Overijssel

Overijssel (/ˌoʊvərˈaɪsəl/ OH-vər-EYE-səl, Dutch: [ˌoːvərˈɛisəl] (listen); Low German: Oaveriessel [ˌɒːvərˈiːsəl]; German: Oberyssel) is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528. The capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,142,360 in 2015.[2]

Overijssel
Coat of arms of Overijssel

Coat of arms
Anthem: "Aan de rand van Hollands gouwen"
"On the edge of Holland's district"
Location of Overijssel in the Netherlands
Location of Overijssel in the Netherlands
CountryNetherlands
CapitalZwolle
Largest cityEnschede
Government
 • King's CommissionerAndries Heidema (CU)
Area
 • Total3,327 km2 (1,285 sq mi)
 • Water94 km2 (36 sq mi)
Area rank4th
Population
 (2015)
 • Total1,142,360
 • Rank7th
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
 • Density rank7th
ISO 3166 codeNL-OV
Religion (2006)Protestant 29%
Catholic 26%
Muslim 2%
Others 6%
Non-religious 37%
HDI (2017)0.917[1]
very high · 7th
Websitewww.overijssel.nl

Geography

2012-P04-OV-basis
Topographic map of Overijssel, 2012

Overijssel is bordered by Germany (Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia) to the east, the Achterhoek region of Gelderland to the south, the Veluwe region of Gelderland and Flevoland to the west, and Friesland and the former moors of Drenthe to the north. Overijssel comprises three regions: Kop van Overijssel in the northwest, Salland in the centre of the province, and Twente in the east. Besides the capital Zwolle, other major cities are Almelo, Deventer, Enschede, and Hengelo.

To the southeast, the province's surface is mostly sandy, interspersed with small rivers such as the Regge and Dinkel and other brooks. In the northwest, the geology is dominated by sediments from the Overijsselse Vecht and clay. The northern parts were once covered by veen (bogs) which separated the dryer and more arable south from Drenthe and which have been exploited as fuel to a large degree. Only small patches survive today (Engbertsdijksvenen near Tubbergen, Witteveen (near Haaksbergen), and the Aamsveen (near Enschede). The extreme northwest is dominated by a system of lakes formed by former peat-mining and protected under the De Weerribben-Wieden National Park status, which is a valuable wetland.

The highest point in Overijssel is the summit of the Tankenberg, a hill in the municipality of Losser, at 85 metres (278 ft). The lowest point is in the Mastenbroek Polder near Kampen at 2 metres (6 ft) below sea level.

Climate

Overijssel enjoys an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen classification). However, winters tend to be more severe than the rest of the Netherlands, because of its distance from the coast.[3]

History

Low Countries Locator Prince-Bischopric Utrecht
Map of the Archbishopric of Utrecht around 1350, when present-day Overijssel was part of the region Oversticht

Oversticht

Overijssel was formerly known as Oversticht and also included most of the modern-day province of Drenthe. In 1336, it was made part of Guelders, though it was ceded to the Bishopric of Utrecht in 1347. The Bishops ceded the Oversticht to the Emperor Charles V in 1528, who styled himself Lord of Overijssel, after the Latin name of Oversticht that was known since 1233: Transysla or Transisalania, or Over-IJssel, i.e. the other side of the river IJssel. The people joined with the other Dutch and rebelled against Charles' heir Philip II. Overijssel became governed by the most powerful mayors and lords in the province, including by the luitenant-governor Nicolaas Schmelzing (1561-1629).

After a brief occupation by the forces of the Bishop of Münster (1672–74), Overijssel received a new form of government which granted the stadtholders more power. Widespread resistance against the increased power throughout the provinces eventually led to the formation of the Batavian Republic in 1795. A centralist government arose and the Netherlands was organised into a series of départements, based on those used by revolutionary France.

Overijssel

At first organised into its own département, it was merged with Drenthe in 1798 to form Ouden IJssel, which was renamed Overijssel in 1801.

