Overseas France

  1. ^ Excluding Adélie Land.

Overseas France (French: France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administered territories outside the European continent, mostly relics of the French colonial empire. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy, although all (except those with no permanent inhabitants) have representation in both France's National Assembly and Senate, which together make up the French Parliament. Their citizens have French nationality and vote for the president of France. They have the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament (French citizens living overseas currently vote in the Overseas constituency). Overseas France includes island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, French Guiana on the South American continent, and several periantarctic islands as well as a claim in Antarctica.

Almost all inhabited French administrative divisions outside Europe are classified as either overseas regions or overseas collectivities; these statuses are very different from one another from a legal and administrative standpoint. Overseas regions have exactly the same status as mainland France's regions. The French constitution provides that, in general, French laws and regulations (France's civil code, penal code, administrative law, social laws, tax laws, etc.) apply to French overseas regions the same as in mainland France, but can be adapted as needed to suit the region's particular needs. Hence, the local administrations of French overseas regions cannot themselves pass new laws, whereas the overseas collectivities are empowered to make their own laws, except in certain areas reserved to the French national government (such as defense, international relations, trade and currency, and judicial and administrative law). The overseas collectivities are governed by local elected assemblies and by the French Parliament and French government, with a cabinet member, the Minister of Overseas France, in charge of issues related to the overseas territories. (New Caledonia is neither an overseas region nor an overseas collectivity; it has a sui generis status, in keeping with the Nouméa Accord.)

Overseas France covers a land area of 119,396 km2 (46,099 sq mi)[a] and accounts for 18.0% of the French Republic's land territory.[1] It has an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 9,825,538 km2 (3,793,661 sq mi) and accounts for 96.7% of the EEZ of the French Republic[2] (excluding the district of Adélie Land, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, where the French sovereignty is effective de jure by French law, but where the French exclusive claim on this part of Antarctica is frozen by a mandatory international cooperation since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959).

Overseas France
Flag of
Territory of the French Republic (red) Overseas territories (circled) Claimed territory (Adélie Land; hatched)
Territory of the French Republic (red)
Overseas territories (circled)
Claimed territory (Adélie Land; hatched)
Location of
Largest settlementsNouméa (New Caledonia), Papeete (French Polynesia)
LanguagesFrench, Antillean Creole, Guianan Creole, Reunionese Creole, Shimaore, Tahitian, Marquesan, 'Uvean, Futunan, Drehu, Nengone, Paicî, Ajië, Javanese, and 35 other native languages of New Caledonia
Demonym(s)French
Territories
Leaders
• President
Emmanuel Macron
• Minister
Annick Girardin
Area
• Total
119,396[a] km2 (46,099 sq mi)
Population
• Estimate
2,790,000 (Jan. 2018)
CurrencyEuro
CFP Franc
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
  1. ^ Excluding Adélie Land.

Varying constitutional statuses

Overseas regions and departments

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1953 909,000—    
1963 1,194,000+31.4%
1973 1,475,000+23.5%
1983 1,656,000+12.3%
1993 2,028,000+22.5%
2003 2,414,000+19.0%
2013 2,691,000+11.5%
2018 2,790,000+3.7%
The population of all five overseas departments totaled 2,169,000 [11] in January 2018. The population of the overseas collectivities amounted to 621,000 inhabitants (Saint-Pierre and Miquelon [12], Saint-Barthélemy [13], Saint-Martin [14], French Polynesia [15], Wallis et Futuna [16], New Caledonia [17]). The total population of the overseas departments and territories of France is estimated at 2,790,000.

Overseas collectivities

The category of "overseas collectivity" (French: collectivité d'outre-mer or COM) was created by France's constitutional reform of March 28, 2003. Each overseas collectivity has its own statutory laws.

  • French Polynesia (1946–2003: overseas territory, since 2003: overseas collectivity) In 2004 it was given the designation of "overseas country" (French: pays d'outre-mer), but the Constitutional Council of France has clarified that this designation did not create a new political category.
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon (1976–85: overseas department, 1985–2003: sui generis overseas territory, since 2003: overseas collectivity). Despite being given the political status of "overseas collectivity," Saint Pierre et Miquelon is called collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, literally "territorial collectivity."
  • Wallis and Futuna (1961–2003: overseas territory, since 2003: overseas collectivity). It is still commonly referred to as a territoire (Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna).
  • Saint Martin: In 2003, the populations of St. Martin and St. Barthélemy voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to become separate overseas collectivities of France.[3] On February 7, 2007, the French Parliament passed a bill granting COM status to both jurisdictions.[4] The new status took effect on February 22, 2007 when the law was published in the Journal Officiel.[5] St. Martin remains part of the European Union, as stated in the Treaty of Lisbon.[6]
  • Saint Barthélemy (see the comments immediately above).

