upon my head. Yet was he paid with interest; by one swift blow from the staff in his hand he was rolled right out of the carriage, on his back; and I slew every man of them."Kouprey
The kouprey (Bos sauveli, from Khmer: គោព្រៃ, Khmer pronunciation: [koː prɨj], "forest ox"; also known as kouproh, "grey ox") is a little-known, forest-dwelling, wild bovine species from Southeast Asia. A young male was sent to the Vincennes Zoo in 1937 where it was described by the French zoologist Achille Urbain and was declared the holotype. The kouprey has a tall, narrow body, long legs, a humped back and long horns.
Kouprey form small herds led by a female, and graze on grasses, feeding in the forest during the day and in the open at night. They are affected by degradation of their habitat and are hunted for their meat, horns and skull.
There are thought to be few, if any, kouprey left in existence. The last confirmed sighting was in 1983. Since then, surveys have been done to try to locate the species but all have failed. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated the species as "critically endangered", but it may already be extinct.Leucanthemum vulgare
Leucanthemum vulgare, commonly known as the ox-eye daisy, oxeye daisy, dog daisy and other common names, is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia, and an introduced plant to North America, Australia and New Zealand.List of Dragon Ball characters
The Dragon Ball manga series features an ensemble cast of characters created by Akira Toriyama. The series takes place in a fictional universe, the same world as Toriyama's previous series Dr. Slump, and follows the adventures of Son Goku during his boyhood years as he trains in martial arts and explores a fantastical version of Earth (地球 Chikyū) in search of the seven orbs known as the Dragon Balls that are used to summon a wish-granting dragon. The tone of the series becomes more action oriented and less comedic when Goku reaches adulthood, as he and his allies would find themselves defending Earth against various threats, overcoming seemingly insurmountable opponents and eventually emerging victorious against progressively more powerful foes.
During the course of the story, Goku encounters allies such as Bulma, Master Roshi, and Trunks, rivals such as Tien Shinhan, Piccolo, and Vegeta, and villains such as Frieza, Cell and Majin Buu. Goku's group of associates, known as the Dragon Team (ドラゴンチーム, Doragon Chīmu)[ch. 165], bolster its ranks throughout the series with the addition of former enemies and new heroes. The group is also known in Japanese as the Z Fighters (Z戦士, Zetto Senshi) or TEAM "Z" in other media, and in the English dub of Dragon Ball Z as the Earth's Special Forces.While many of the characters are humans with superhuman strength and/or supernatural abilities, the cast also includes anthropomorphic animals, extraterrestrial lifeforms, and even deities who govern the world and the universe. The series also includes depictions of the afterlife and time travel as a means of creating historical divergences. Dragon Ball Super in particular expanded the setting of the series to include parallel universes; Universe 7, or the Seventh Universe in the English dub, is designated as the universe where the vast majority of the Dragon Ball series takes place.Muskox
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in Inuktitut: ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives. This musky odor is used to attract females during mating season. Its Inuktitut name "umingmak" translates to "the bearded one". Muskoxen primarily live in Greenland and the Canadian Arctic of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, with introduced populations in the American state of Alaska, the Canadian territory of Yukon, the Scandinavian Peninsula, and Siberia.OX postcode area
The OX postcode area, also known as the Oxford postcode area, is a group of 26 postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of 17 post towns. These postcode districts cover most of Oxfordshire, including Oxford, Banbury, Abingdon, Bicester, Witney, Didcot, Carterton, Kidlington, Thame, Wantage, Wallingford, Chipping Norton, Chinnor, Woodstock, Watlington, Bampton and Burford, plus very small parts of Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire.
The original OX6 district for Bicester was recoded to OX25, OX26 and OX27 in 2000, while the OX39 district for Chinnor and the OX49 district for Watlington were formed out of the OX9 district at the same time. In 2001, the original OX8 district for Witney was recoded to OX28 and OX29.Ox (comics)
Ox is the alias of fictional supervillains appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The Ox is originally one of the Enforcers, who usually works for the Kingpin, Mister Fear, or Hammerhead.Ox (zodiac)
The Ox (牛) is the second of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Ox is denoted by the Earthly Branch symbol 丑. The name is translated into English as Cow.In the Vietnamese zodiac, the water buffalo occupies the position of the Ox. In the Gurung zodiac, the Ox is replaced by the Cow.Oxbow lake
An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water. This landform is so named for its distinctive curved shape, which resembles the bow pin of an oxbow. In Australia, an oxbow lake is called a billabong, from the indigenous Wiradjuri language. In south Texas, oxbows left by the Rio Grande are called resacas.
The word "oxbow" can also refer to a U-shaped bend in a river or stream, whether or not it is cut off from the main stream.Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until 1958, serving in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II.
The regiment was formed as a consequence of the 1881 Childers Reforms, a continuation of the Cardwell Reforms, by the amalgamation of the 43rd (Monmouthshire) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry) and the 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry), forming the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry on 1 July 1881. In 1908, as part of the Haldane Reforms, the regiment's title was altered to become the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, commonly shortened to the Ox and Bucks and the 4th battalion and the 1st Buckinghamshire battalion were formed, both originally county volunteer units, and they became part of a new Territorial Force, later the Territorial Army (TA).