The French annexed the Batavian Republic in 1810, and Overijssel was organised into the new French département of Bouches-de-l'Yssel. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the kingdom of the Netherlands and the former province of Overijssel were recreated.

Overijssel was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from May 1940 until its liberation in April 1945. The Noordoostpolder, a reclaimed territory which had been laid dry in 1942, was part of Overijssel from 1962 until 1986, when it became part of the newly created province of Flevoland.

Politics

Overijssel verkiezingen
Diagram of the 2007 election results for the States-Provincial in Overijssel

The King's Commissioner of Overijssel is currently a vacant position as previous title holder Ank Bijleveld (CDA) was appointed to be Minister of defence on 26 October 2017. The King's Commissioner is the chairman of the Provincial-Executive (executive branch) and the States-Provincial (elected legislature) of the province.

2015 election results
Political party Votes in % Seats
Christian Democratic Appeal 22.44 11
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 12.43 6
Socialist Party 10.70 5
Labour Party 10.59 5
Democrats 66 10.47 5
Party for Freedom 9.43 5
Christian Union 8.37 4
Reformed Political Party 4.31 2
GroenLinks 4.30 2
50PLUS 2.91 1
Party for the Animals 2.24 1
Other parties 0.66 0
Total 47

Transport

There are three main motorways in Overijssel, the A1, A28, and the A35. The A32 also runs through the province, but just for a few kilometers near Steenwijk.[5]

The main railway station in Overijssel is the Zwolle railway station, located in the city of Zwolle which serves as hub between the northern provinces and the rest of The Netherlands.

The main airport in Overijssel is the Enschede Airport Twente, located outside of Enschede. The airport does not currently offer any international flights, though it has historically.[6]

Municipalities

Kaart Overijssel genummerd
The municipalities of Overijssel

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ The region has a NUTS classification of NL21.
  3. ^ http://www.whatstheweatherlike.org/netherlands/overijssel.htm
  4. ^ "Twenthe, long-term averages, time period 1981-2010 (in Dutch)" (PDF). Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  5. ^ http://hitchwiki.org/en/Category:Overijssel
  6. ^ http://ourairports.com/countries/NL/OV/airports.html?sort=popular

External links

Almelo

Almelo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɑlməloː] (listen)) is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. The main population centres in the town are Aadorp, Almelo, Mariaparochie, and Bornerbroek.

Almelo has about 72,000 inhabitants in the middle of the rolling countryside of Twente, with the industrial centres of Enschede and Hengelo as close neighbours but also with tourist towns like Ootmarsum, Delden and Markelo only a bicycle ride away. Almelo received city rights in 1394. Within the city limits lies the castle of the Counts of Almelo.

Located in the city centre is Huize Almelo, a castle that in its current form dates back to 1662 (This castle is not open to the public). There are mosaics which decorate the walls of the tunnel close to the railway station.

The city is also known for its local association football club Heracles Almelo, which plays in the Eredivisie, the highest football league in the Netherlands. The club uses the Polman Stadion.

Ank Bijleveld

Anna Theodora Bernardina "Ank" Bijleveld-Schouten (born 17 March 1962) is a Dutch politician serving as Minister of Defence in the Third Rutte cabinet since 26 October 2017. She is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).A civil servant by occupation, she served as a member of the House of Representatives from 16 November 1989 until 16 January 2001, when she was appointed Mayor of Hof van Twente, serving from 1 January 2001 until 22 February 2007. She resigned after she was appointed as State Secretary for the Interior and Kingdom Relations in the Fourth Balkenende cabinet, serving from 22 February 2007 until 14 October 2010. After the election of 2010, Bijleveld returned to the House of Representatives serving from 17 June 2010 until 1 January 2011 when she resigned after she was appointed as King's Commissioner of Overijssel. Following the election of 2017 Bijleveld was asked to become Minister of Defence in the Third Rutte cabinet. Bijleveld accepted and resigned as King's Commissioner of Overijssel the same day she took office as the new Minister of Defence on 26 October 2017.