Overseas territories

Special status

  • New Caledonia was classified as an overseas territory beginning in 1946, but as a result of the 1998 Nouméa Accord, it gained a special status (statut particulier or statut original) in 1999. A New Caledonian citizenship was established (in addition to the French citizenship which is kept in parallel, along with the consequent European citizenship), and a gradual transfer of power from the French state to New Caledonia itself was begun, to last from 15 to 20 years.[7]
  • Clipperton Island (French: Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion, Spanish: Isla de la Pasión) is a 9 km2 (3.5 sq mi) coral atoll located 1,280 km (800 miles) south-west of Acapulco, Mexico, in the Pacific Ocean. It is held as state private property under the direct authority of the French government, and is administered by France's Overseas Minister.

Political representation in the French Parliament

With 2,790,000 inhabitants in 2018, Overseas France accounts for 4.1% of the population of the French Republic.[8] They enjoy a corresponding representation in the two chambers of the French Parliament.

Representation in the National Assembly

In the 14th Legislature (2017–2022), Overseas France is represented by 27 députés (M.P.s) in the French National Assembly, accounting for 4.7% of the 577 députés in the National Assembly:

Representation in the Senate

Since September 2011, Overseas France is represented by 21 senators in the French Senate, accounting for 6.0% of the 348 senators in the Senate:

Overview

Inhabited departments and collectivities

The 11 French overseas territories are:

Flag[note 1] Name Capital Population Land area
(km2)
Population density
(inh. per km2)
Status Location Notes
Flag of French Guiana French Guiana Cayenne 281,612
(Jan. 2018)[9]
83,534[10] 3 Overseas department / region South America
French Polynesia French Polynesia Papeete 275,918
(Aug. 2017)[11]
3,521[12] 78 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
Unofficial flag of Guadeloupe (local) Guadeloupe Basse-Terre 390,704
(Jan. 2018)[9]
1,628[10] 240 Overseas department / region Antilles
Snake Flag of Martinique Martinique Fort-de-France 371,246
(Jan. 2018)[9]
1,128[10] 329 Overseas department / region Antilles
Flag of Mayotte (local) Mayotte Mamoudzou 259,154
(Jan. 2018)[9]
374[12] 693 Overseas department / region Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Voted on March 29, 2009 in favour of attaining overseas department / region status. That status became effective on March 31, 2011.
Also claimed by Comoros
Flags of New Caledonia New Caledonia Nouméa 278,500
(Jan. 2017)[13]
18,575.5[14] 15 Sui generis collectivity South Pacific Ocean Referendum for independence occurred on November 4, 2018 with 56.4% voting against and 43.6% voting in favor of independence from France.
Proposed flag of Réunion (VAR) Réunion Saint-Denis 865,826
(Jan. 2018)[9]
2,504[10] 346 Overseas department / region Africa
(Indian Ocean)
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local) Saint Barthélemy Gustavia 9,625
(Jan. 2015)[15]
25[16] 385 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.
Flag of Saint Martin Saint Martin Marigot 35,684
(Jan. 2015)[15]
53[17] 673 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre 6,021
(Jan. 2015)[15]
242[12] 25 Overseas collectivity Southeast of Canada
Flag of Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu 12,197
(Jul. 2013)[18]
142[12] 86 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
  1. ^ Article 2 of the French Constitution states that the French flag is the only legal flag of France. Only French Polynesia, a collectivity, and New Caledonia, a special collectivity are allowed official flags. This right was granted to French Polynesia by a 6 September 1984, law and to New Caledonia by the Nouméa Accord. The Administrator of French Antarctica is also granted his own flag through a 23 February 2007 ordinance. Historical flags are sometimes used but have no basis in law. Many territories use unofficial flags to represent the territories. The unofficial flags are shown in this table.

