Overall length

The overall length (OAL) of an ammunition cartridge is a measurement from the base of the brass shell casing to the tip of the bullet, seated into the brass casing.[1]

Handloaded cartridges and commercially available cartridges for firearms are normally created with a maximum length standardized by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). A cartridge's overall length may be shorter than the maximum standard, equal to the standard, or sometimes even longer.

The maximum overall length is dictated by the need to fit into a box magazine of standard manufacture. For example, the .223 Remington cartridge, when loaded for use in the AR-15 rifle (or the military's M16 rifle), has to fit into the removable box magazine for that rifle. This dictates that the cartridge's maximum overall length be no greater than 2.260". However, for competition purposes during off-hand and slow fire prone match stages, the .223 Remington is loaded one cartridge at a time into the rifle's receiver. This allows for the cartridge to be longer than the standardized 2.260" SAAMI maximum overall length. These cartridges can be safely loaded to a length that has the ogive portion of the bullet just touching the rifle's lands. Many competitive shooters will make these cartridges 0.005" less than the truly maximum allowable overall length, for the sake of safety.[2]

It is desirable for these single-loaded cartridges to have as little bullet jump as possible before the bullet's ogive begins to be engraved by the rifle's lands. This minimized bullet jump increases the accuracy of the rifle, all else being equal. This practice of long-loading a cartridge must be adjusted for each individual rifle, since there are variations from rifle to rifle as to how far down the barrel the rifling begins.[2]

References

  1. ^ Barnes, Frank C.; Holt Bodinson; Layne Simpson (2009). Cartridges of the World: A Complete and Illustrated Reference for Over 1500 Cartridges (12 ed.). Gun Digest Books. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-89689-936-0.
  2. ^ a b James, Rodney (2011). The ABCs of Reloading: The Definitive Guide for Novice to Expert (9 ed.). Krause Publications. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-4402-1396-0.
.22 Long Rifle

The .22 Long Rifle or simply .22 LR (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) is a long-established variety of .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today. It is used in a wide range of rifles, pistols, revolvers, smoothbore shotguns (No. 1 bore), and even submachine guns.

12 mm caliber

This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the 12-millimeter (0.47 in) to 13-millimeter (0.51 in) caliber range.

Length refers to the cartridge case length.

OAL refers to the overall length of the cartridge.

Bullet refers to the diameter of the bullet.Some measurements are in millimetres, others are in calibers, which are measured in inches

Close Quarters Battle Receiver

The Close Quarter Battle Receiver (CQBR) is a replacement upper receiver for the M4A1 Carbine, developed by the US Navy. The CQBR features a barrel 10.3 in (262 mm) in length, similar to the Colt Commando short-barreled M16 variants of the past. This shorter barrel makes the weapon significantly more compact, which makes it easier to use in and around vehicles and in tight confined spaces. Special units such as commandos boarding ships and bodyguards for senior officers have found such shortened weapons very useful and use the CQBR.

Its preliminary National Stock Number was 1005-LL-L99-5996; however, a complete CQBR-equipped carbine now has the NSN 1005-01-527-2288. The overall length of the upper receiver is 19.25 inches (489 mm). With the stock retracted, the overall length of the weapon is 26.75 inches (679.4 mm).

Day Sailer

The Day Sailer (also called the O'Day Day Sailer) is a day sailer for pleasure sailing as well as racing; it is sailed throughout North America and Brazil. Designed by Uffa Fox and George O'Day in 1958, the Day Sailer possesses a 6 foot beam, an overall length of 17 feet, a fiberglass hull and a cuddy cabin. It is able to sleep two (more if a tent is added to the boom). The sloop rig includes mainsail, jib and a spinnaker on an aluminum mast and boom.Over 10,000 boats have been built, and races are held throughout the year in the USA and Brazil by the Day Sailer Association and its fleets. The Day Sailer was inducted in 2003 into the American Sailboat Hall of Fame.

From 1958 until 1972, the boat was built and sold by O'Day Corp.. Later various other builders produced the Day Sailer, including Spindrift, Precision Boat Works, McLaughlin Boat Works, and Sunfish/Laser Inc. Since 1995, the boat has been built by Cape Cod Shipbuilding Co. As of 2010, the Junior North American Championships are to be held every year in order to promote the class and reach out to local youth sailors.

Emscher

The Emscher is a river, a tributary of the Rhine, that flows through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany. Its overall length is 83 kilometres (52 mi) with an mean outflow near the mouth into the lower Rhine of 16 m3/s (570 cu ft/s).