Dalfsen

Dalfsen (pronunciation , Dutch Low Saxon: Dalsen) is a municipality and a town in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. The municipality of Dalfsen was increased to its current size on 1 January 2001 through the amalgamation of the municipalities of Nieuwleusen and Dalfsen.

Deventer

Deventer (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdeːvəntər] (listen); Sallaans: Daeventer) is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. In 2017, Deventer had a population of 99,577. The city is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but also has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen (with a population of about 5,000 people) was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country.

Eddy van Hijum

Yde Johan (Eddy) van Hijum (born April 17, 1972 in Delft) is a Dutch politician. As a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal (Christen-Democratisch Appèl) he was an MP from September 2, 2003 till November 11, 2014. He focused on matters of social security, income policy, dismissal law, labor participation policy and day care. Since November 12, 2014 he has been a member of the Gedeputeerde Staten of the province of Overijssel. He holds the portfolio of Economy, Energy and Innovation. In the House of Representatives he was replaced by Martijn van Helvert. He served in the States of Overijssel from 26 March 2015 to 20 May 2015.He served in the municipal council of Zwolle between 1998 and 2003. He was invested as a Knight of the Order of Orange-Nassau on his exit from the House.

Enschede

Enschede (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛnsxəˌdeː] (listen), West Frisian: Ynskedee), also known as Eanske [ˈɛːnskə] in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region. The municipality of Enschede consisted of the city of Enschede until 1935, when the rural municipality of Lonneker, which surrounded the city, was annexed after the rapid industrial expansion of Enschede which began in the 1860s and involved the building of railways and the digging of the Twentekanaal.

Haaksbergen

Haaksbergen (pronunciation ) is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel, in the Twente region.

The Buurserbeek flows through the municipality of Haaksbergen.

Hardenberg

Hardenberg (pronunciation ) (Dutch Low Saxon: Haddenbarreg or 'n Arnbarg) is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel. The city of Hardenberg has a population of about 19,000. It received city rights in 1362 from Jan van Arkel, Bishop of Utrecht. The famous Pieterpad passes through Hardenberg.

Hellendoorn

Hellendoorn (pronunciation ) is a municipality and a town in the middle of the Dutch province of Overijssel.

There is an amusement park near the town of Hellendoorn called Avonturenpark Hellendoorn.

Hengelo

Hengelo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦɛŋəloː] (listen)) is a city in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel. The city lies along the motorways A1/E30 and A35 and it has a station for the international Amsterdam – Hannover – Berlin service.

Kampen, Overijssel

Kampen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkɑmpə(n)] (listen)) is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. A member of the former Hanseatic League, it is located at the lower reaches of the river IJssel.

The municipality of Kampen had a population of 53,063 in 2017 and covers an area of 161.79 square kilometres (62.47 square miles). Kampen is located in the North West of Overijssel and is the largest city in this region. The city of Kampen itself has around 35,000 inhabitants.

Kampen has one of the best preserved old town centres of the Netherlands, including remains of the ancient city wall (of which three gates are still standing) and numerous churches. Also notable are the three bridges over the IJssel which connect Kampen with IJsselmuiden and Kampereiland, the agricultural area between the branches which form the IJssel delta, and a windmill (d' Olde Zwarver – the Old Vagabond).

Traditionally people in Kampen speak a variation of the Sallands dialect, known as Kampers.

List of windmills in Overijssel

A list of windmills in the Dutch province of Overijssel.

Oldenzaal

Oldenzaal (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɔldə(n)zaːl] (listen)) is a municipality and a city in the eastern province of Overijssel in the Netherlands. It is part of the region of Twente and is close to the German border.

It received city rights in 1249. Historically, the city was part of the Hanseatic League as a subsidiary city of the fellow Hanseatic city of Deventer.

Located on the A1 motorway from Amsterdam to Germany, Oldenzaal also has a rail connection to Hengelo.

