Overseas department and region

The overseas departments and regions of France (French: département et régions d’outre-mer or DROM) are departments of France which are outside metropolitan France, the European part of France. They have nearly the same political status as metropolitan departments, although special constitutional provisions allow them greater autonomy and they are excluded from certain domestic statistics, such as the unemployment rate.

As integral parts of France and the European Union, overseas departments are represented in the National Assembly, Senate, and Economic and Social Council, vote to elect members of the European Parliament (MEP), and also use the euro as their currency. The overseas departments and regions are not the same as the overseas collectivities, which have a semi-autonomous status.

Each overseas department is the sole department in its own overseas region (French: région d'outre-mer) with powers identical to the regions of metropolitan France. Because of the one-to-one correspondence, informal usage does not distinguish the two, and the French media uses the term département d’outre-mer (DOM) almost exclusively.

Since March 2011, the five overseas departments and regions of France are:

Guadeloupe and Réunion each have separate departmental and regional councils, while in Mayotte, Guiana and Martinique, the two layers of government are consolidated so one body wields both sets of powers. The overseas departments acquired these additional powers in 1982, when France's decentralisation policy dictated that they be given elected regional councils and other regional powers, however the term "overseas region" was only introduced with the French constitutional amendment of 28 March 2003.

History

France's earliest, short-lived attempt at setting up overseas departments was after Napoleon's conquest of the Republic of Venice in 1797, when the hitherto Venetian Ionian islands fell to the French Directory and were organised as the departments of Mer-Égée, Ithaque and Corcyre. In 1798 the Russian Admiral Fyodor Ushakov evicted the French from these islands, and though France regained them in 1807, the three departments were not revived.

Under the 1947 Constitution of the Fourth Republic, the French colonies of Algeria[1] in North Africa, Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean, French Guiana in South America, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean were defined as overseas departments. Algeria became independent in 1962 while the others are still French departments.

Since 1982, following the French government's policy of decentralisation, overseas departments have elected regional councils with powers similar to those of the regions of metropolitan France. As a result of a constitutional revision that occurred in 2003, these regions are now to be called "overseas regions"; indeed the new wording of the Constitution gives no precedence to the terms overseas department or overseas region, though the latter is still virtually unused by the French media.

The overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon was an overseas department from 1976 to 1985. All five of France's overseas departments have between 200,000 and a million people each, whereas Saint Pierre and Miquelon has only about 6,000, and the smaller collectivity unit therefore seemed more appropriate for the islands.

Following a yes vote in a referendum held on 29 March 2009, the former overseas colectivity of Mayotte became an overseas department on 31 March 2011.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950720,000—    
1960949,000+31.8%
19701,194,000+25.8%
19801,286,000+7.7%
19901,566,000+21.8%
20001,865,000+19.1%
20102,148,000+15.2%
Source:[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Israel in Search of a War: The Sinai Campaign, 1955-1956, page 39, Moti Golani, Avi Shlaim, Sussex Academic Press 1998
  2. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision

External links

Abdourahamane Soilihi

Abdourahamane Soilihi (born October 4, 1959, in Mayotte) is a French politician who was elected to the French Senate on September 25, 2011, representing the department of Mayotte an overseas department and region of France.

Canton of Baie-Mahault-1

The canton of Baie-Mahault-1 is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Baie-Mahault.It consists of the following communes:

Baie-Mahault (partly)

Canton of Baie-Mahault-2

The canton of Baie-Mahault-2 is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Baie-Mahault.It consists of the following communes:

Baie-Mahault (partly)

Petit-Bourg (partly)

Canton of Basse-Terre

The canton of Basse-Terre is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Basse-Terre.It consists of the following communes:

Basse-Terre

Saint-Claude

Canton of Capesterre-Belle-Eau

The canton of Basse-Terre is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Capesterre-Belle-Eau.It consists of the following communes:

Capesterre-Belle-Eau

Canton of Le Gosier

The canton of Le Gosier is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Le Gosier.It consists of the following communes:

Le Gosier (partly)

