# Oval

An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg. The term is not very specific, but in some areas (projective geometry, technical drawing, etc.) it is given a more precise definition, which may include either one or two axes of symmetry. In common English, the term is used in a broader sense: any shape which reminds one of an egg. The three-dimensional version of an oval is called an ovoid.

## Oval in geometry

This oval, with only one axis of symmetry, resembles a chicken egg.

The term oval when used to describe curves in geometry is not well-defined, except in the context of projective geometry. Many distinct curves are commonly called ovals or are said to have an "oval shape". Generally, to be called an oval, a plane curve should resemble the outline of an egg or an ellipse. In particular, these are common traits of ovals:

Here are examples of ovals described elsewhere:

An ovoid is the surface in 3-dimensional space generated by rotating an oval curve about one of its axes of symmetry. The adjectives ovoidal and ovate mean having the characteristic of being an ovoid, and are often used as synonyms for "egg-shaped".

## Projective geometry

To the definition of an Oval in a projective plane
To the definition of an ovoid
1. Any line l meets Ω in at most two points, and
2. For any point P ∈ Ω there exists exactly one tangent line t through P, i.e., t ∩ Ω = {P}.

For finite planes (i.e. the set of points is finite) there is a more convenient characterization:[2]

• For a finite projective plane of order n (i.e. any line contains n + 1 points) a set Ω of points is an oval if and only if |Ω| = n + 1 and no three points are collinear (on a common line).

An ovoid in a projective space is a set Ω of points such that:

1. Any line intersects Ω in at most 2 points,
2. The tangents at a point cover a hyperplane (and nothing more), and
3. Ω contains no lines.

In the finite case only for dimension 3 there exist ovoids. A convenient characterization is:

• In a 3-dim. finite projective space of order n > 2 any pointset Ω is an ovoid if and only if |Ω|${\displaystyle =n^{2}+1}$ and no three points are collinear.[3]

## Egg shape

The shape of an egg is approximated by the "long" half of a prolate spheroid, joined to a "short" half of a roughly spherical ellipsoid, or even a slightly oblate spheroid. These are joined at the equator and share a principal axis of rotational symmetry, as illustrated above. Although the term egg-shaped usually implies a lack of reflection symmetry across the equatorial plane, it may also refer to true prolate ellipsoids. It can also be used to describe the 2-dimensional figure that, if revolved around its major axis, produces the 3-dimensional surface.

## Technical drawing

An oval with two axes of symmetry constructed from four arcs (top), and comparison of blue oval and red ellipse with the same dimensions of short and long axes (bottom).

In technical drawing, an oval is a figure constructed from two pairs of arcs, with two different radii (see image on the right). The arcs are joined at a point in which lines tangential to both joining arcs lie on the same line, thus making the joint smooth. Any point of an oval belongs to an arc with a constant radius (shorter or longer), but in an ellipse, the radius is continuously changing.

## In common speech

In common speech, "oval" means a shape rather like an egg or an ellipse, which may be two-dimensional or three-dimensional. It also often refers to a figure that resembles two semicircles joined by a rectangle, like a cricket infield, speed skating rink or an athletics track. However, this is more correctly called a stadium. Sometimes, it can even refer to any rectangle with rounded corners.

A speed skating rink is often called an oval

The terms "ellipse" and "oblong" are often used interchangibly with oval, despite not being precise synonyms.[4][5]

## Notes

1. ^ If the property makes sense: on a differentiable manifold. In more general settings one might require only a unique tangent line at each point of the curve.
2. ^ Dembowski 1968, p. 147
3. ^ Dembowski 1968, p. 48
4. ^ "Definition of ellispe in US English by Oxford Dictionaries". New Oxford American Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
5. ^ "Definition of oblong in US English by Oxford Dictionaries". New Oxford American Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
2015 Cricket World Cup

The 2015 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2015) was the 11th Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from 14 February to 29 March 2015. Australia defeated New Zealand by 7 wickets to win their fifth ICC Cricket World Cup. Fourteen teams played 49 matches in 14 venues, with Australia staging 26 games at grounds in Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney while New Zealand hosted 23 games in Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Hamilton, Napier, Nelson and Wellington.The hosting rights were awarded at the same time as those of the 2011 Cricket World Cup, which Australia and New Zealand had originally bid to host, and the 2019 Cricket World Cup, which was awarded to England. The 2011 tournament was awarded to the four Asian Test cricket playing countries: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh (Pakistan later lost the co-hosting rights due to a terrorist attack on the Sri Lankan team). The International Cricket Council were sufficiently impressed with the trans-Tasman bid that it was decided to award the next World Cup to Australia and New Zealand. This was the second time the tournament was held in Australia and New Zealand, with the first being the 1992 Cricket World Cup.

