Outline of geology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology:

Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which it is shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.

Branches of geology

Geology applies primarily to Earth, but can be applied to any planet or extraterrestrial body.

Geology of Earth

Subdisciplines of geology:

  • Biogeology – The study of the interactions between the Earth's biosphere and the lithosphere
  • Economic geology – Science concerned with earth materials of economic value
  • Engineering geology – Application of geology to engineering practice
  • Environmental geology – Science of the practical application of geology in environmental problems.
  • Geochemistry – Science that applies chemistry to analyse geological systems
  • Geologic modelling – Applied science of creating computerized representations of portions of the Earth's crust
  • Geomorphology – The scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them
  • Geophysics – physics of the Earth and its vicinity
  • Historical geology – The study of the geological history of Earth
  • Hydrogeology – The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater
  • Marine geology – The study of the history and structure of the ocean floor
  • Mineralogy – Scientific study of minerals and mineralised artifacts
  • Mining geology – The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth
  • Paleontology – Scientific study of prehistoric life
  • Petroleum geology – The study of the origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels
  • Petrology – The branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks
  • Sedimentology – The study of natural sediments and of the processes by which they are formed
  • Stratigraphy – The study of rock layers and their formation
  • Structural geology – The science of the description and interpretation of deformation in the Earth's crust
  • Volcanology – The study of volcanoes, lava, magma and associated phenomena

Planetary geology

See also: Geology of solar terrestrial planets – Geology of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Ceres

Planetary geology – The geology of astronomical objects apparently in orbit around stellar objects

Principles of geology

Geological processes

History of geology

Geologic provinces

World geologic provinces
World geologic provinces
Oceanic crust
  0–20 Ma
  20–65 Ma
  >65 Ma
Geologic provinces
  Large igneous province
  Extended crust

Geologic province – A spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes

Geologic provinces based on origin:

  • Shield – A large stable area of exposed Precambrian crystalline rock
    • Platform – A continental area covered by relatively flat or gently tilted, mainly sedimentary strata
  • Orogen
    • Island arc – Arc-shaped archipelago formed by intense seismic activity of long chains of active volcanoes
    • Continental arc – A type of volcanic arc occurring along a continental margin
    • Forearc – The region between an oceanic trench and the associated volcanic arc
  • Oceanic basin – Large geologic basins that are below sea level
    • Cratonic basin – Old and stable part of the continental lithosphere
    • Foreland basin, also known as foredeep basin – A structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt
  • Large igneous province – Huge regional accumulation of igneous rocks
  • Extended crust – The outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite
    • Rift – A linear zone where the Earth's crust is being pulled apart, and is an example of extensional tectonics

Plate tectonics

  • Plate tectonics – The scientific theory that describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere

Occupations in geology

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles lists the following occupations in Geology, which it describes as "concerned with the investigation of the composition, structure, and physical and biological history of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge in such fields as archeology, mining, construction, and environmental impact":[1]

Influential geologists

Geology lists

See also


  1. ^ "024 OCCUPATIONS IN GEOLOGY". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  2. ^ "024.161-010 ENGINEER, SOILS (profess. & kin.)". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  3. ^ "024.167-010 GEOPHYSICAL-LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director, geophysical laboratory; engineer, geophysical laboratory; research engineer, geophysical laboratory; superintendent, geophysical laboratory". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  4. ^ "024.267-010 GEOLOGICAL AIDE (petrol. & gas)". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  5. ^ "024.381-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: analyst, geochemical prospecting; core analyst; laboratory tester". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2011-04-02.

External links


Anomocephalus is an extinct genus of primitive anomodonts and belongs to the clade Anomocephaloidea. The name is said to be derived from the Greek word anomos meaning lawless and cephalos meaning head. The proper word for head in Greek is however κεφαλή (kephalē). It is primitive in that it retains a complete set of teeth in both jaws, in contrast to its descendants, the dicynodonts, whose dentition is reduced to only a single pair of tusks (and in many cases no teeth at all), with their jaws covered by a horny beak similar to that of a modern tortoise. However, they are in no way closely related.

Its discovery in 1999 from the earliest terrestrial rocks of Gondwana (from Williston in the Karoo of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa) has shown that this group of herbivores originated in Gondwana; not Laurasia, as had previously been supposed. It lived 260 million years ago during the Permian Period, in arid areas with rivers and lakes - almost like parts of modern-day Namibia or Botswana. It is most closely related to Tiarajudens from Brazil.


Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse")) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates.

Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.

Geology of Iceland

The geology of Iceland is unique and of particular interest to geologists. Iceland lies on the divergent boundary between the Eurasian plate and the North American plate. It also lies above a hotspot, the Iceland plume. The plume is believed to have caused the formation of Iceland itself, the island first appearing over the ocean surface about 16 to 18 million years ago. The result is an island characterized by repeated volcanism and geothermal phenomena such as geysers.

The eruption of Laki in 1783 caused much devastation and loss of life, leading to a famine that killed about 25% of the island's population and resulted in a drop in global temperatures, as sulfur dioxide was spewed into the Northern Hemisphere. This caused crop failures in Europe and may have caused droughts in India. The eruption has been estimated to have killed over six million people globally.Between 1963 and 1967, the new island of Surtsey was created off the southwest coast by a volcanic eruption.

Glossary of geology

This glossary of geology is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to geology, its sub-disciplines, and related fields. For other terms related to the Earth sciences, see Glossary of geography terms.

Karl Vogt

Karl Christoph Vogt (German: [foːkt]; originally Carl; 5 July 1817 – 5 May 1895) was a German scientist, philosopher and politician who emigrated to Switzerland. Vogt published a number of notable works on zoology, geology and physiology. All his life he was engaged in politics, in the German Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–9 and later in Switzerland.

Karoo Supergroup

The Karoo Supergroup is the most widespread stratigraphic unit in Africa south of the Kalahari Desert. The supergroup consists of a sequence of units, mostly of nonmarine origin, deposited between the Late Carboniferous and Early Jurassic, a period of about 120 million years.In southern Africa, rocks of the Karoo Supergroup cover almost two thirds of the present land surface, including all of Lesotho, almost the whole of Free State, and large parts of the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces of South Africa. Karoo supergroup outcrops are also found in Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, as well as on other continents that were part of Gondwana. The basins in which it was deposited formed during the formation and breakup of Pangea. The type area of the Karoo Supergroup is the Great Karoo in South Africa, where the most extensive outcrops of the sequence are exposed. Its strata which consist mostly of shales and sandstones, record an almost continuous sequence of marine glacial to terrestrial deposition from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Jurassic. These accumulated in a retroarc foreland basin called the "main Karoo" Basin. This basin was formed by the subduction and orogenesis along the southern border of what eventually became Southern Africa, in southern Gondwana. Its sediments attain a maximum cumulative thickness of 12 km, with the overlying basaltic lavas (the Drakensberg Group) at least 1.4 km thick.Fossils include plants (both macro-fossils and pollen), rare insects and fish, common and diverse tetrapods (mostly therapsid reptiles, temnospondyl amphibians, and in the upper strata dinosaurs), and ichnofossils. Their biostratigraphy has been used as the international standard for global correlation of Permian to Jurassic nonmarine strata.

Niger Delta Basin (geology)

The Niger Delta Basin, also referred to as the Niger Delta province, is an extensional rift basin located in the Niger Delta and the Gulf of Guinea on the passive continental margin near the western coast of Nigeria with suspected or proven access to Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and Príncipe. This basin is very complex, and it carries high economic value as it contains a very productive petroleum system. The Niger delta basin is one of the largest subaerial basins in Africa. It has a subaerial area of about 75,000 km2, a total area of 300,000 km2, and a sediment fill of 500,000 km3. The sediment fill has a depth between 9–12 km. It is composed of several different geologic formations that indicate how this basin could have formed, as well as the regional and large scale tectonics of the area. The Niger Delta Basin is an extensional basin surrounded by many other basins in the area that all formed from similar processes. The Niger Delta Basin lies in the south westernmost part of a larger tectonic structure, the Benue Trough. The other side of the basin is bounded by the Cameroon Volcanic Line and the transform passive continental margin.

Outline of geophysics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics:

Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. However, modern geophysics organizations have a broader definition that includes the hydrological cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.

Outline of oceanography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Oceanography.

Principles of geology

For an overview of Geology see Outline of geology.

For dating techniques based on Geology see Relative dating.

For the 1830s book by Charles Lyell, see Principles of Geology.


Weaverthorpe is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. It is 13 miles (21 km) south-west of Scarborough.

Wikipedia Outlines
History of geology
Сomposition and structure
Historical geology

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