Canton of Marie-Galante

The canton of Marie-Galante is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Grand-Bourg.It consists of the following communes:

Capesterre-de-Marie-Galante

Grand-Bourg

Saint-Louis

Canton of Morne-à-l'Eau

The canton of Morne-à-l'Eau is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Morne-à-l'Eau.It consists of the following communes:

Morne-à-l'Eau

Canton of Pointe-à-Pitre

The canton of Pointe-à-Pitre is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Pointe-à-Pitre.It consists of the following communes:

Pointe-à-Pitre

Canton of Saint-Benoît-2

The canton of Saint-Benoît-2 is an administrative division of Réunion, an overseas department and region of France. Its borders were modified at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Saint-Benoît.It consists of the following communes:

Saint-Benoît (partly)

Sainte-Rose

Saint-Philippe

Canton of Saint-Leu

The canton of Saint-Leu is an administrative division of Réunion, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Saint-Leu.It consists of the following communes:

Saint-Leu (partly)

Les Trois-Bassins

Canton of Sainte-Anne, Guadeloupe

The canton of Sainte-Anne is an administrative division of Guadeloupe, an overseas department and region of France. It was created at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Sainte-Anne.It consists of the following communes:

Sainte-Anne (partly)

Canton of Sainte-Marie

The canton of Sainte-Marie is an administrative division of Réunion, an overseas department and region of France. Its borders were not modified at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Sainte-Marie.It consists of the following communes:

Sainte-Marie

Cantons of Saint-Paul

The cantons of Saint-Paul are administrative divisions of Réunion, an overseas department and region of France. Since the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015, the city of Saint-Paul is subdivided into 3 cantons. Their seat is in Saint-Paul.

Departmental council of Mayotte

Mayotte elects on an insular level a deliberative assembly. The Departmental Council (Conseil Départemental) has 19 members, elected for a three-year term in single seat constituencies. Mayotte became an Overseas Department and Region in 2011, ending its previous unique transitional status of Departmental collectivity. Until March 2015 the assembly of a Department of France was known as the General Council (Conseil Général).

Martinique women's national football team

The Martinique women's national football team (French: Équipe de la Martinique de football) represents the French overseas department and region of Martinique in international football. The team is controlled by the Ligue de football de la Martinique (English: Martinique Football League), a local branch of French Football Federation (French: Fédération Française de Football).

As an overseas department of the French Republic, Martinique is not a member of FIFA and is therefore not eligible to enter the FIFA Women's World Cup or any competition organized first-hand by the organization. Martiniquais, being French citizens, are eligible to play for the France national football team. Martinique is, however, a member of CONCACAF and CFU and is eligible for all competitions organized by both organizations. Indeed, according to the status of the FFF (article 34, paragraph 6): "[...]Under the control of related continental confederations, and with the agreement of the FFF, those leagues can organize international sport events at a regional level or set up teams in order to participate to them." A special rule of the CONCACAF Gold Cup only allows players to join the team if they have not played for France during the past five years. On the other side, any player joining Martinique is allowed to join the France national team after-wards without any time limit.

Mayotte women's national football team

The Mayotte women's national football team represents the French overseas department and region of Mayotte in international football.

Mayotte is a member of neither FIFA nor CAF, so it is not eligible to enter the World Cup or the African Cup of Nations.

Réunion national football team

The Réunion national football team (French: Sélection de la Réunion de football) is the regional team of the French overseas department and region of Réunion and is controlled by the Réunionese Football League, local branch of the French Football Federation. Réunion is not a member of FIFA and is only an associate member of CAF, and is therefore not eligible to enter either the World Cup or the Africa Cup of Nations. However, it has played numerous matches, most of them against the island nations of Madagascar, Mauritius, and the Seychelles.

Terre-de-Bas

Terre-de-Bas is a commune in the French overseas department and region of Guadeloupe, in the Lesser Antilles. Terre-de-Bas is made up of Terre-de-Bas Island and several uninhabited islands and islets in the group of Les Saintes islands, to the southwest of Guadeloupe's mainland.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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