India were the defending champions, having won the tournament in 2011. Tickets for the Pool B match between India and Pakistan, played on 15 February 2015, reportedly sold out within 12 minutes of going on sale.The final match of the tournament took place at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between co-hosts New Zealand and Australia in front of a record crowd of 93,013 while the average attendance throughout the tournament was 21,175 resulting from the cumulative tournament attendance of 1,016,420 and a washed out game between Australia and Bangladesh in Brisbane for which no attendance-figures were available.The 2015 Cricket World Cup is estimated to have been watched by over 1.5 billion people. The most widely watched match during the tournament was India vs. Pakistan, which is estimated to have drawn over 1 billion viewers.

Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the city centre and North Adelaide.

The venue is predominantly used for cricket and Australian rules football, but has also played host to rugby league, rugby union, soccer, tennis among other sports as well as regularly being used to hold concerts. Austadiums.com described Adelaide Oval as being "one of the most picturesque Test cricket grounds in Australia, if not the world". After the completion of the grounds most recent redevelopment in 2014, sports journalist Gerard Whateley described the venue as being "the most perfect piece of modern architecture because it's a thoroughly contemporary stadium with all the character that it's had in the past".Adelaide Oval has been headquarters to the South Australian Cricket Association (SACA) since 1871 and South Australian National Football League (SANFL) since 2014. The stadium is managed by the Adelaide Oval Stadium Management Authority (AOSMA). Its record crowd for cricket was 55,317 for the Second Ashes Test on 2 December 2017 and its record crowd for an Australian rules football match was 62,543 at the 1965 SANFL Grand Final between the Port Adelaide and Sturt.

Bellerive Oval

Bellerive Oval (currently known as Blundstone Arena for sponsorship reasons) is a cricket and Australian rules football ground located in Bellerive, a suburb on the eastern shore of Hobart, Tasmania. It is the only venue in Tasmania which hosts international cricket matches, and has a spectator capacity of 19,500.

The venue is best known as the home ground for the state cricket teams, the Tasmanian Tigers and Hobart Hurricanes, as well as a venue for international Test matches since 1989 and one-day matches since 1988. It is also the secondary home ground for AFL club North Melbourne, who play three home games a season at the venue. The stadium has undergone significant redevelopment to accommodate such events.

Cricket field

A cricket field is a large grassy ground on which the game of cricket is played. Although generally oval in shape, there is a wide variety within this: some are almost perfect circles, some elongated ovals and some entirely irregular shapes with little or no symmetry – but they will have entirely curved boundaries, almost without exception. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m). Cricket is unusual among major sports (along with Golf, Australian rules football and baseball) in that there is no official rule for a fixed-shape ground for professional games. On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. Within the boundary and generally as close to the centre as possible will be the square which is an area of carefully prepared grass upon which cricket pitches can be prepared and marked for matches.

Jubilee Oval

Jubilee Oval, also known as Kogarah Oval or by its sponsored name Netstrata Jubilee Stadium, is a multipurpose stadium in Carlton, Sydney, Australia. The stadium is primarily used for rugby league and secondarily used for the A-League, and is one of the home grounds of the National Rugby League (NRL) team St. George Illawarra Dragons. The stadium has hosted soccer matches, including hosting Sydney Olympic FC in the National Soccer League (2003–04 season) and currently Sydney FC in the A-league (2018–19 season).

The ground hosted its first game of rugby league in March 1936 when the St. George Dragons were defeated by the Newtown Bluebags in an exhibition match. The stadium has undergone several constructions over the years and one is still being planned for the foreseeable future. The first official game was played on 22 April 1950 in which the Dragons lost 17–15 to South Sydney.

Kart racing

Kart racing or karting is a variant of motorsport road racing with small, open-wheel, four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. They are usually raced on scaled-down circuits. Karting is commonly perceived as the stepping stone to the higher ranks of motorsports, with former Formula One champions such as Sebastian Vettel, Nico Rosberg, Ayrton Senna, Lewis Hamilton and Michael Schumacher having begun their careers in karting.

Karts vary widely in speed and some (known as superkarts) can reach speeds exceeding 260 kilometres per hour (160 mph), while recreational go-karts intended for the general public may be limited to lower speeds.

Kumquat

Kumquats (or cumquats in Australian English, ; Citrus japonica) are a group of small fruit-bearing trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae. They were previously classified as forming the now historical genus Fortunella, or placed within Citrus sensu lato.

The edible fruit closely resembles the orange (Citrus sinensis) in color and shape but is much smaller, being approximately the size of a large olive. Kumquat is a fairly cold-hardy citrus.

Leichhardt Oval

Leichhardt Oval is a football stadium in Leichhardt, New South Wales, Australia. It is currently one of two home grounds for the Wests Tigers National Rugby League team (the other being Campbelltown Stadium), and is the former longtime home of the Balmain Tigers, who used the ground from 1934-1994 and 1997-1999.