Fast combat support ship

The fast combat support ship (US Navy hull classification symbol: AOE) is the United States Navy's largest combat logistics ship, designed as an oiler, ammunition and supply ship. All fast combat support ships currently in service are operated by Military Sealift Command. The AOE has the speed to keep up with carrier battle groups and the capacity to fully support their needs. It receives petroleum products, ammunition and stores from various shuttle ships and redistributes these items when needed to ships in the carrier battle group. This greatly reduces the number of service ships needed to travel with carrier battle groups.

The four ships of the Sacramento class were 53,000 tons at full load, 796 feet overall length, and carried two Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters. The Sacramento class was retired in 2005.

The Supply class ships displace 48,800 tons full load and carried two Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters or two Sikorsky MH-60S Knighthawk helicopters.

Fish measurement

Fish measurement is the measuring of the length of individual fish and of various parts of their anatomy. These data are used in many areas of ichthyology, including taxonomy and fisheries biology.

IWI Tavor X95

The IWI Tavor X95 (also called Micro-Tavor, MTAR, and MTAR-21) is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle designed and produced by Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) as part of the Tavor rifle family, along with the TAR-21 and the Tavor 7.

In November 2009 the Tavor X95 was selected as the future standard issued weapon of the Israeli infantry.

MV Esperanza

MV Esperanza is a ship operated by Greenpeace. Previous to being a Greenpeace ship it was a fire-fighter owned by the Soviet Navy, built in 1984. It was recommissioned in 2000 and launched in 2002 after being named Esperanza ('hope' in Spanish) by visitors to the Greenpeace website. It had undergone a major refit by Greenpeace to make it more environmentally friendly. A new helicopter deck and boat cranes were also added.

The ship has a heavy ice class, giving it the ability to work in polar regions. It has a top speed of 16 knots and an overall length of 72.3 m. This makes it the fastest and largest of the Greenpeace fleet.It has been involved in many campaigns, starting with the logging 'save or delete' campaign and currently in Cape Town.

Mymarommatoidea

The Mymarommatoidea are a very small superfamily of microscopic hymenopteran insects. Only about half of the known species are living taxa (the others are fossils), but they are known from all parts of the world. Undoubtedly, many more await discovery, as they are easily overlooked and difficult to study due to their extremely small size (most have an overall length of around 0.3 mm).

Ogge

Ogge is a lake in the municipalities of Birkenes and Iveland in Aust-Agder county, Norway. It is located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the city of Kristiansand, just east of the villages of Vatnestrøm (in Iveland) and Oggevatn (in Birkenes). The 6.71-square-kilometre (2.59 sq mi) lake includes about 360 islands and reefs. The overall length of the lake is approximately 16 kilometres (9.9 mi). The Sørlandsbanen railway line and the Norwegian County Road 405 both run along the west side of the lake.

Otokar Cobra II

The Cobra II (Turkish: Kobra II), a further development of the existing Cobra, is an infantry mobility vehicle designed and produced by Turkish company Otokar.Cobra II is a 4x4 wheeled armoured vehicle and has a capacity for nine personnel including the driver and the commander. It features high level of protection against threads from improvised explosive devices, land mines and ballistic missiles. Among its various functions are security and peacekeeping operations and border protection. The personnel carrier can be produced in different versions, including amphibious, according to different security requirements of the user thanks to its modular design.The tactical personnel carrier's overall length is 5.6 m (18 ft) with its width 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) and height 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in). Rear view camera, thermal front camera, air conditioning system, blackout lighting system and a towing eye are among the standard equipment of the vehicle. It can be additionally fitted with a self-recovery winch, a CBRN defense filtration kit, automation fire extinguishing system, navigation system, intercom system and an auxiliary power unit. The 12,000 kg (26,000 lb) heavy vehicle is powered by a 6.7L six-cylinder, water-cooled, turbo charged diesel engine coupled with an automatic gearbox (six forward and one reverse) generating 281hp. It has a maximum speed of 110 km/h (68 mph) and can operate in range of 700 km (430 mi). It can be optionally equipped with a remote controlled weapon system (RCWS) of 25 mm machine gun or with a low altitude air defense missile system of HISAR-A and with a grenade launcher.It serves in the Turkish Armed Forces and security forces. It is also used by several other countries as well as by the United Nation in peacekeeping missions. The development of the armoured vehicle, which is used for patrolling at the Syria–Turkey barrier, was funded by the European Union. It was presented for the first time in May 2013.