At the 1st of January 2019 there lived 31.885 people.

Polman Stadion

The Polman Stadion is a multi-use stadium in Almelo, Netherlands. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity of 13,500 spectators and was built in 1999. It is the official stadium of Eredivisie side Heracles Almelo. Its pitch is made from artificial turf.

The stadium was opened on 10 September 1999 followed by the opening match against FC Zwolle. Heracles player Job ten Thije scored the first goal in the Polman Stadium. In 2005 the capacity of the stadium was expanded from 6,900 to 8,500 seats of which 400 are available for the supporters of the visiting team. In 2015 the capacity was expanded to 12,080 seats.

Siege of Deventer (1591)

The Siege of Deventer was a siege of the city of Deventer from 1 to 10 June 1591 during the Eighty Years' War by Dutch and English troops under Maurice of Nassau in an attempt to retake it from its Spanish garrison, commanded by Herman van den Bergh on behalf of the Spanish.

Steenwijk

Steenwijk is a city in the Dutch province of Overijssel. It is located in the municipality of Steenwijkerland. It is the largest town of the municipality.

Steenwijk received city rights in 1327. In the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) it was conquered by the Spaniards in 1581, but regained by the Dutch in 1592.

Steenwijk was a separate municipality until 2001, when it merged with Brederwiede and IJsselham. The new municipality was first named "Steenwijk", but was renamed in 2003 to "Steenwijkerland".

Stellingwarfs dialect

Stellingwarfs (Dutch: Stellingwerfs) is the form of Dutch Low Saxon spoken in Ooststellingwerf and Weststellingwerf in the Dutch province of Friesland, and also in Steenwijkerland and Westerveld in the Dutch province of Overijssel and Drenthe.

Stellingwarfs is easily intelligible for many Dutch people. There is modern literature in Stellingwarfs.

Like Het Bildt and Leeuwarden, Weststellingwerf and Ooststellingwerf are among the municipalities of Friesland where West Frisian is not spoken.

The language was identified by the government of the Netherlands in 1996 within Low Saxon.

Tjaskers in Overijssel

A Tjasker is a type of small drainage windmill used in the Netherlands and north Germany. There are seven tjaskers remaining in Overijssel, all located in the marshy region in the northwest corner of the province.

Zwolle

Zwolle (Dutch: [ˈzʋɔlə] (listen)) is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital. With a population of 125,806, it is the second-largest municipality of the province after Enschede.

Climate data for Twenthe (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
5.7
(42.3)
9.5
(49.1)
13.9
(57.0)
18.0
(64.4)
20.5
(68.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.5
(72.5)
18.7
(65.7)
14.1
(57.4)
8.9
(48.0)
5.2
(41.4)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.6
(42.1)
8.9
(48.0)
12.9
(55.2)
15.4
(59.7)
17.6
(63.7)
17.1
(62.8)
14.0
(57.2)
10.2
(50.4)
6.0
(42.8)
2.9
(37.2)
9.6
(49.3)
Average low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.5
(34.7)
3.4
(38.1)
7.1
(44.8)
9.6
(49.3)
12.0
(53.6)
11.5
(52.7)
9.2
(48.6)
6.2
(43.2)
3.0
(37.4)
0.3
(32.5)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.5
(2.81)
51.6
(2.03)
65.1
(2.56)
45.2
(1.78)
62.4
(2.46)
67.7
(2.67)
74.5
(2.93)
71.0
(2.80)
65.4
(2.57)
67.5
(2.66)
68.9
(2.71)
74.1
(2.92)
784.9
(30.90)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.8 82.6 114.0 169.9 202.1 184.6 202.4 184.4 137.4 112.3 58.9 46.0 1,547.3
Source: KNMI [4]
Municipalities of Overijssel
Holy Roman Empire Burgundian Circle (1512–1797) of the Holy Roman Empire
County
Imperial City
Dependent territories

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