After service in many conflicts and wars, the Ox and Bucks Light Infantry was, in 1948, reduced to a single Regular Army battalion and on 7 November 1958, following Duncan Sandys' 1957 Defence White Paper, was renamed the 1st Green Jackets (43rd and 52nd), forming part of the Green Jackets Brigade.Oxidase test
The oxidase test is a test used in microbiology to determine if a bacterium produces certain cytochrome c oxidases. It uses disks impregnated with a reagent such as N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) or N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD), which is also a redox indicator. The reagent is a dark-blue to maroon color when oxidized, and colorless when reduced. Oxidase-positive bacteria possess cytochrome oxidase or indophenol oxidase (an iron-containing
hemoprotein). These both catalyze the transport of electrons from donor compounds (NADH) to
electron acceptors (usually oxygen).
The test reagent, TMPD dihydrochloride acts as an artificial electron donor for the enzyme oxidase. The oxidized reagent forms the colored compound indophenol blue.
The cytochrome system is usually only present in aerobic organisms that are capable of using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. The end-product of this metabolism is either water or hydrogen peroxide (broken down by catalase).Oxtail
Oxtail (occasionally spelled ox tail or ox-tail) is the culinary name for the tail of cattle. Formerly, it referred only to the tail of a steer. An oxtail typically weighs 7 to 8 lbs. (1–1.8 kg) and is skinned and cut into short lengths for sale.
Oxtail is a gelatin-rich meat, which is usually slow-cooked as a stew or braised. It is a traditional stock base for Oxtail soup. Traditional preparations involve slow cooking, so some modern recipes take a shortcut using a pressure cooker. Oxtail is the main ingredient of the Italian dish coda alla vaccinara (a classic of Roman cuisine). It is a popular flavour for powdered, instant and premade canned soups in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Oxtails are also one of the popular bases for Russian aspic appetizer dishes (холодец or студень), along with pig trotters or ears or cow "knees", but are the preferred ingredients among Russian Jews because they can be kosher.
Versions of oxtail soup are popular traditional dishes in South America, West Africa, China, Spain and Indonesia. In Chinese cuisine, it's usually made into a soup called 牛尾汤 (niúwěi tāng, "oxtail soup"). In Korean cuisine, a soup made with oxtail is called kkori gomtang (see gomguk). It is a thick soup seasoned with salt and eaten with a bowl of rice. It can be used as a stock for making tteokguk (rice cake soup). Stewed oxtail with butter bean or as main dish (with rice) is most popular in, Jamaica, and other West Indian cultures. Oxtail is also very popular in South Africa where it is often cooked in a traditional skillet called a potjie, which is a three-legged cast iron pot placed over an open fire. Oxtail is also eaten in other southern parts of Africa like Zimbabwe and served with sadza and greens. In the United States, oxtail is a mainstay in African-American and West Indian households. In Cuban cuisine, a stew can be made from oxtail called rabo encendido. In the Philippines, it is prepared in a peanut based stew called Kare-kare. In Iran, Oxtail is slow-cooked and served as a substitute for shank in a main dish called Baghla-Poli-Mahicheh which is prepared with rice, shank (or oxtail) and a mixture of herbs including dill, coriander, parsley and garlic.
In the United States, oxtail has the meat-cutting classification NAMP 1791.Paul Bunyan
Paul Bunyan is a giant lumberjack in American folklore. His exploits revolve around the tall tales of his superhuman labors, and he is customarily accompanied by Babe the Blue Ox. The character originated in the oral tradition of North American loggers, and was later popularized by freelance writer William B. Laughead (1882–1958) in a 1916 promotional pamphlet for the Red River Lumber Company. He has been the subject of various literary compositions, musical pieces, commercial works, and theatrical productions. His likeness is displayed in several oversized statues across North America.Sistema Ox Bel Ha
Sistema Ox Bel Ha (from Mayan meaning "Three Paths of Water"; short Ox Bel Ha) is a cave system in Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is the longest explored underwater cave in the world and ranks fourth including dry caves. As of May 2017 the surveyed length is 270.2 kilometers (167.9 mi) of underwater passages. There are more than 140 cenotes in the system.The Ox-Bow Incident
The Ox-Bow Incident is a 1943 American western film directed by William A. Wellman, starring Henry Fonda, Dana Andrews and Mary Beth Hughes, with Anthony Quinn, William Eythe, Harry Morgan and Jane Darwell. Two drifters are passing through a Western town, when news arrives that a local rancher has been murdered and his cattle stolen. The townspeople, joined by the drifters, form a posse to catch the perpetrators. They find three men in possession of the cattle, and are determined to see justice done on the spot.
The film premiered in May 1943 to positive reviews from critics. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 16th Academy Awards, losing to Casablanca.In 1998, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The film was adapted from the 1940 novel of the same name, written by Nevadan Walter Van Tilburg Clark.University of Oxford
The University of Oxford (legally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently jointly called Oxbridge. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.The university is made up of 39 constituent colleges, and a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. It does not have a main campus, and its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre. Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures, seminars, and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments; some postgraduate teaching includes tutorials organised by faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is quoted as among the best higher learning institutions by most international and major national league tables.Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world. As of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, and 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals. Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, which is one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes.Yoke
A yoke is a wooden beam normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. There are several types of yoke, used in different cultures, and for different types of oxen. A pair of oxen may be called a yoke of oxen, and yoke is also a verb, as in "to yoke a pair of oxen". Other animals that may be yoked include horses, mules, donkeys, and water buffalo.