The ground is considered by some to be antiquated but home supporters and many league fans in general consider it to be good for spectators due to the proximity of supporters to the playing area. The grounds roots lie with the Balmain Tigers who were in the national competition from 1908 to 1999. The Balmain Tigers merged with the Western Suburbs Magpies for the start of season 2000 to become the Wests Tigers.

As of July 2012, Leichhardt Oval is the most played-on Australian professional rugby league ground in active use in the National Rugby League, having hosted 794 games since Balmain played its first game at the ground against Western Suburbs in Round 1 of the 1934 NSWRFL season, held on ANZAC Day, Wests winning the game 18-5. Balmain's first win at the ground came in the very next game of the 1934 season with a 27-13 win over University.

List of FA Cup Finals

The Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the FA Cup, is a knockout competition in English football, organised by and named after The Football Association (the FA). It is the oldest existing football competition in the world, having commenced in the 1871–72 season. The tournament is open to all clubs in the top 10 levels of the English football league system, although a club's home stadium must meet certain requirements prior to entering the tournament. The competition culminates at the end of the league season (usually in May) with the FA Cup Final, officially named The Football Association Challenge Cup Final Tie, which has traditionally been regarded as the showpiece finale of the English football season.The vast majority of FA Cup Final matches have been in London: most of these were played at the original Wembley Stadium, which was used from 1923 until the stadium closed in 2000. The other venues used for the final before 1923 were Kennington Oval, Crystal Palace, Stamford Bridge and Lillie Bridge, all in London, Goodison Park in Liverpool and Fallowfield Stadium and Old Trafford in Manchester. The Millennium Stadium in Cardiff hosted the final for six years (2001–2006), while the new Wembley Stadium was under construction. Other grounds have been used for replays, which until 1999 took place if the initial match ended in a draw. The new Wembley Stadium has been the permanent venue of the final since 2007.

As of 2018, the record for the most wins is held by Arsenal with 13 victories. The cup has been won by the same team in two or more consecutive years on ten occasions, and four teams have won consecutive finals more than once: Wanderers, Blackburn Rovers, Tottenham Hotspur and Arsenal. The cup has been won by a non-English team once. The cup is currently held by Chelsea, who defeated Manchester United in the 2018 final.

List of NASCAR tracks

This is a list of tracks which have hosted a NASCAR race from 1948 to present. Various forms of race track have been used throughout the history of NASCAR, including purpose-built race tracks such as Daytona.

Manuka Oval

Manuka Oval (branded UNSW Canberra Oval for Greater Western Sydney Giants home games in the Australian Football League) is a sporting venue in Canberra, the capital of Australia. It is located in Griffith, in the area of that suburb known as Manuka. Manuka Oval has a seating capacity of 13,550 people and an overall capacity of 16,000 people, although this is lower for some sports depending on the configuration used. The area on which the ground is situated has been used for sport since the early 20th century, but was only enclosed in 1929. It has since undergone several redevelopments, most recently beginning in 2011.

Currently, Manuka Oval is primarily used for cricket (during the summer months) and Australian rules football (during the winter months). The ground was previously also used for rugby league and rugby union matches, but there are now more suitable venues in Canberra for those sports. As a cricket ground, Manuka Oval is the home venue for the ACT Comets (men's) and the ACT Meteors (women's) teams, and has also hosted a number of international matches, including at the 1992 and 2015 World Cups. As an Australian rules football ground, Manuka Oval's primary tenant is the Eastlake Football Club, which plays in the North East Australian Football League (NEAFL). Australian Football League (AFL) games are played at the ground on a semi-regular basis. The Greater Western Sydney Giants have used the oval as a secondary home ground since the club entered the AFL in 2012 and AFL Women's in 2017. Other AFL clubs had previously hosted games at the venue, most notably the North Melbourne Football Club from 1998 to 2006.

Olympic Oval

The Olympic Oval in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, is a covered speed skating oval; it was built for the 1988 Winter Olympics and opened 32 years ago in 1987.Located on the University of Calgary campus, it is the official designated training center for Speed Skate Canada and the Canadian National Speed Skating team.

In 2012, it commemorated its 25th year of public service with a number of exciting activities and celebrations.

Oval Office

The Oval Office is, since 1909, the working office space of the President of the United States, located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, D.C.

Opened in 1909, the room features three large south-facing windows behind the president's desk, and a fireplace at the north end. It has four doors: the east door opens to the Rose Garden; the west door leads to a private study and dining room; the northwest door opens onto the main corridor of the West Wing; and the northeast door opens to the office of the president's secretary.

Presidents generally decorate the office to suit their personal taste, choosing new furniture, new drapery, and designing their own oval-shaped carpet to take up most of the floor. Artwork is selected from the White House's own collection, or borrowed from museums for the president's term in office.