Uninhabited overseas territories

(Lands generally uninhabited, except by researchers in scientific stations)

Flag Name District Scattered islands Capital Land area (km2) Status Location Notes
France Clipperton 2[19] French state private property Oceania (West of Mexico)
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands Crozet Islands 340[20] TAAF district South Indian Ocean
Kerguelen Islands 7,215[20] TAAF district South Indian Ocean population: 45 researchers in winter, 110 in summer
Saint-Paul Island and
Amsterdam Island
66[20] TAAF district Indian Ocean
Adélie Land 432,000[20] TAAF district Antarctica Under terms of Antarctic Treaty System
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean Banc du Geyser 0 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar and Comoros
Bassas da India 1[20] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Europa 30[20] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Glorioso Islands 7[20] Indian Ocean Claimed by Comoros and Madagascar
Juan de Nova 5[20] Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
Tromelin Island 1[20] Indian Ocean Claimed by Mauritius

Map

Outre-mer en

Largest cities in overseas France

Ranked by population in the urban area:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding Adélie Land.

References

  1. ^ Land area of the four old overseas departments ([1]), Mayotte, the overseas collectivities, and New Caledonia (page 21), the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and the Scattered Islands ([2]), and Clipperton ([3]).
  2. ^ "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  3. ^ "French Caribbean voters reject change". Caribbean Net News. December 9, 2003. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2007. However, voters in the two tiny French dependencies of Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, which have been administratively attached to Guadeloupe, approved the referendum and are set to acquire the new status of "overseas collectivity".
  4. ^ Magras, Bruno (February 16, 2007). "Letter of Information from the Mayor to the residents and non-residents, to the French and to the foreigners, of Saint Barthelemy" (PDF). St. Barth Weekly. p. 2. Retrieved February 18, 2007. On February 7 of this year, the French Parliament adopted the law granting Saint-Barthélemy the Statute of an Overseas Collectivity.
  5. ^ "Saint-Barth To Become An Overseas Collectivity" (PDF). St. Barth Weekly. February 9, 2007. p. 2. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  6. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon, Article 2, points 287 and 293". Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^ "Nouvelle-Calédonie", Le Petit Larousse (2010), Paris, page 1559.
  8. ^ The population of all five overseas departments totaled 2,169,000 [4] in January 2018. The population of the overseas collectivities amounted to 621,000 inhabitants (Saint-Pierre and Miquelon [5], Saint-Barthélemy [6], Saint-Martin [7], French Polynesia [8], Wallis et Futuna [9], New Caledonia [10]). The total population of the overseas departments and territories of France is estimated at 2,790,000.
  9. ^ a b c d e INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2018" (in French). Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d INSEE. "Base chiffres clés : évolution et structure de la population 2010" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  11. ^ "La population légale au 17 août 2017 : 275 918 habitants". ISPF. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d INSEE. "Tableau Économique de Mayotte 2010" (PDF) (in French). p. 21. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  13. ^ ISEE. "Bilan démographique 2016" (in French). Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  14. ^ ISEE. "Tableaux de l'Economie Calédonienne : Population, superficie et densité par commune et province en 2009" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  15. ^ a b c INSEE, Government of France. "Populations légales 2015 des départements et collectivités d'outre-mer" (in French). Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  16. ^ INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Barthélemy" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  17. ^ INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Martin" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  18. ^ STSEE. "Populations légales au recensement de la population 2013 de Wallis et Futuna" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  19. ^ Ministry of Overseas France. "L'île de Clipperton" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Délégation générale à l'outre-mer. "Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises : Données géographiques et humaines" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.

Further reading

  • Robert Aldrich and John Connell, France's Overseas Frontier, Cambridge University Press, 1992
  • Frédéric Monera, L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel - Paris: L.G.D.J., 2004 [18] [19];

External links

Coupe de Guadeloupe

The Coupe de Guadeloupe is the top knockout tournament of the Guadeloupe football.

Coupe de Guyane

The Coupe de Guyane is the top knockout tournament of the French Guiana football.

Coupe de Mayotte

Coupe de Mayotte is the top division of the Ligue de Football de Mayotte and was created in 1977.

Coupe de l'Outre-Mer

La Coupe de l'Outre-Mer de football (English: The Overseas Football Cup) was a biennial football competition that was created in 2008. It was designed to have the national football teams of the overseas departments and territories of France play against each other. This competition replaces the Coupe des Clubs Champions de l'Outre-Mer that involved clubs from the territories. The first edition took place between 24 September and 4 October 2008 in Île-de-France.

Although scheduled for a 2014 edition, the competition was dissolved in late 2013 after the Fédération Française de Football decided it was too expensive.

Coupe de la Martinique

The Coupe de la Martinique is the top knockout tournament of Martinique football. It was created in 1953.