Plushcap

The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is the only member of its genus Catamblyrhynchus.

The plushcap is one of the most distinctive of all Neotropical passerines in both its appearance and behavior. The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) was in its own family until recently when it was grouped with the tanagers. It is very distinct both physically and in its behavior. The bill is broad and black. The body is a chestnut color with a bright golden-yellow forecrown. The forecrown is made up of stiff feathers. It has been speculated that these short, dense feathers are less susceptible to feather wear and more resistant to moisture than typical feathers. This may be an adaptation for its specialized feeding mode, in which it probes into dense whorls of bamboo for its prey items (Hilty et al. 1979). Juveniles are just duller versions of their parents. They are found at high elevations from northern Venezuela south to Argentina, including the coastal mountains of Venezuela and the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and extreme northwestern Argentina. They live in montane forests and secondary forests near bamboo. They forage for insects inside the bamboo. They will eat small insects, berries, and small plant matter. The overall length averages 14 cm (5.5 in) and weight averages 14.1 grams (0.5 oz).

The bird is very distinct and is not confused with many other birds. It stands out from the other tanagers, only possibly being confused with the golden-crowned tanager despite the golden-crowned tanager being blue.

The species is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is humid montane forests and it is always found in close association with Chusquea bamboo. It is typically found at a elevations between 1,800 to 3,500 m.

Rapier

Rapier (), or espada ropera, also known as estoque, is a loose term for a type of large, slender, sharply pointed sword. With such design features, the rapier is optimized to be a thrusting weapon, but cutting or slashing attacks were also recorded in some historical treatises like Capo Ferro's Gran Simulacro in 1610. This weapon was mainly used in Early Modern Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries.

The term "rapier" is also applied by archaeologists to an unrelated type of Bronze Age sword.

Sawed-off shotgun

A sawed-off shotgun (US, CAN) also called a sawn-off shotgun (UK, IRL, AU, NZ) and a short-barreled shotgun (SBS) (U.S. legislative terminology), is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel—typically under 18 inches—and often a shortened or absent stock. Despite the colloquial term, barrels do not, strictly speaking, have to be shortened with a saw. Barrels can be manufactured at shorter lengths as an alternative to traditional, longer barrels. This makes them easier to transport due to their smaller profile and lighter weight. The design also makes the weapon easy to maneuver in cramped spaces, a feature sought by military close quarters combat units, law enforcement SWAT team users, and home defense purposes. As a result of the shorter barrel length, any sawed-off shotgun with a magazine tube will have its capacity reduced.

In the 1930s, the United States, Britain and Canada mandated that a proper permit be required to own these firearms. They are subject to legal restrictions depending upon jurisdiction. They are used by military forces and police agencies worldwide.

Serene (yacht)

Serene is one of the world's largest private superyachts.

Built by Italian shipyard Fincantieri with interior design by Reymond Langton Design, Serene was delivered to its owner in August 2011. At delivery, she was one of the 10 largest yachts in the world with an overall length of 133.9 m (439 ft 4 in) and a beam of 18.5 m (60 ft 8 in).

Smatchet

A Smatchet is a short, heavy fighting knife/sword 16.5 inches (42 cm) in overall length (including grip). It was designed by William E. Fairbairn during World War II.

TKB-408

The TKB-408 was an early gas-operated prototype bullpup assault rifle with a tilting bolt. It was created by German A. Korobov and submitted to a set of official trials conducted in 1946 to select an assault rifle for the Red Army. None of the designs submitted to these trials were selected, although the AK-47 that was later adopted was a heavily modified variant of Mikhail Kalashnikov's AK-46.

The TKB-408 can be fired semi- or full-automatic. The firing mode selector is located on the left side of the receiver above the pistol grip. The design incorporates no provisions for firing from the left shoulder. It is chambered in the 7.62×39mm round and has an overall length of 790 mm.

UTAS UTS-15

The UTAS UTS-15 is a 12 gauge pump-action shotgun with two 7-round magazine tubes that can feed in an alternating or selecting pattern. The UTS-15 has a 28.3” overall length with an 18.5” barrel, chambered for 2½”, 2¾”, and 3” magnum ammunition. Constructed primarily of fiber reinforced injection molded polymer, the UTS-15 weighs 6.9 lbs. Additionally, there is a top mounted picatinny rail for the mounting of a wide variety of both iron and optical sights, coupled with Beretta style barrel threading for choke tubes.

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