Oval track racing

Oval track racing is a form of closed-circuit automobile racing that is contested on an oval-shaped track. An oval track differs from a road course in that the layout resembles an oval with turns in only one direction, almost universally left (counter-clockwise orientation). Oval tracks are dedicated motorsport circuits, used predominantly in the United States. They often have banked turns and some, despite the name, are not precisely oval, and can have unique variances in shape.

Major forms of oval track racing include stock car racing, open-wheel racing, sprint car racing, modified car racing, midget car racing and dirt track motorcycles.

Oval track racing is the predominant form of auto racing in the United States. According to the 2013 National Speedway Directory, the total number of oval tracks, drag strips and road courses in the United States is 1,262, with 901 of those being oval tracks and 683 of those being dirt tracks. Among the most famous oval tracks in North America are the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Daytona International Speedway.

Notable ovals in other countries include Rafaela in Argentina, Mexico City in Mexico, Motegi in Japan, Lausitzring in Germany, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia, Brooklands and Rockingham in the United Kingdom, Monza in Italy, and Montlhéry in France.

Parramatta Stadium was a sports stadium in Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia, 23 kilometres west of Sydney's central business district. The stadium was the home ground of several western Sydney-based sports teams, at the time of closure the most notable were the Parramatta Eels of the National Rugby League and the Western Sydney Wanderers of the A-League.

Cumberland Oval was the local name for the cricket, motor sports and rugby venue that had existed prior to Parramatta Stadium being built, with the area having been used for recreational activities since 1788, the founding year of the British colony in New South Wales.

The stadium also hosted numerous other sporting and cultural events since its opening in 1986. Michael Jackson performed there during his Bad World Tour on 20–21 November 1987, and Paul McCartney concluded the Australian leg of The New World Tour with two shows there on 22–23 March 1993.

In 2015 the NSW Government announced that the stadium would be demolished and replaced, and to that end, Parramatta Stadium was demolished in February 2017, with the new Western Sydney Stadium being built in the same location.

Princes Park (or Carlton Recreation Ground, currently officially known by its sponsored name Ikon Park) is an Australian rules football ground located at Princes Park in the inner Melbourne suburb of Carlton North. It is a historic venue, having been the home ground of the Carlton Football Club since 1897.

Prior to a partial redevelopment the ground had a nominal capacity of 35,000, making it the third largest Australian rules football venue in Melbourne after the Melbourne Cricket Ground and Docklands Stadium. Princes Park hosted three grand finals during World War II, with a record attendance of 62,986 at the 1945 VFL Grand Final between Carlton and South Melbourne. After 2005, when the ground hosted its last Australian Football League (AFL) game, two stands were removed and replaced with an indoor training facility and administration building, reducing the capacity. Austadiums lists the current capacity of the stadium at around 22,000.

Subiaco Oval

Subiaco Oval (; also known under naming rights as Domain Stadium, and colloquially as Subi) is a disused stadium located in Subiaco, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia. Formerly the highest capacity stadium in Western Australia and one of the main stadiums in Australia, seating 43,500 people, the ground was the home of Australian rules football in Western Australia, being the home ground for the West Coast Eagles and Fremantle Football Club, the two Western Australian teams in the Australian Football League (AFL). The ground was also used for occasional West Australian Football League (WAFL) matches, including the competition's yearly grand final. The stadium also hosted Perth Glory games, including two National Soccer League grand finals, international rules matches, rugby union games and rock concerts. It was the home ground for the Western Force between 2006 and 2009.

Surrey County Cricket Club

Surrey County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Surrey and also South London. The club's limited overs team is called "Surrey" (unlike most other counties' teams, it has no official nickname). The club was founded in 1845 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Surrey have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England.Home of the club since its foundation in 1845 has been The Oval (currently known officially as the 'Kia Oval' following a sponsorship deal with the Kia Motors company), in the Kennington area of Lambeth in South London. The club also has an 'out ground' at Woodbridge Road, Guildford, where some home games are played each season.

Surrey have had three notable periods of great success in their history. The club was unofficially proclaimed as "Champion County" seven times during the 1850s; it won the title eight times from 1887 to 1895 (including the first ever officially constituted County Championship in 1890); and seven consecutive outright titles from 1952 to 1958 inclusive following a shared title (with Lancashire) in 1950. In 1955, Surrey won 23 of its 28 county matches, a record that still stands and can no longer be bettered as counties have played fewer than 23 matches each season since 1993. To date, Surrey has won the official County Championship 19 times outright (and shared once), more than any other county with the exception of Yorkshire, with the most recent win being 2018.

The club's traditional badge is the Prince of Wales's feathers. In 1915, Lord Rosebery obtained permission to use this symbol from the Prince of Wales, hereditary owner of the land on which The Oval stands.

The Oval

The Oval, currently referred to for sponsorship purposes as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there.

In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892. In 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first Varsity match. It also hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.