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (French: Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (French: Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France. It consists of:

Kerguelen Islands (Archipel des Kerguelen), a group of volcanic islands in the southern Indian Ocean, southeast of Africa, approximately equidistant between Africa, Antarctica and Australia;

St. Paul and Amsterdam islands (Îles Saint Paul et Amsterdam), a group to the north of Kerguelen;

Crozet Islands (Îles Crozet), a group in the southern Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar;

Adélie Land (Terre Adélie), the French claim on the continent of Antarctica;

the Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses), a dispersed group of islands around the coast of Madagascar.The territory is sometimes referred to as the French Southern Lands (French: Terres australes françaises) or French Southern Territories, usually to emphasize non-recognition of French sovereignty over Adélie Land as part of the Antarctic Treaty system.

Approximately 150 (in the winter) to 310 (in the summer) persons live in the French Southern and Antarctic Lands but they are only military personnels, officials, scientific researchers and support staff. The territory has legally no permanent civilian population.On July 5, 2019, the French Austral Lands and Seas were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Ligue de Football de Saint Pierre et Miquelon

In Saint-Pierre and Miquelon there are three amateur clubs, playing only one level.

Ligue des Antilles

Ligue des Antilles (or Antillean League) is a football cup tournament contested by teams from Guadeloupe and Martinique.

List of Ministers of Overseas France

The following is a list of Ministers of the Overseas in France.

The position is currently held by Annick Girardin.

Mayotte Division Honneur

Mayotte Division Honneur is the top division of the Ligue de Football de Mayotte, it was created in 1992.

Metropolitan France

Metropolitan France (French: France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe. It comprises mainland France and Corsica, as well as other islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel (French: la Manche) and the Mediterranean Sea.

Overseas France (la France d'outre-mer, l'Outre-mer or colloquially les DOM-TOM) is the collective name for the part of France outside Europe: French overseas regions (départements et régions d'outre-mer or DROM), territories (territoires d'outre-mer or TOM), collectivities (collectivités d'outre-mer or COM) and the sui generis collectivity (collectivité sui generis) of New Caledonia. Metropolitan and Overseas France together form the French Republic. Metropolitan France accounts for 82.0% of the land territory, 3.3% of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and 95.9% of the French Republic's population.

The five overseas regions (departments)— French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Réunion, and Mayotte—have the same political status as metropolitan France's regions. Metropolitan France and these five overseas regions together are sometimes called la France entière ("the whole of France") by the French administration. But this France entière does not include the French overseas collectivities and territories that have more autonomy than do the overseas departments. In Overseas France, a person from metropolitan France is often called a métro, short for métropolitain.

New Caledonia Super Ligue

New Caledonia Super Ligue is the top division of the Fédération Calédonienne de Football in New Caledonia. It is played as a double round robin between the top-4 clubs from the Division Honneur of Grande Terre and the champions of the Îles.

Overseas territory (France)

The term overseas territory (French: Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.

The division differs from that of overseas departments (French: Département d'outre-mer or DOM), but because of some common peculiarities, DOMs, TOMs and other overseas possessions under other statuses are often referred to collectively as les DOM/TOM. Unlike the British Overseas Territories, which are not constitutionally part of the United Kingdom or its national territory, they are integral parts of the French Republic.

Prostitution in Overseas France

Prostitution in Overseas France varies from area to area with regard to extent, law enforcement and legality.

Overseas France (French: France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administered territories outside the European continent. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy. Almost all inhabited French administrative divisions outside Europe are classified as either overseas regions or overseas collectivites. There is also one Overseas territory and two territories with Special status.

Saint Barthélemy national football team

The Saint Barthélemy national football team is the official football team for Saint Barthélemy.

Tahiti Ligue 1

The Tahitian Ligue 1 is the top division of the Fédération Tahitienne de Football in French Polynesia. The league is currently named Ligue 1 Vini for sponsorship reasons.

Tahiti women's national football team

The Tahiti women's national football team represents French Polynesia in international women's football. The team is controlled by the Fédération Tahitienne de Football.

Tahitian Football Federation

The Tahitian Football Federation (French: Fédération Tahitienne de Football) is the governing body of football in French Polynesia.

Territorial Council of Saint Barthélemy

The Territorial Council of Saint Barthélemy (Conseil territorial de Saint-Barthélemy) is the consultative assembly for Saint Barthélemy. The legislature comprises 19 territorial councillors.

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